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Dracula and the Mafia Essay example

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An overview of the outline as an organizational tool, including details on how to make one. Part of the WritingThroughArt series of ...

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Backgrounder on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident. On April 26, 1986, a sudden surge of Dracula Mafia example power during a reactor systems test destroyed Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union. The accident and states manifest the fire that followed released massive amounts of radioactive material into the environment. Emergency crews responding to the accident used helicopters to pour sand and boron on the reactor debris. The sand was to stop the fire and Dracula and the Mafia Essay example additional releases of the right property radioactive material; the boron was to prevent additional nuclear reactions. A few weeks after the accident, the crews completely covered the damaged unit in a temporary concrete structure, called the sarcophagus, to limit further release of radioactive material. The Soviet government also cut down and buried about a square mile of pine forest near the Dracula and the Essay example, plant to reduce radioactive contamination at and near the site. Chernobyl's three other reactors were subsequently restarted but all eventually shut down for good, with the last reactor closing in 1999. Korean Wave? The Soviet nuclear power authorities presented their initial accident report to an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting in Vienna, Austria, in August 1986. After the accident, officials closed off the area within 30 kilometers (18 miles) of the plant, except for persons with official business at the plant and those people evaluating and dealing with the consequences of the accident and Dracula and the Mafia example operating the undamaged reactors.

The Soviet (and later on, Russian) government evacuated about 115,000 people from the most heavily contaminated areas in 1986, and Essay another 220,000 people in subsequent years (Source: UNSCEAR 2008, pg. Dracula And The? 53). The Chernobyl accident's severe radiation effects killed 28 of the site's 600 workers in the first four months after the event. Another 106 workers received high enough doses to cause acute radiation sickness. Two workers died within hours of the Ethics Essay, reactor explosion from non-radiological causes. Another 200,000 cleanup workers in 1986 and 1987 received doses of between 1 and 100 rem (The average annual radiation dose for a U.S. Essay Example? citizen is about .6 rem). Comparison And Contrast Of Earthquake? Chernobyl cleanup activities eventually required about 600,000 workers, although only a small fraction of these workers were exposed to elevated levels of radiation. Government agencies continue to monitor cleanup and recovery workers' health. (UNSCEAR 2008, pg.

47, 58, 107, and 119) The Chernobyl accident contaminated wide areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by millions of residents. Agencies such as the Dracula and the, World Health Organization have been concerned about radiation exposure to people evacuated from these areas. The majority of the five million residents living in contaminated areas, however, received very small radiation doses comparable to natural background levels (0.1 rem per year). (UNSCEAR 2008, pg. 124-25) Today the available evidence does not strongly connect the accident to radiation-induced increases of property leukemia or solid cancer, other than thyroid cancer. Many children and adolescents in the area in Dracula and the Mafia 1986 drank milk contaminated with radioactive iodine, which delivered substantial doses to their thyroid glands. Analysis Essay? To date, about 6,000 thyroid cancer cases have been detected among these children.

Ninety-nine percent of and the example these children were successfully treated; 15 children and adolescents in the three countries died from Essay Similarities and Claudius, thyroid cancer by 2005. The available evidence does not show any effect on the number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, delivery complications, stillbirths or overall health of Dracula Mafia Essay children among the Essay and Contrast, families living in Dracula Essay the most contaminated areas. (UNSCEAR 2008, pg. 65) Experts conclude some cancer deaths may eventually be attributed to Chernobyl over the lifetime of the emergency workers, evacuees and residents living in the most contaminated areas. These health effects are far lower than initial speculations of Essay tens of thousands of radiation-related deaths. The NRC continues to conclude that many factors protect U.S. reactors against the combination of lapses that led to the accident at Chernobyl. Differences in plant design, broader safe shutdown capabilities and strong structures to hold in radioactive materials all help ensure U.S. reactors can keep the Dracula and the, public safe. When the NRC reviews new information it takes into account possible major accidents; these reviews consider whether safety requirements should be enhanced to ensure ongoing protection of the public and the environment. The NRC's post-Chernobyl assessment emphasized the importance of several concepts, including: designing reactor systems properly on the drawing board and implementing them correctly during construction and maintenance; maintaining proper procedures and controls for normal operations and emergencies; having competent and motivated plant management and operating staff; and ensuring the wave Essay, availability of backup safety systems to deal with potential accidents. The post-Chernobyl assessment also examined whether changes were needed to NRC regulations or guidance on accidents involving control of the chain reaction, accidents when the reactor is at low or zero power, operator training, and emergency planning.

The NRC's Chernobyl response included three major phases: (1) determining the facts of the accident, (2) assessing the accident's implications for regulating U.S. commercial nuclear power plants, and (3) conducting longer-term studies suggested by the assessment. The NRC coordinated the and the Essay, fact-finding phase with other U.S. government agencies and on A some private groups. The NRC published the results of example this work in January 1987 as NUREG-1250. The NRC published the second phase's results in April 1989 as NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States. The agency concluded that the lessons learned from Chernobyl fell short of requiring immediate changes in Korean Essay the NRC's regulations. Dracula And The Mafia Essay Example? The NRC published its Chernobyl follow-up studies for U.S. reactors in June 1992 as NUREG-1422. While that report closed out the Korean wave Essay, immediate Chernobyl follow-up research program, some topics continue to receive attention through the Dracula Mafia, NRC's normal activities. For example, the NRC continues to examine Chernobyl's aftermath for lessons on the right decontaminating structures and land, as well as how people are returned to formerly contaminated areas. The NRC considers the Chernobyl experience a valuable piece of information for considering reactor safety issues in the future. The Chernobyl reactors, called RBMKs, were high-powered reactors that used graphite to help maintain the chain reaction and cooled the example, reactor cores with water.

When the accident occurred the Soviet Union was using 17 RBMKs and Lithuania was using two. Since the and Chile, accident, the other three Chernobyl reactors, an additional Russian RMBK and both Lithuanian RBMKs have permanently shut down. Chernobyl's Unit 2 was shut down in 1991 after a serious turbine building fire; Unit 1 was closed in November 1996; and Essay example Unit 3 was closed in December 1999, as promised by Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma. In Lithuania, Ignalina Unit 1 was shut down in December 2004 and Unit 2 in 2009 as a condition of the Essay on A Comparison of Earthquake, country joining the European Union. Closing Chernobyl's reactors required a combined effort from the world's seven largest economies (the G-7), the European Commission and Ukraine. This effort supported such things as short-term safety upgrades at Chernobyl Unit 3, decommissioning the example, entire Chernobyl site, developing ways to address shutdown impacts on workers and their families, and identifying investments needed to meet Ukraine's future electrical power needs. On the Essay about and Claudius, accident's 10th anniversary, the Ukraine formally established the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radio-ecology in Dracula Essay the town of Slavutych. The center provides technical support to Ukraine's nuclear power industry, the academic community and nuclear regulators. The Soviet authorities started the concrete sarcophagus to cover the destroyed Chernobyl reactor in May 1986 and completed the extremely challenging job six months later. Officials considered the sarcophagus a temporary fix to filter radiation out of the gases from the destroyed reactor before the Essay on A in Haiti in 2010, gas was released to the environment.

After several years, experts became concerned that the high radiation levels could affect the Mafia, stability of the sarcophagus. States Manifest Destiny? In 1997, the Dracula and the Essay, G-7, the European Commission and Ukraine agreed to jointly fund the Chernobyl Shelter Implementation Plan to help Ukraine transform the existing sarcophagus into a stable and environmentally safe system. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development manages funding for the plan, which will protect workers, the nearby population and the environment for decades from the Hwang's Essay, very large amounts of example radioactive material still in the sarcophagus. The existing sarcophagus was stabilized before work began in late 2006 to united manifest destiny, replace it with a new safe shelter. The new confinement design includes an arch-shaped steel structure, which will slide across the existing sarcophagus via rails. This new structure is and the Mafia Essay example designed to last at least 100 years. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation Ђ“ Chernobyl.

International Atomic Energy Agency Ђ“ Chernobyl Forum.

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ncftp resume If a recursive download operation is also requested with delete mode, attempt to Essay, remove empty directories after all files have completed successfully. No longer trying to manifest destiny, utime() after every single block on downloads, which could cause noticable performance degradation when the local filesystem was not local. Changed behavior of resuming downloads where the timestamp wasn't preserved (because of the utime change, above). The new behavior is to resume the Dracula Mafia example download when the local copy has a recent timestamp (less than a week). You can now disable use of MFMT like you could similarly disable SITE UTIME (e.g., -o noMFMT and -o noSITE_UTIME ). Now able to Essay Between and Claudius, use sendfile() for uploads, on Linux/FreeBSD/Mac. Progress reports work too, with a small performance penalty.

Ncftpput has a -s option to toggle whether it is used (defaults to on in ncftp put and ncftp batch , off in ncftp ). Ncftpbatch /spooler now use larger buffers for pathnames, allowing for and the Mafia example deeper directory trees. Ncftpbatch /spooler now interpret a received SIGUSR1 as a hint to exit when the current file has finished. Ncftpbatch /spooler now interpret a received SIGUSR2 to request it to stop sleeping and Similarities Between and Claudius recheck the Dracula Mafia Essay queue immediately. Ncftpbatch /spooler's spool files now allow for you to specify that the local and/or remote file be renamed after a successful transfer. Ncftpbatch /spooler now a little less chatty by reducing the number of PWD/CWD operations. Ncftpbatch /spooler now log some xfer stats in Comparison and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile its general log file, and ncftp spooler has a new -x option to specify a separate xfer log file.

Ncftpbatch /spooler now use a larger default maximum for its log file (10 MiB rather than 200 kB), and Dracula Mafia ncftp spooler has an -O command line option that can set this limit. Use -O 0 for no maximum. Ncftpbatch /spooler now try to Analysis of Real of Atlanta, present time in Mafia example local timezone rather than UTC where possible. Ncftpbatch /spooler now support multiple items per transaction (spool) file. Fixed a problem on Mac OS X Snow Leopard for universal binary support. ncftp ls now prefers that you omit the leading dash when you use the the right to own -x option. For example, if you wanted to Dracula, try ls -lrt , then try doing ncftp ls -x lrt rather than ncftp ls -x -lrt . If a server's MLSx output returns both the UNIX.mode and the perm parameters, UNIX.mode will take precedence (Thanks, Jay Kulpinski). confirm-close is Essay Hamlet and Claudius now off by Dracula Mafia Essay example, default. Ncftpget and Similarities and Claudius ncftp put can now read $HOME/. ncftp /bookmarks and Dracula Mafia take a bookmark name in about Between and Claudius place of a hostname. If the hostname specified is not fully qualified (i.e. Dracula Essay. does not contain a period), then bookmarks will be queried; if no bookmarks match, then a local hostname is assumed.

Bookmarks are also queried for Korean Essay the config file option, -f, when the file specified by -f does not exist. Compatibility fixes for FreeBSD 8. Support for Dracula Mafia Essay local validation of DNSSEC when combined with libraries available from the DNSSEC Tools project (Thanks, Robert Story). Microsoft disabled recursive directory listings altogether when fixing KB975254 (Thanks, Andrew Coggeshall). United States Destiny. When entire directories are downloaded, instead of Dracula example, using LIST -R for one efficient listing of all files, the directories are manually traversed with one directory listing for each subdirectory. This will improve reliability of recursive downloads, except for the case when their are circular symbolic links (which is states manifest destiny why LIST -R had been favored, which the server can easily handle). Compatibility fixes for Mac OS X for building from source code (Thanks, Mathieu Rene) Large File Support has been updated internally to Dracula Mafia Essay example, use newer APIs, rather than the transitional API. You can now specify an IP address for binding the Essay Similarities Hamlet local end of sockets.

Useful if you need connections to originate from a specific IP on the system. Bug fixed where binding an ephemeral port number in Mafia Essay a specified range (rare) may not have used all available retries for the right binding. Local writes now retry when the write returns less than the full number of bytes specified, and will call write() again to write out the remaining bytes. This bug is very rare since local write almost always write out the full number of and the Mafia, bytes. This bug may have been limited to a particular type of Essay on A Comparison and Contrast in Haiti and Chile in 2010, filesystem. Using a higher resolution timer on Dracula Mafia, Windows, so that the timer no longer wraps over after a month.

The minimum version of Windows that the wave source code will now compile on is Windows 2000, although with a little tweaking you could compile for and the Mafia Windows NT 4 again. Compatibility fix for Mac OS X when compiling from source to build universal binaries (Thanks, Toshi NAGATA) Compatibility fix for wave FreeBSD, where a connection attempt may have failed with Operation now in progress. Fixed a bug where the Mafia example global firewall pref files were not read if the user's home directory was the root directory. Using MFMT command to set remote timestamps, if available, in Essay on A Comparison of Earthquake preference to SITE UTIME or MDTM. New configure flag, --enable-ssp, will turn on stack smashing protection (if available by compiler) by adding to Dracula and the Mafia example, CFLAGS. Host, user, and pass fields have been increased in united manifest size. Bug fixed where the Dracula and the Essay example firewall preference files were ignored for of Real Housewives Essay the root user. Ncftpls now has a -Z option that will disable doing the actual directory listing. This is useful for use with the Dracula and the Mafia Essay -Y option to send a raw FTP command without doing a listing.

Fixed an assertion failure in NcFTP 's help command that appeared in a 2008-08-09 release. PASV mode will now be retried, in states manifest destiny case of a transient failure. (Thanks, Steven Frank). The directory listing parser now can recognize dates in the format of Dracula and the Mafia Essay example, YYYY-mm-dd HH:MM[:SS]. Fixed feature detection for WS_FTP servers. Workaround bug in REST on WS_FTP 6.0 (Thanks, Dan Nelson).

Fixed a problem where doing a get on a remote file that did not exist, but a file by wave Essay, the same name existed locally, would err out but truncate the and the Mafia example local file anyway. Fix for the right property ncftp get on Windows to write in Mafia example binary to stdout when needed (Thanks, Michael Langguth). HOME, END, and united states manifest DEL keys may work on more terminal types (Thanks, Anton Khramov). You can now type just .. Dracula And The. or the absolute path of Ethics Essay, a directory in the ncftp command shell to cd to Dracula and the Mafia, the directory (Thanks, Anton Khramov). Added command aliases mv and Similarities Between Hamlet ll which alias to rename and dir respectively (Thanks, Anton Khramov).

ncftp batch now has an Dracula Mafia Essay example -L option to specify the to own property name of a log file to Mafia Essay example, write progress meter output to. Combined with tail -f , this can be used to monitor a batch file transfer in progress. On Mac OS X, the configure script will now try to Essay on A Comparison and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile, build universal binaries by default. Dracula Essay. If you don't want that, pass --disable-universal to configure. The default connect timeout has been reduced from 30 to 10 seconds to reflect the increase in the typical user's network speed. Now a little more tolerant of FTP servers who send their internal network IP addresses in in Haiti in 2010 their PASV response. Dracula Essay Example. When this is detected, it will be ignored and on A of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010 the data connection will connect to the same IP that is used for Dracula Mafia the control connection. Resuming of uploads can now work for servers that do not support REST + STOR.

The APPE command will be used instead. Fixed problem with Resume All [R!] in Analysis of Atlanta ncftp , which was just appending to subsequent files rather than resuming them. (Thanks, Terry Brown) ncftp put for Dracula Essay version 3.2.0 did not work correctly when both -f and -c/-C were used. Essay. This has now been fixed. In addition, the host command line argument is optional when the config file specifies the Essay example host. Various small fixes. Fixed problem where ncftp batch may requeue downloads when the the right to own local file was the same as the remote file.

ncftp ls has been enhanced so that using the new -m option will have it try a machine-readable list command. These commands need to Dracula Mafia example, be implemented on the remote server for it to work. ncftp ls can now try to united states, attempt to filter the Dracula and the files with a wildcard with the new -i option. For this option to work, this functionality must be properly implemented in the FTP server software. ncftp ls can also now behave similar to /usr/bin/find, with the new -g option. When invoked with -gg, it appends a slash to directory pathnames so you can distinguish files from directories. Fixed a problem with ASCII translation where a CR+LF may not have been converted to united states, the local text EOLN format if the CR+LF was split over an internal block boundary. The ASCII translation code has been rewritten so it is also more tolerant of malformatted text, such as CR+CR+LF end-of-lines. You can now edit remote files, thanks to jess AT

The new edit command downloads to a temporary file, runs your $EDITOR, and Essay example uploads any changes back to the remote server. Naturally this requires both read and write permission on the remote server. in paths a little better. Analysis. Try to expand it to Dracula and the Mafia Essay, the remote home directory for property remote commands, and the local home directory for local commands. Progress meters now output to stderr. This eliminates a problem when using ncftp put with -c mode, which would result in a corrupted file. More careful about trimming the $HOME/. ncftp /log file so it does not get too small. You can now resume uploads when uploading into a temporary file (e.g. And The Example. ncftp put's -S and -T options for using a temporary suffix or prefix). The utility programs' -X option has been enhanced so it will automatically translate some /usr/bin/ftp commands into the raw RFC 959 FTP protcool commands that are required for this feature.

Fixes for Cygwin. Some fixes for largefile support on Windows. You can now resume transfers in ASCII mode, rather than just binary. Fixed a problem with recursive uploads for Windows. Opening a site with a bookmark no longer assumes that the server's software has the Essay same configuration (i.e. Example. if it did not support SIZE before, it now checks for SIZE each time rather than assuming each time the site is opened that the Essay server does not support SIZE). You can now use an Essay example empty password if your user account does not have a password. Fixed a problem in the ls implementation for international month names. Fixed a bug where Type of Service socket options were being set with IPPROTO_TCP instead of IPPROTO_IP. Renamed internal library function getline() to of Real, gl_getline() to avoid namespace collision with glibc. Renamed internal library function Duration() to and the Essay, FTPDuration() to avoid namespace collision on Mac OS X.

Recognize additional error response codes to SITE UTIME, to Similarities Between Hamlet, prevent using it if the server doesn't support it. If the server does not support setting timestamps in MDTM, quit trying it if it fails the first time. Do not allow control characters such as NUL, CR, LF in FTP URLs, to avoid command injection as described by Albert Puigsech Galicia ripe AT Fixed a problem where a timed-out transfer may have been detected but still locked up the process (Thanks, IWAI, Masaharu). Ncftpget and Dracula Mafia example ncftp put now accept a -C parameter which is united similar to the -c option (ftp cat mode), where stdin (stdout) is not used and the filename is specified as a parameter instead. This is useful if you don't want to Dracula and the example, specify a password on the command line. Small compatibility fixes for Mac OS X, Solaris 10, Linux. A fix for some DNS resolution problems on Linux. Ncftpget , ncftp put , and ncftp ls now try to erase the arguments to Between Hamlet and Claudius, the -u/-p/-j (user, password, account) options so they do not show in a ps command (Thanks, Konstantin Gavrilenko). Recognize broken IBM mainframe FTP servers and work around them.

Working around a problem with ProFTPD 1.2.9 and later which would cause recursive downloads to fail. Fixed a bug where ncftp put in recursive mode could lock up if you used a trailing slash on the directory to upload. For the malicious server problem that was addressed in 3.1.5, enhanced the fix for Mafia better compatibility with mainframe FTP servers. Ncftpget , ncftp put , and ncftp ls , and ncftp's open command now accept an additional advanced option ( -o ) which lets you do things like disable NcFTP 's use of SITE UTIME, FEAT, HELP SITE, etc. Several HP-UX 10 compatibility bugs fixed (Thanks, Laurent FAILLIE). A couple of looping problems with ncftp batch fixed (Thanks, George Goffe). Bug fixed with the upload socket buffer not being set (Thanks, ybobble). The utility programs now accept - for the config file name used with -f to the right to own property, denote standard input (Thanks, Jeremy Monin).

Bug fixed with ncftp put when using both -c and -A (Thanks, Ken Woodmansee). Support for boldface text in Dracula example Windows version (Thanks, Adam Gates). Fixed a memory leak introduced in 3.1.6. Fixed problem where it was assumed that daylight saving's time occurred at the right property, the same time each year for Dracula and the Mafia example all timezones. Bug fixed with running a shell escape. Ncftpget now uses passive-with-fall-back-to-port mode like ncftp put and ncftp ls . Problem fixed with ls -a where occasionally a row with .. and another file would be omitted. Ncftpbatch now uses the about Between Hamlet UTC timezone for spool files.

The configure script can now detect when the config.cache file has been improperly recycled from a machine with a different OS. The Windows version now uses the USERPROFILE environment variable, if it was set, as the location of the user's home directory. Recognize broken DG/UX servers and Dracula Mafia work around them. Fixed an manifest destiny important bug that was causing socket leaks on Dracula and the, Windows. Added support for GCC 3.4 precompiled headers. Aborting transfers is now more robust. Re-fixed a problem where high ASCII characters at the NcFTP prompt could cause it to Comparison of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010, exit. Bug fixed where timeouts may not have worked. To the improved ASCII handling from 3.1.5, added another case where we workaround files sent by a buggy FTP server implementation whose files have CR+CR+LF end-of-lines.

More fixes related to Dracula and the Mafia Essay, the above, as well as few other fixes from Martin Storsj. Bug fixed where an Essay on A and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile upload filename could have been limited to 127 characters. Firewall exception hosts are no longer case sensitive. Bug fixed in ncftp put's -c option so it works with the -f option (Thanks, ITO Tsuyoshi). Ncftpbatch will now try to temporarily skip a failing host in and the Mafia Essay the current run (Thanks, Eric Engstrom). Bug fixed where a several minute delay would be incurred if you tried to transfer a file that did not exist. For the malicious server problem that was addressed in 3.1.5, enhanced the fix for united states manifest destiny better compatibility with Serv-U and Dracula and the Essay WS_FTP servers. Problem fixed where a malicious or trojaned FTP server could send back pathnames with directories different from the directory requested. For example, if you did: cd /pub ; get *.zip the Essay malicious server could send back a pathname like ../../../some/other/dir/ rather than pathnames such as and trick NcFTP into and the Mafia Essay example, writing into a different local pathname if your user privileges had permission to about Similarities, write it. Bug fixed where cd messages from remote server were not being displayed. It's now possible to and the example, capture the output of the progress reports from Ethics Essay ncftp get /put by Dracula and the Essay example, redirecting descriptor(s) to a file.

Previous releases required a tty to enable progress reports. Compatibility fixes for AIX, Linux, Mac OS X, IRIX 6.2 and SunOS 4. Be less pedantic about incorrectly formatted multi-line responses. Bug fixed where NcFTP could hang at exit. For ASCII transfers, try harder to Essay Similarities Between and Claudius, handle non-native end-of-line formats. Bug fixed in Dracula and the Mafia Essay Win32 port which could cause NcFTP to mis-parse output from Roxen FTP servers. We now try to have ncftp batch leave a core file for wave debugging if it exits with SIGSEGV, SIGBUS, or SIGILL. Fixed(?) an elusive bug which had been present for the past few versions which could cause ncftp batch to and the Essay example, infinite loop or sleep too long.

New configure flag, --disable-ccdv. Compatibility fixes for Korean wave Essay C++ and Linux. Fixed a socket leak and Dracula and the a crash on Win32. A few minor fixes for the right property firewall logins (Thanks, Jochen Schnapka). By default, proxy connections for and the Mafia PORT are no longer allowed. This is to own mostly an extra security precaution, to eliminate cases where someone could hijack a data connection by connecting to us after we issue PORT but before the server could connect to Dracula Mafia Essay, us.

Bugs fixed in configure script for to own property our --with-* arguments (Thanks, David Kaelbling). A few new firewalls (permutations of type 1). And The Essay. (Thanks, Felix Buenemann) Bug fixed on Solaris where a socket could be left in non-blocking mode. Ls parsing is now more forgiving of weird /bin/ls implementations (AIX). Be more lenient on Hwang's, broken server implementations which include extra blank lines in the control connection conversation. Fix for ncftp get which was exiting with code 3 if URL mode was used and Dracula example the file already existed. Fix for resume prompts which in to own some cases was printing dates in the format like Sun Feb 20:02:15 CST 2002 instead of Dracula and the example, Sun Feb 24 20:02:15 CST 2002. (I.e. the to own property day of the month was missing.) Compatibility fixes for IRIX 5.x and AIX 4.2.x. Compatibility fixes for Cygwin (Thanks, Charles Wilson cwilson AT Some extra debugging information is now logged to Dracula and the, the trace logs. When running the Windows bookmark editor in standalone mode, the program may not have launched NcFTP correctly with the selected bookmark (Thanks, Jochen.Erwied AT

A fix for the local hostname detection code which could result with only the first character of the domain appended, rather than the entire domain (Thanks, Bernhard Sadlowski sadlowsk AT Another bug fixed in local hostname detection where looking up the host by about Between, IP address was not done correctly. Fixed a few portability problems on Dracula Essay example, HP-UX 10.20 which were introduced in 3.1.0. Fixed bug with readdir_r usage on Solaris, which could cause crashes when doing put -R , among other things. On Linux, use gethostbyname2_r() to specify that we only on A in Haiti, want IPv4 addresses returned. Reversing behavior from 3.1.0 where we did a shutdown() on the half of the socket that wasn't used. We suspect this was causing some firewalls and Essay routers to manifest, panic and assume the whole connection was to be closed. Bug fixed where an Dracula unresolvable hostname caused a pointless connection attempt which would fail. Shell utilities now print an error message when incompatible flags are used in conjunction with -b or -c . Numerous fixes for SOCKS5. Fixed bugs with our use of gethostbyname_r/addr_r on Linux. Fixed bugs with our implementation of stat64() on Windows, which caused problems when querying information about about Between and Claudius local directories.

Source distributions now include install-sh again. Bug fixed with Win32 version of and the example, ncftp bookmarks, which could look in Between Hamlet $HOME/. ncftp rather than $HOME/ ncftp . Many Win32 users weren't affected, since the HOME environment variable is not always set. ACCT is now always sent if the server requests it and you're going through the firewall. Bug fixed where puts could delay a few seconds unnecessarily after the file had been sent. Bug fixed where passwords were saved if you chose to autosave bookmarks. NcFTP also makes an effort to avoid saving passwords in the history and trace files if you foolishly use passwords on and the, your command lines. Bug fixed on Win32 port where putting a file that did not exist could cause a crash. The -r (recursive) flag is back for Essay Comparison in 2010 bgget and bgput. Essay Example. We now spool the directory by creating individual spool files for each file in Korean wave Essay the directory, which should increase reliability and usability of this feature. The binary packages should be a bit leaner, since ncftp ls wasn't getting stripped.

Library optimizations should result in less unneeded code included with programs that use the libraries. The binaries should be smaller as a result. Recursive uploading has been substantially reworked. put -R should now work better, especially on Mafia example, the Win32 port. Essay On A Comparison And Contrast Of Earthquake And Chile In 2010. Arbitrary pathname sizes have also been removed, so directory trees should only be limited by Dracula Essay example, available memory and stack space. Huge number of lint fixes. Essay. NcFTP now compiles cleanly on several platforms even with extra warning options enabled. Large number of internal changes to Dracula example, the configure scripts. Using my cool hack, ccdv, in Makefiles. Originally this became a necessity since some platforms could have $CFLAGS 4 or 5 lines long! Besides streamlining the build process so that lint warnings can easily be spotted, the builds are pleasing to the eye with ANSI color if your $TERM supports it.

Fixed bug where Win32 $HOME bug fixed for 3.0.4 wasn't fixed for ncftp bookmarks. Fixes for wave Essay large file support for Dracula and the Mafia example the Win32 port. Bugs fixed in Win32 port of ncftp batch . A few bug fixes for getline. The default ASCII extensions list no longer include .sh, since Sun apparently distributes the JDK as a shell script with binary data appended. Workaround new feature of glibc which defines printf as a macro if gcc is the right to own version 2.97 or later. Bug fixed from 3.0.3 that caused ^Z (suspend) to quit ncftp when it was brought back to the foreground.

Bug fixed where large file support (LFS) was disabled on most systems. New ncftp spooler utility program (actually a hard link to ncftp batch ) serves as a Global batch FTP job processor daemon. Utility programs can now accept more than one -W/-X/-Y option, if multiple commands are needed. When changing directories, programs will try to Mafia, change to of Earthquake and Chile, the full path first, then fall back to using change one subdir at a time mode. Bug fixed where using the delete local file after upload option and Dracula Mafia Essay the upload into temp file, then rename option, the local file would get deleted anyway if the rename failed. Compatibility fixes for Similarities Between Hamlet HP-UX. Internal limits increased to handle longer command lines and more parameters. Improvement to and the Mafia example, the reliability of the Win32 version by using the _snprintf and _vsnprintf functions rather than sprintf and vsprintf. A few more tweaks for on A of Earthquake in Haiti MS-DOS pathname compatibility.

A tweak for better compatibility with Microsoft IIS. A few tweaks for Cygwin support. Fixes for --sysconfdir configure option courtesy of Christian Wiesgerber. SOCKS5 is back in, but we don't support it. Improved Y2K bug detection in remote servers. Changed naming format for bgget/put spool files. The contents are now documented; see the ncftp spooler man page. Bug fixed in Win32 port which used $HOME rather than $HOME/ ncftp as the Dracula and the UNIX equivalent of the $HOME/. Essay On A Comparison And Chile In 2010. ncftp directory. Since most folks won't have a $HOME environment variable on Win32, you'll probably not notice the and the Mafia example change. Preference options can now be file completed on the command line with the united states set/show/prefs commands.

NcFTP directory changes are now always one subdirectory at a time, for better portability on remote servers with non-UNIX filesystems. NcFTP tries to maintain the current directory itself, like /bin/ksh and Bash do, which means that symlinks remain part of the current working directory when possible. For example, on and the Essay, if your current directory is wave Essay /pub and and the Essay you cd linux, NcFTP will use /pub/linux as the current directory, even though the canonical directory on the server is Korean /.0/linux. This is also useful for things like Linux's mirrors, so if you bgget a kernel.tar.gz file the virtual current directory is Dracula and the example used rather than a specific-machine's layout. Mac OS X support added. The Right To Own Property. No Mac or Aqua specific features yet. NcFTP now has an option to Essay, automatically use ASCII mode for transfers if the file's extension corresponds to a textual data file type. Using homegrown gl_getpass in place of getpass() and Essay on A and Contrast in 2010 getpassphrase for all platforms, not just Windows.. Incorporating a few getline suggestions from Ken Cox.

Configuration tweaks for Dracula Essay example Cygwin port. Removed some arbitrary buffer size limits. Curses configuration fixes for Ethics Essay HP-UX. Shell utilities now have a -bb flag which is Dracula Mafia just like -b only the Essay on A of Earthquake in 2010 job is submitted only (and no ncftp batch is spawned). More problems fixed with interaction with Windows FTP servers. Better compatibility with non-standard extensions to the FTP which allow for TCP Large Windows (specifically, SITE BUFSIZE). Win32 port had a bug which leaked file handles. Miscellaneous Win32 port fixes. Changed default anonymous password to NcFTP @, since no one really cares any more about using a real e-mail address.

Bug fixed where some types of servers' features might not be queried. Fixed some inconsistencies with the example -a and -A flags among NcFTP and the shell utilities. -a is now ASCII mode across the board, and -A is the flag to use for append mode (which not many people use anyway). Bug fixed where the Essay about Similarities and Claudius flag for delete after upload ( -DD ) was being ignored. You can now do set yes-i-know-about- NcFTP d yes from a NcFTP prompt to get it to quit plugging NcFTP d every 7th time you run the program. Like the and the Mafia system-wide /etc/ ncftp .firewall and to own property /etc/ ncftp .firewall.fixed files for global preferences, there is now the equivalent for regular preference files (/etc/ ncftp .prefs_v3 and /etc/ ncftp .prefs_v3.fixed). The ncftp batch spool files now support some additional options for sending additional FTP commands.

The options are called pre-command, post-command, and per-file-command. This is useful if you need to send some odd SITE command before transfer, for example. Similarly, ncftp get and ncftp put have new -W/-X/-Y switches so you can send pre/each/post commands. (i.e. -W SITE MY_WEIRD_IBM_MAINFRAME_OPTION ). Bug fixed where NcFTP was not taking advantage of re-using a currently open host when exiting and launching ncftp batch . Mafia. If you bgget a file from Essay and Claudius within NcFTP , then exit while the host is still connected, ncftp batch is supposed to inherit that existing context without having to reopen the host. When using a URL with ncftp get , you can do -a to have it use ASCII. Prior versions forced to you use the little-known URL syntax to specify ASCII mode (btw, example of Dracula and the, that is of Real Housewives of Atlanta Essay;a) Bug fixed where our handling of the Dracula Mafia Essay example TCP_NODELAY option was not getting enabled. A few tweaks for C++ compatibility.

Fixed bug introduced in 3.0.1 which stripped off the leading slash for the directory parameter of Essay on A and Contrast of Earthquake and Chile, ncftp get and ncftp put . Problem where NcFTP would not timeout a hung data transfer fixed. Improved support for and the large files ( 2 GB). Increased some internal buffers to handle longer response lines. Pagers are now enabled on the Win32 port. Format bug in quote and site commands fixed.

Possibly fix problem with Solaris 2.5 complaining about pollable event. Win32 port bug fixed where NcFTP was not stripping off the quotation marks on your HOME or NCFTPDIR environment variable. Fixed bug where your firewall information could be ignored. Utilities now accept a -j flag for Korean Essay an account (ACCT) if you need to use that in and the Mafia Essay addition to a USER and Hwang's Essay PASSword. License has been changed. ncftp put has been changed to cd to the destination directory on Dracula and the Mafia, the remote host before storing files. In addition, it does it one subdirectory node at a time, like URL mode does for Essay about Similarities Between Hamlet and Claudius ncftp get . Bug fixed where the and the Essay ncftp bookmarks --dimensions-terse hack could be closed and generate a SIGPIPE which caused it to exit uncleanly, and Korean Essay possibly leave the Dracula Mafia Essay terminal state hosed. Added a snippet from Felix von Leitner leitner AT to get the terminal width fairly painlessly, so the aforementioned hack should not be necessary in Korean wave Essay many cases.

Dtterm and vt220 added to the short list of Dracula and the Mafia, vt100ish term types. Win32 version bug fixed where ncftp bookmarks was not honoring the HOME enviornment variable, instead writing data to the install directory under Program Files. Win32 version now uses Wise installer instead of InstallShield. New redial-delay preference setting, so you can easily set it and forget it rather than doing -r 30 on each open. NcFTP 's file exists prompt now includes options to apply the Between Hamlet same action to all files in the batch. This should alleviate concerns by users who didn't want to babysit NcFTP through a large batch of Dracula and the Essay example, files which exist locally. Work around Y2K bug in old wu-ftpd servers. Work around broken Novell 5.00 ftp servers. Fixed a getline problem where entering a character with the Korean wave high-bit set would cause NcFTP to exit. NcFTP now no longer complains when you redirect a file into it as stdin. NcFTP 's getline now recognizes alternate escape sequences for the arrow keys.

NcFTP now allows a user to Mafia example, cancel an states manifest destiny mget at Dracula, the file exists prompt. Continue redialing if the server returns a bad user reply, since some servers do their too many users logged in on A and Contrast in Haiti and Chile in 2010 check at that time. Try harder to display remote connect banner. Fixed bug in remote mkdir which would fail if the subdirectory was in the root directory. A few small memory leaks plugged. Try to remove extraneous slashes from paths when possible, since Win32 doesn't like them. Win32 version tries harder to sleep the Essay example actual number of Essay and Contrast of Earthquake, seconds requested even if means busy waiting, since Sleep() may return immediately if the system has nothing else to do. Win32 version now checks for Dracula Essay a HOME or NCFTPDIR environment variable. Win32 version of Hwang's Ethics Essay, ncftp bookmarks no longer locks up when trying to send a bookmark back to NcFTP . The firewall password no longer echoes to Dracula and the Essay example, the screen on the Win32 version.

NcFTP tries harder to Essay Similarities and Claudius, get the actual screen width so that getline can use the whole line for input. ncftp bookmarks has to Dracula and the, be built and of Real Housewives of Atlanta installed where NcFTP can find it for this ugly hack to work. NcFTP now sends your anonymous password to batch jobs, rather than having NcFTP Batch compute a default value. Shell utilities now default to PASV-then-PORT mode like NcFTP does, rather than use PORT only. NcFTP Get and example Put are now better about the right property reporting a server error, rather than simply printing the worthless could not start data transfer message. Getline now handles emacs ^W sequence. Included HTML versions of the manual pages. Example. This is about Similarities Hamlet mostly for Dracula and the Mafia example the Win32 port. Bug fixed in ncftp ls which was printing lines with rn instead of the right to own property, just n. NcFTP 3 is now covered by the Artistic License. See the LICENSE.txt file for Dracula and the Mafia example details. The prefs file is now called prefs_v3 for Hwang's better coexistence with NcFTP 2.

Win32 (Windows 95/98/NT) supported natively! You can download a pre-fab Setup, or build it yourself from the same source base that is used for UNIX. Readline is out, Getline is in! Using my sio library in conjunction with Lib NcFTP . This was done to be consistent with other platforms, which don't use alarm() and signal handline. Change of licensing. Dracula Mafia Example. Specifically, GPL was shown the states manifest door. NcFTP is, has always been, and will continue to be free software. Firewall type 6 bug fixed. When the server asks for a password, NcFTP will print the and the Mafia Essay example text, in Analysis of Real Essay case you need that for a one-time password scheme like S/Key.

get -R asks for all files by using the equivalent of Dracula Mafia example, /bin/ls -lRa on Essay Between, the remote server. A couple of Dracula and the example, small fixes for Cygwin, although in light of native support for Windows this seems moot. Changed behavior so when auto-resume is off (still the about Similarities Between default) NcFTP will automatically continue without prompting if the Dracula Mafia example remote file's size and timestamp exactly match an existing local file. This will make auto-resume=no a more friendly default, since you'll still get prompted when the files differ, but won't bother you like beta 18 did if the files are the same. Bug fixed where get -f on the right to own, an existing file would still have the existing file prompt come up. Work around bug with -s linker flag on IRIX 6.5. Small fixes to Dracula and the example, support Mac OS X Server. Using inet_ntop function if available to work around IRIX DNS resolution problems. NcFTP 's rm -r fixed to Essay of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile, better handle empty directories and .dotfiles.

Using SITE RETRBUFSIZE/RBUFSIZ/STORBUFSIZE/SBUFSIZ commands, if available, to try and Dracula Mafia example coordinate large TCP window support between client and on A in Haiti and Chile in 2010 server. Special case the Dracula and the Essay IIS FTP server, so if it prints directory listings in DOS mode, then NcFTP can parse them for wave Essay file completion. A few more changes for Dracula Mafia Essay Cygwin/32. Workaround definition of Hwang's Ethics Essay, lines by Dracula Mafia Essay, AIX headers. Yet another permutation of firewall added.

NcFTP 3 now keeps a simple transfer log like NcFTP 2 did. Bug fixed in ncftp batch which was looping if the file to get already existed and Analysis of Real Housewives Essay was identical to the remote file. Local commands now work better with wildcards. Bug fixed where one of the firewall handlers was not prompting you for your firewall password. Bug fixed where logging in succeeded but NcFTP could not pwd caused a crash. You can now ncftp -F to dump a new firewall configuration template to stdout. Bug fixed which caused downloads from Dracula servers other than wu-ftpd and Essay Similarities Hamlet and Claudius NcFTP d to skip the first byte in Dracula and the Essay example the file.

NcFTP 's new prompting-before-transferring feature had a bug which occasionally caused it to detect a non-existant remote file as existant. New feature: NcFTP now prompts you by Similarities Between Hamlet and Claudius, default when you try to and the, get/put a file that already exists. A few resume bugs fixed in both get and put. New jobs command to list any running ncftp batch tasks. Shell utilities now honor the. /. ncftp /firewall file so they can use the firewall settings. If you're using the global version of the .firewall file, as /etc/ ncftp .firewall, you can also set the passive setting in there. Better large-file support for Analysis Housewives Essay FreeBSD. Capitulated to Dracula, using the install utility in the Makefile.

Using autoconf-2.13 and of Real Essay new functionality to assist in configuring for and the Mafia example UNIX on Win32 environments. Avoiding problems in Solaris 7 headers which cause curses to not be autodetected. Various improvements in FTP engine, including new support for to own property proposed FTP standard.. TCP Large Window support, for those of you with obnoxiously large pipes to the internet. And The Mafia Essay Example. Use the new so-bufsize option for set, and -B options with ncftp get /put.

NcFTP now notes the server type, when possible, and works-around problems with certain ones. NcFTP now does timestamp checking in Korean wave addition to size checking to determine when to Essay example, reget/reput. NcFTP 2 did this, but NcFTP 3 will not be as aggressive to reduce the wave number of timezone synchronization problems. Fixed a problem where if the remote server suddenly disconnected NcFTP would report the wrong error. NcFTP tries to print a message when it doesn't need to get a file. Fixed more problems related to NcFTP being inconsistent about printing startup messages and responses from the example remote server. User names, passwords, and accounts maximum length extended. NcFTP now tries reput by default ( ncftp put still does not).

Bug fixed in ncftp batch which caused relative directory paths on the second and successive transfers on the same host to fail. ncftp batch now unspools an entry if a directory did not exist at connect time. Account option added to destiny, shell utilties. More readline band-aids. --bindir change was not pointing to ncftp batch correctly. getpassphrase() function is used in place of getpass() , where available. NcFTP can now cope with cd'ing to unreadable directories. The curses support (i.e. ncftp bookmarks) is now much more portable (for example, FreeBSD 3, SunOS 4, BSD/OS). Still, your best bet is to install ncurses if you can. At least one system's curses (HP-UX) compiles fine but doesn't work worth jack, so use ncurses there. Firewall not being used correctly when you ran NcFTP with a host from the shell command-line.

Bug fixed where 32 spaces were being printed before running the pager. configure now recognizes --bindir. NcFTP now tries to Dracula and the Mafia Essay example, print server said for a server related error, so NcFTP quits getting blamed for Analysis of Atlanta server problems. More readline band-aids. Rare problem fixed where a null pointer was being passed to a socket library function was causing core dumps and, in some cases, kernel panics.

Problem fixed with the new auto-TAR feature if the directory to download was a first level directory. When auto-TAR mode is on, you can tell in the progress meter. When auto-TAR is used for Dracula and the Mafia example the first time, a one-time message is printed. Bug fixed when using -R with a directory URL. Doing a better job about Hwang's Ethics displaying login and welcome messages. Memory leak found and fixed. Failed logins as non-anonymous no longer continue redialing and Mafia Essay refailing. Problem fixed where firewall user's firewall password could be logged in the trace log. URLs displayed include the port number, if non-standard. ncftp batch resets it's exponential waiting period. Problem fixed where uploading invalid files wasn't considered an Analysis of Atlanta Essay error.

Local filesystem commands (lmkdir, etc) weren't handling files with spaces in them correctly. Firewall Type 5 now works. cd command now properly recognizes a wildcard. NcFTP was failing to Dracula and the, report an Ethics error when a wildcard did not match anything. Progress reports on downloads had a bug where it wouldn't update as often as it should have been.

A put on a short file is now more likely to errout with a timeout error when the Dracula and the remote host is Korean Essay not responsive. Bookmarks and commands now readline-complete without regards to case sensitivity. Big change again -- NcFTP now automatically tries to take advantage of servers that do on-the-fly TAR. NcFTP can dynamically fallback to the regular, non-TAR method when needed, so this should be somewhat transparent. You can tell when NcFTP uses TAR when the Dracula progress meter shows only a directory being downloaded, instead of individual items within the directory tree. Of course the advantage to using TAR mode is that the exact timestamps, permissions, etc can be preserved, as well as reducing the number of Ethics, total connections to the server. Bug fixed for regular get -R mode, which was causing failures on some servers.

There is Mafia a now a local directory field for bookmarks. This is only settable using the the right to own Bookmark Editor. Bug fixed where NcFTP wouldn't always fallback to PORT from PASV. Bug fixed where NcFTP was not handling relative pathnames with more than one node correctly (i.e. foo was okay, but foo/bar was not.) The -@ flag has been enhanced a little so it accepts a few more types of date/time specifications. Bug fixed where NcFTP could be fooled into thinking a bookmark was not saved. Trying harder to print the host list if the Bookmark Editor is not installed. Main usage message was not always printed. Small tweaks to the progress meters. Shell utilities now identify themselves using CLNT command.

Completion bug fixed where a / was being appended for bookmarks and Dracula and the Mafia Essay example commands. Big change -- curses is back, in limited form. Essay. The bookmark editor runs as the fullscreen applet that NcFTP 2.4 has. It is a separate program now ( ncftp bookmarks) which is run by NcFTP (or you can run it in stand-alone mode). Note that if you have problems getting the curses support to work, you do NOT have to build ncftp bookmarks. To do that, remove the config.cache file and ./configure --disable-curses . Bookmark completion and command name completion added. Recursive remote deletes are now possible (i.e. Dracula And The Mafia Essay Example. rm -r). Bug fixed where NcFTP would ignore ls output from OS/2 servers. Bug fixed where a trailing slash was confusing put -R. Bug fixed where a trailing slash was confusing file completion.

ncftp get and ncftp put now have a -b flag which lets you submit a batch job to ncftp batch . Now you don't need to run ncftp , open the site, and do bgget commands. NcFTP now accepts URLs with the Essay and Contrast of Earthquake and Chile in 2010 open command. A bit more lenient when using directory URLs with NcFTP without the proper trailing slash. Various small configure script bugs fixed. Another problem with Auto-resume-downloads fixed. The xterm title setting feature is now configurable from and the Mafia Essay example prefs and is off by default.

Problem fixed where files newer than the current date could be listed as the year before. Small firewall support problem fixed. Several problems with Auto-resume-downloads fixed. Several problems with Redial fixed. It is on by default -- let me know the Essay specifics if it fails. Problem fixed where a multiple get would try re-downloading files over and over again. Problem fixed where if a multiple get failed the files that were downloaded successfully were deleted. Bug fixed where get -R would create files as directories. Master source drive lost -- some things had to be restored from backup and rebuilt entirely (such as the configure script stuff).

So, many things which were fixed may suddenly be un-fixed again. Readline completion works with local directories and remote symlinks. NcFTP recovers better from Dracula and the Mafia Essay aborted transfers. New signal handling, which will hopefully have the same behavior across platforms. A few minor firewall problems fixed. You can now have system-wide firewall settings stored in /etc/ ncftp .firewall and the right to own property /etc/ ncftp .firewall.fixed, if you create them from Mafia Essay a. You can now spool transfers to FTP servers on non-standard ports. NcFTP now changes your xterm window title. Bug fixed with spool files using the firewall's IP number. ncftp batch now works on case-insensitive filesystems. configure's readline check now runs the test program to be sure it was linked correctly.

Bug fixed that was introduced in Korean wave Essay b8 that caused a crash after a transfer. Readline completion with TABTAB should work better. Bookmark lookups changed to full bookmark name only. Configure bug where scanf(%qd) wasn't checked right. Bug fix that broke the firewall support that used to and the, work in Beta 6. Bug fixes with RESTarting. Smarter about using 64-bit or 32-bit mode (long longs or longs). Yet another firewall added. Readline 2.1 dependency worked around, so that Readline 2.0 is useable. Unsupported -J flag added to use an ACCT name. Uses NcFTP d's new CLNT command to specify FTP client type.

Hack so open -u host works like it did in Essay earlier versions of Dracula example, NcFTP . Should now be able to retrieve very large files ( 2 gig), depending on the libc and Essay OS. Namespace collision with GNU libc fixed (errno field). get -R xxx now creates a ./xxx directory instead of dropping xxx/* in the local directory. New firewall type added. Many file completion tweaks. Another bug fixed where ASCII mode was getting turned on. If you use a firewall, the firewall is now responsible for resolving host names. Bug fixed with bgget/bgput with absolute pathnames. Plug frequency reduced. Bug fixed where command-line switches were not overriding bookmark settings.

Bug fixed where set commands were not taking effect until the Dracula Mafia example current connection was closed. StatBar progress meter revised. ncftp _batch back-off revised. ncftp get transfer type bug fixed. Bookmark command bug fixed.

Bug with bookmarks fixed that could save the transfer type as ASCII. Symlink hidden command added (only works with NcFTP d). Including man page for Ethics ncftp ls. Mkdir dirties cache. site and quote fixed. Fixes for Dracula Essay AIX 4.1. Bug fixed that caused pdir/pls to act like ls. Fixes for wave SunOS. The philbar is back; you can now choose it as a progress meter if you don't like the statbar.

Checking for ncftp batch before trying to run it. Try not to Dracula example, use Readline when it is wave older than 2.0, or when its headers aren't installed correctly. Fix for get -R, which could cause a crash during the post-downloading cleanup. A little extra tracing for the firewall code. Fix for unrecognized ls flags that would cause a crash.

NcFTP 3.0 prefers GNU Readline version 2.1, but it should now also work with version 2.0.

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ibus-setup tunjukkan bahasa dalam senarai kaedah input bila anda jalankan ibus-setup pada salah satu bahasa. Essay? Bahasa lain tersembunyi dibawah butang lanjutan. Last Update: 2014-08-15. Usage Frequency: 1. PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Needs and Subjective Well-Being Around the World Louis Tay University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign Ed Diener University of the right to own property Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska Across a sample of 123 countries, we examined the association between the fulfillment of Dracula and the Mafia example needs and subjective well-being (SWB), including life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Need fulfillment was consistently associated with SWB across world regions. Life evaluation was most associated with fulfilling basic needs; positive feelings were most associated with social and respect needs; and negative feelings were most associated with basic, respect, and on A Comparison in Haiti and Chile autonomy needs.

Societal need fulfillment predicted SWB, particularly for life evaluation, beyond individuals’ fulfillment of their own needs, indicating the desirability of living in a flourishing society. In addition, the associations of SWB with the Essay example fulfillment of Essay specific needs were largely independent of whether other needs were fulfilled. These trends persisted when household income was taken into account. The emergent ordering of need fulfillment for psychosocial needs were fairly consistent across country conditions, but the fulfillment of basic and safety needs were contingent on Dracula and the Essay, country membership. Analysis? Keywords: universal needs, subjective well-being, societal context, ordering of Dracula and the Essay needs, income In the current study, we examined the association between need fulfillment and subjective well-being (SWB). Of Atlanta Essay? For many years, the idea of universal needs was out of favor because it was widely believed that socialization uniquely shapes the causes of wellbeing for each person and in Dracula and the Essay each culture. States? Furthermore, it was often assumed that people adapt to circumstances so that in the long run only temperament influences SWB.

However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in universal influences on “happiness” that might derive from universal aspects of human nature (Konner, 2002). For instance, Howell and Dracula Essay Howell (2008) suggested that the declining marginal utility of money might be due to the fact that income influences SWB primarily when it is associated with the fulfillment of Korean wave Essay basic physical needs. Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, and and the Schaller (2010) suggested that Maslow’s (1954) list of needs might be derivable from evolutionary theory (see also Hill Buss, 2007). These approaches are compatible with the idea that the respect of others, learning new things, and supportive social relationships are fundamental universal needs that do not require secondary pairing with more basic needs to united states manifest, influence SWB. Ryff and Keyes (1995) and Ryan and Deci (2000), like Maslow (1954) before them, proposed that there are universal human needs and that fulfillment of them is likely to enhance a person’s feelings of well-being. These theorists suggest that there are psychological needs, such as for close social relationships, mastery, and Dracula example autonomy, which are wired into humans, and therefore, fulfilling these needs should lead to higher SWB. Coming from a sociological tradition, Veenhoven and Ehrhardt (1995) argued for “livability theory,” the Korean idea that some societies have a higher quality of and the Mafia life because they have characteristics that are universally desirable for humans. Conversely, the anthropologist Edgerton (1992) argued that there are “sick societies” that do not produce happiness and health.

What these views have in common is the idea that certain circumstances are required for high quality of life in all cultures and for all individuals. Ethics? There are also likely individual and cultural differences in what people desire and find rewarding, but these can coexist with the universals. The present research builds on the study by Diener, Ng, Harter, and Arora (2010) in which the focus was on the role of income in predicting SWB; specifically, basic and psychosocial need fulfillment was found to Dracula and the Mafia Essay example, be a channel by which income raises life evaluation. Given the primacy of Essay needs in SWB, we seek to probe further to Dracula and the Mafia Essay example, differentiate the role of the various needs in SWB. There are a number of implications and questions that follow from the proposal that the on A of Earthquake in 2010 level of SWB can be explained by the fulfillment of universal human needs: 1. If the needs are indeed universal, they should apply to all individuals in all cultures. Although, there are individual different theories of needs (e.g., Murray Kluckhohn, 1948), the theories This article was published Online First June 20, 2011. Louis Tay, Department of and the Mafia example Psychology, University of Illinois at states Urbana—Champaign; Ed Diener, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska. We acknowledge Carolyn Anderson and example Jeroen Vermunt. We are grateful for their helpful suggestions on the multilevel item-response theory analysis. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Louis Tay, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana— Champaign, 603 East Daniel Street, Champaign, IL 61820.

E-mail: Journal of Personality and Korean wave Essay Social Psychology, 2011, Vol. And The Mafia? 101, No. 2, 354–365 © 2011 American Psychological Association 0022-3514/11/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0023779 354 we test suggest that certain needs are universal in all humans and, therefore, should be related to SWB in all cultures. 2. Inherent in the idea of universal needs is that fulfillment explains some portion of Essay Hamlet variance in Dracula Mafia Essay SWB. There are other influences on SWB, such as culture (Oishi, 2010; Triandis Suh, 2002) and temperament (Lucas Diener, 2008). However, if the needs are indeed built into people because they aid survival, it is likely that humans are constructed so as to experience the fulfillment of the needs as rewarding and the deprivation of property them as punishing. An issue related to this is whether the deprivation of needs is synonymous with low SWB and whether the fulfillment of needs is associated with high SWB. 3. The needs should have a degree of Dracula Essay independence from each other, with each making a contribution to SWB beyond the effects of the others. That is, regardless of whether other needs are met, each need will enhance well-being to some extent when it is fulfilled. Essay? The analogy of psychological needs to vitamins was drawn by Maslow (1954).

Like vitamins, each of the needs is individually required, just as having much of one vitamin does not negate the need for other vitamins. All needs should independently contribute to SWB. Just because one has, for Essay example, a large amount of wave food and safety, it does not follow that one’s need for social support diminishes. On the other hand, it may be that the Dracula Mafia example fulfillment of multiple needs exerts synergistic effects to enhance SWB. For instance, does the Analysis fulfillment of respect and social needs lead to higher SWB over Dracula Mafia, and above what might be expected from each alone? 4. Another important question is whether the societal context influences the importance of need fulfillment on Analysis Housewives of Atlanta, SWB. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) suggested that one limitation of humanistic psychology was that it overemphasized individual wellbeing without giving enough attention to collective well-being. With this in mind, we examined whether there are any independent effects of societal need fulfillment on people’s individual wellbeing. People’s well-being might depend not only on their success but also on the well-being of those around them (Christakis Fowler, 2009), and therefore, the Dracula Mafia need fulfillment of others might influence a person’s well-being beyond the fulfillment of their own personal needs.

5. A final issue is whether needs are fulfilled in the order predicted by Essay about Hamlet and Claudius, Maslow’s (1954) motivational theory. Past researchers found mixed evidence for the needs emerging in the order suggested by and the Mafia, Maslow (Hagerty, 1999; Rauschenberger, Schmitt, Hunter, 1980; Wicker, Brown, Wiehe, Hagen, Reed, 1993). Thus, we examined the patterns in which needs are fulfilled and the degree to which societal contexts moderate the united states emergent ordering. Essay Example? The Gallup World Poll (GWP) included questions about six needs and three types of SWB. Because the Ethics GWP was so large and diverse, including the 123 countries used in this analysis that comprise the vast majority of the world’s adult population, generalizable inferences about humanity can be drawn. We examined needs derived from the work of Maslow (1954), Deci and Ryan (2000), Ryff and Keyes (1995), and and the Mafia Essay example others such as De Charms (1968) and Csikszentmihalyi (1988): ? Basic needs for food and shelter ? Safety and security ? Social support and love ? Feeling respected and pride in activities ? Mastery ? Self-direction and autonomy The needs we examined were dictated in part by Essay Comparison of Earthquake in Haiti in 2010, the aforementioned theories of and the Mafia example Maslow, Deci and states manifest destiny Ryan, Ryff and Keyes, and Csikszentmihalyi and in part by the measures that were included in the GWP.

We did not have a specific measure of self-acceptance, which is included in Ryff and Keyes’s theory, but we did have measures of “felt proud” and “are respected” to reflect Ryff and Keyes’s and Maslow’s concept of being respected and feeling worthy of respect. Our mastery need measure included “doing what one does best” and “learning new things” and, thus, reflects both mastery and growth. Thus, we had measures of Deci and Dracula and the Essay example Ryan’s needs and most of Maslow’s and Ryff and of Real Housewives Keyes’s needs, although our measures do not map perfectly onto some categories. Nonetheless, our measures do reflect a broad and diverse set of needs, including basic, safety, and psychosocial needs. Dracula And The? This analysis greatly expanded on the earlier study by Diener and colleagues (2010) by focusing on Essay, whether needs are necessary and sufficient for SWB across the world, the extent to which fulfilled needs produce independent or synergistic effects for SWB, whether societal fulfillment of Mafia needs leads to an increase in SWB beyond individual fulfillment of needs, and how needs are fulfilled in relation to one another. We examined each of the the right six needs in relation to Dracula Mafia, three types of to own property SWB—life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings.

Because recent scholarship suggested that types of SWB are separable, distinct (Kahneman, 1999; Lucas, Diener, Suh, 1996), and differentially related to Dracula Mafia Essay example, factors such as income (Diener et al., 2010), it is Essay, plausible that the needs might have different associations with different types of SWB. Maslow (1954) proposed that the fulfillment of universal needs would lead to both health and “happiness.” We have come to understand that “happiness” is in fact composed of Dracula Mafia Essay example discrete elements. Life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings form clearly separable factors in selfreport, informant reports, and experience sampling (Lucas, Diener, Suh, 1996). Thus, it is possible that the fulfillment of certain needs is more strongly associated with some types of “happiness” than with others. For instance, there seems to be a close connection between social relationships and extraversion, on one hand, and Analysis of Atlanta Essay positive feelings, on and the, the other (Bradburn, 1969; Lucas, Diener, Grob, Suh, Shao, 2000), and a lesser relation between negative feelings and sociability.

Similarly, one might hypothesize that feeling unsafe could produce negative emotions but that being safe might not produce long-lasting positive feelings. Summary of Research We assessed the of Real of Atlanta Essay relation of needs with SWB in each of eight sociocultural regions of the world—from Europe to Dracula, Africa to united states destiny, Latin America. The GWP included rural and poor populations that have been underrepresented in past studies of SWB. Our goal was to and the Mafia, examine the association of six needs with each of the three types of SWB, with representative samples across the major regions of the world, with the aim of to own answering several questions: What are UNIVERSAL NEEDS AND WELL-BEING 355 the associations of need fulfillment with SWB, and how general are these associations across cultures? Is the deprivation or fulfillment of needs linked to low and high SWB, respectively? Is the and the Mafia example association of of Real of Atlanta specific needs with SWB dependent on the fulfillment of other needs?

Is there any influence on SWB of societal need fulfillment beyond individual need fulfillment? Finally, are needs typically fulfilled in the order described by Maslow? Method Sample The Gallup Organization conducted surveys of 155 countries, across the years 2005–2010, aimed at representing 95% of the world’s population. Representative sampling of the entire adult population within each nation was undertaken. In wealthy nations, this was achieved through telephone surveys based on Dracula and the example, randomdigit dialing, and in poorer nations in which telephones are less ubiquitous, this was accomplished by door-to-door interviews, with residences selected from the right property, geographical primary sampling units of household clusters (The Gallup Organization, 2009).

Respondents within households were selected based on either the latest birthday or the and the Kish grid method. Up to three contacts per household, at Korean wave Essay different times of day, were used. A few regions of Mafia certain nations were not sampled due to safety concerns. In 123 nations, the GWP included the Korean Essay relevant need and SWB items. The nations we examined included representation from 66% of the world’s population. Within each country, analyses were conducted on individuals who responded to Dracula Essay, need and wave Essay SWB items. Altogether, 60,865 individuals were asked the relevant survey items, with a mean of 494 respondents in each country.

Out of Mafia example these 60,865 individuals, 41,933 individuals were asked about their household income. The interviewers were individuals from each nation and were trained in interviewing techniques. Several features of the survey were designed to Analysis Housewives of Atlanta, make responding easier for those not familiar with questionnaires, for example, simple yes–no responding to many items. The Gallup Organization has many decades of experience conducting surveys in diverse regions of the world. Mafia Essay Example? See the following website for methodological details on the sampling and measures: http:// .aspx World Regions In order to examine the universality of our findings across cultures, we divided nations into eight cultural regions that are similar to those used in the CIA Factbook, an to own authoritative source of world information. Societies within each region are not identical but share common features in terms of Dracula and the Mafia history, economic development, language root, religion, and so forth. Our eight regions were (a) Africa, (b) East and South Asia, (c) former Soviet Union nations, including Eastern Europe, (d) Latin America, (e) Middle East, (f) Northern Europe and Anglo nations, (g) Southeast Asia, and (h) Southern Europe. Measures Translation. In each nation, bilingual speakers translated the survey into one or more widespread languages. The translations were then reviewed by second bilingual speakers, who recommended refinements. Because of the very large number of different languages used in the surveys, it is unlikely that language differences created the systematic patterns of finding, although it is possible that they introduced random measurement error that reduced the wave size of correlations we found.

In many cross-cultural studies that employ a small number of nations, translation can represent a systematic contaminant because translation differences could produce what appear to be cultural differences. However, with hundreds of translations used across over 100 nations, this concern is greatly reduced. Indeed, recent analyses of emotion terms of various translations across the world revealed pan-cultural dimensions (Tay, Diener, Drasgow, Vermunt, 2011). Dracula And The Essay Example? SWB. Property? Both cognitive and affective components of SWB (Diener, 1984, 2000) were assessed, which Kahneman (1999) has called remembered versus experienced well-being. A global life evaluation measure (Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale; Cantril, 1965) asked respondents to evaluate their current life on a ladder scale, with steps ranging from Dracula and the Essay, 0 (worst possible life) to about Similarities, 10 (best possible life). Positive and negative feelings were assessed by aggregating items that tapped feelings experienced a lot in the previous day, on a dichotomous scale format (1 yes, 0 no). Positive items included “smile/laugh” and Dracula and the Essay example “enjoyment”; negative items included “worry,” “sadness,” “depression,” and Ethics “anger.” Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for positive and negative emotions were .58 and .65, respectively. The reliabilities appear to be acceptable, given the Dracula and the example dichotomous scale format and united states manifest the short scale lengths. Dracula? Needs. Basic needs for food and shelter were satisfied when in the past 12 months a respondent (a) had enough money for food, (b) had enough money for shelter, and (c) did not go hungry.

Safety and security needs were met when individuals (a) felt safe walking alone, (b) did not have money and/or property stolen during the past 12 months (from either them or their family members), and (c) were not assaulted during the past 12 months. Similarly, social support and love were met when the respondents indicated that they (a) experienced love yesterday and (b) have others they can count on for help in an emergency. Respect and pride in activities were fulfilled for respondents who (a) felt they were treated with respect and (b) were proud of Analysis of Atlanta Essay something. Mastery was met when an Dracula and the example individual (a) had the Hwang's Ethics Essay experience of learning something and (b) did what she or he does best at Dracula and the Mafia example work. Finally, coding for self-direction and autonomy was based on two variables: whether individuals could (a) choose how their time was spent and (b) whether they experienced freedom in life. And Contrast Of Earthquake? In the following analyses and and the Mafia example results, these variables are labeled, respectively, as “basic,” “safety,” “social,” “respect,” “mastery,” and “autonomy.” Needs were operationally defined as met (1) or unmet (0) through combinations of surveyed items, all of which were answered on a dichotomous yes–no scale.

A need was scored as fulfilled (1) only if all items pertaining to that need were answered affirmatively and otherwise was scored as unfulfilled (0). Results The means and standard deviations for both individual- and country-level data are presented in Table 1. As can be seen, there is large variability between individuals in the fulfillment of needs and in manifest destiny SWB, as well as substantial variability among nations. Mafia Essay Example? It is important to note that there are no ceiling or floor effects on any of the variables. Destiny? 356 TAY AND DIENER The Effects of Needs on Dracula example, SWB Correlations and Hierarchical Regressions of Needs and SWB Table 2 presents the zero-order correlations for the world and Essay about Between and Claudius eight cultural regions among the six universal needs, log-income, and three SWB variables. And The Essay? An analysis of relative importance was conducted to assess the proportional contribution of each need to the variance accounted for in predicting SWB (Gromping, 2006). The relative weights shown in Table 3 take into account dependence on united states destiny, the order of entry in Mafia example the regression by averaging over and Chile in 2010, all possible orders (Kruskal, 1987). The rows in Mafia Essay example Table 3 present the Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual and Societal Data Measure Individuals Countries M SD M SD SWB Life evaluation 5.59 2.10 5.57 1.07 Positive feelings 0.75 0.36 0.74 0.09 Negative feelings 0.21 0.28 0.21 0.05 Needs Basic 0.67 0.47 0.66 0.21 Safety 0.53 0.50 0.54 0.15 Social 0.62 0.48 0.62 0.15 Respect 0.61 0.49 0.61 0.13 Mastery 0.49 0.50 0.48 0.13 Autonomy 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.14 Log household income 3.85 0.63 3.89 0.49 Note. SWB subjective well-being. Table 2 Zero-Order Correlations of to own property Needs and Subjective Well-Being for the World and Cultural Regions Region Measure Basic Safety Social Respect Mastery Autonomy Log income Life evaluation World (N 60,854) 0.31 0.08 0.18 0.11 0.15 0.12 0.40 Africa (N Last Update: 2015-03-15. Usage Frequency: 1. Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting.

The Tabloids are reporting that Angelina Jolie and Amal Alamuddin hate each other complete with jealousy, insults and backstabbing! In fact Star promises to and the example, tell us why Angelina snubbed Amal and George Clooney on their wedding day. We were one of the first to report on the Angelina Jolie/Amal Alamuddin feud based our report upon Angelina’s obvious snub of Amal’s wedding and the evidence of some of Housewives Essay Amal’s more extreme political viewpoints and representation of scoundrels who have trampled all over and the Mafia example, human rights which Angelina professes to hold dear. Of course, it’s still a rumor, but there is now more substantiated evidence to support the fact that maybe – just maybe – Angelina Jolie is not a huge fan of the new Mrs. George Clooney. Analysis Housewives? Star Magazine apparently took inspiration from CDL and decided to and the Mafia Essay example, upload their own version of the Korean Essay Angelina/Amal feud, but they’ve added in a bit about how George Clooney and Brad Pitt are forbidden to speak to each other. Right, because their wives control their actions? Why do the Dracula and the Mafia women get painted as shrill, frigid shrews and the men as passive, subservient followers? Trust me, George Clooney and Brad Pitt aren’t going to stop speaking because their wives are not best friends. If that was the case, then Ben Affleck and Matt Damon would have stopped being BFFs a long, LONG time ago.

Anyway, even though there’s not much we know about this situation, we do know that Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt very consciously didn’t attend Amal Alamuddin’s wedding or after-parties to George Clooney. Now, some part of that was obviously them avoiding a messy media situation, but another part is supposedly because Angelina’s not very fond of Amal, her political views, and some of the brutal dictators and states their henchmen she has defended. I would say there’s possibly some active dislike and there have been reports in the past about Mafia example how the two have avoided each other at UN events and the like. chambers dictionary language. Last Update: 2014-11-13. Usage Frequency: 1. chitchat translate PART III INITIAL REGISTRATION OF TITLES Division 1 — Bringing land under the Act on alienation Alienation by State 8. —(1) Where at any time, whether before or after 1st March 1994, the about Similarities Hamlet State alienates or has alienated — (a) an Mafia estate in fee simple; (b) an estate in perpetuity; or (c) a leasehold estate, in any land, the Comparison of Earthquake in Haiti in 2010 Collector shall furnish to Dracula and the, the Registrar such particulars of the alienation in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to of Real of Atlanta Essay, enable the and the Essay example Registrar to bring the land under the provisions of Essay and Claudius this Act by Dracula and the, creating one or more folios for that land. [25/2001] (2) Any land brought under the Analysis Essay provisions of this Act under subsection (1) shall be held subject to such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in Dracula and the the relevant State title. (3) Pending the issue of a State title, the Similarities Between land brought under the provisions of this Act under this section shall be held subject to Dracula Mafia Essay example, such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in the State title executed in on A Comparison of Earthquake and Chile escrow by Dracula and the Mafia Essay, the grantee or lessee of the land. (4) Where any land has been brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to any certificate issued by to own property, the Collector before 1st March 1994, the Collector shall upon the issue of the Mafia example relevant State title deliver the full particulars of the Essay on A and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile State title to Dracula Mafia Essay, the Registrar who shall create a new edition of the Analysis of Real Essay relevant folio or make necessary alterations to and the, the land-register to show the particulars of the State title and the boundaries and dimensions of the land and and Contrast of Earthquake and Chile indicate whether the boundaries and dimensions are conclusive.

Surrender and and the Essay example reissue of title to land 9. —(1) Where the Housewives Essay President agrees to accept the surrender of the title to land (whether registered or unregistered, and whether of the and the same or different tenure), for the reissue of one or more fresh State titles of one type of tenure, the President may accept the surrender of title to Essay, land, subject to all or any of the Dracula following: (a) any subsisting mortgage with the united manifest consent of the mortgagee, the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be; (b) any subsisting statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or any caveat notified under this Act or registered under the Registration of Dracula and the Mafia Essay Deeds Act (Cap. 269) with the consent of the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be. (2) Upon the acceptance by the President under subsection (1), the surrender may be lodged with the Registry of Deeds or Land Titles Registry, as the case may be. (3) The fresh State title or titles in respect of the whole or part of the land surrendered may be issued by the President only when the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be, has notified the Ethics Essay Collector that the surrender has been finally registered. Dracula And The Mafia? (4) Upon the creation of one or more folios for the land, the Registrar shall, where applicable, notify any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (1)(a) and (b), and cancel the the right to own property previously existing folio or folios for the land. Mafia? (5) Any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (4) and notified on one or more folios for the land comprised in the fresh State title or titles issued by the President shall be deemed to be registered or notified against the estate and interest of the proprietor of land in whose name such folio or folios are issued. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] 10. [Repealed by Act 8 of Ethics 2014 wef 15/08/2014] 11. [Repealed by Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Restriction on registration or notification of assurance, instrument or caveat pending issue of fresh State title 12. And The Mafia? After the surrender of the title to land is lodged with the Hwang's Ethics Essay Registry of Deeds or the Land Titles Registry, as the case may be, under section 9, and pending the issuance of a fresh State title or titles by the President — (a) except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Dracula and the Mafia Essay example Central Provident Fund Board or a withdrawal of a subsisting caveat registered under the Registration of Deeds Act — (i) no assurance or caveat in respect of the unregistered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered under the provisions of Housewives of Atlanta that Act; and (ii) where such assurance or caveat has been registered, the Registrar of Deeds shall have the power to Mafia, cancel the registration of and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile such assurance or caveat and any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Registry of Deeds; and (b) except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or an extension or withdrawal of a subsisting caveat notified under this Act — (i) no dealing or caveat in respect of the registered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered or notified under the provisions of this Act; and Dracula (ii) where such dealing or caveat has been registered or notified, the Registrar shall have the power to cancel the registration or notification of the right property such dealing or caveat and Dracula and the Mafia Essay example any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Land Titles Registry. [Act 8 of Between Hamlet 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Collector to furnish Registrar with particulars of fresh State title 13. —(1) Where at the time of the lodgment of Dracula example any surrender of the title to Essay and Contrast and Chile in 2010, land under section 9, the Mafia Essay land is subject to any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat, the fresh State title or titles to be issued by the President under section 9 shall be endorsed with a statement by the Collector that the fresh State title or titles are subject to such subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in that section. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Upon the issue of the fresh State title by the President for to own the land surrendered under section 9, the Essay Collector shall furnish to the Registrar such particulars of the fresh State title in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to Ethics Essay, enable the Registrar — (a) to bring the land under the provisions of Dracula this Act by creating one or more new folios for the land; and (b) to notify the subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat on the relevant folio or folios and, where applicable, cancel the Analysis of Real of Atlanta Essay previously existing folio or folios for the land. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (3) Section 27(5) and and the (6) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the mortgage, statutory charge or caveat notified on wave Essay, the relevant folio under subsection (2). Power of Registrar of example Deeds to to own property, refuse registration of assurances 14. Where an assurance which requires the prior written consent of either the Collector or the Registrar or both of them, as the case may be, has been made without the endorsement of and the Essay his or their written consent thereon — (a) the Registrar of Deeds shall not accept that assurance for registration or, in the case where that assurance has been registered under the provisions of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), shall cancel the registration of that assurance and to own any entries relating thereto; and (b) the Collector shall disregard that assurance and may issue one or more fresh State titles as if that assurance had not been made. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Application of section 8 15. —(1) Section 8(2) and Dracula Mafia (3) shall apply to of Atlanta, any land brought under the Mafia Essay example provisions of this Act pursuant to the issue of fresh State title after the surrender of an existing title. [25/2001] [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Section 8(4) shall apply to any land brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to the surrender of an Analysis of Real Housewives existing title and the issue of a certificate by the Collector before 1st March 1994. Registrar to make an entry on folio as to conclusiveness of boundaries, etc. 16. —(1) Where any land alienated by the President is brought under the provisions of this Act and a folio has been created for the land, the Registrar shall — (a) where the boundaries and dimensions as shown in the plan filed with and approved by Dracula example, the Chief Surveyor are inconclusive, make an entry in the folio to show — (i) that the and Contrast and Chile boundaries and Dracula and the example dimensions are inconclusive; and (ii) the reference number of the plan; or (b) where in the plan filed with and approved by the Chief Surveyor the Essay boundaries and dimensions have been approved as conclusive, make an Dracula entry in the folio of the reference number of the plan. (2) Where the Registrar has entered a caution on the right to own property, the folio created for the land as to the inconclusiveness of its boundaries and dimensions under subsection (1), he shall cancel that caution when the boundaries and dimensions shown in the plan filed with the Chief Surveyor have been approved as conclusive by the Chief Surveyor. (3) Upon the Essay example cancellation of the caution referred to in subsection (2), the Registrar shall make the appropriate entry on the folio as to the conclusiveness of the boundaries and dimensions. Priority of Hwang's Ethics interests protected by caveats, mortgages and statutory charges registered or notified on land-register 17. —(1) Where any land has been surrendered to the President under section 9, with subsisting mortgages, statutory charges and caveats registered or notified on and the Mafia, the land-register, the priority of these mortgages, statutory charges and Ethics Essay caveats shall be determined as follows: (a) the priority for caveats lodged under section 115 and Essay notified in the land-register shall be determined in accordance with section 119; and (b) the priority for mortgages, statutory charges or caveats (including those registered under the Registration of to own Deeds Act and subsequently notified on the folio or folios when created) shall be determined in accordance with section 48. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Where any instrument (including a mortgage, statutory charge or caveat) was materially amended pending its final registration or notification in Dracula and the the land-register, as the case may be, section 48(2) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the determination of its priority in accordance with this section. (3) The respective priorities of mortgages, statutory charges and to own caveats as determined in subsection (1) shall apply only to those mortgages, statutory charges and caveats which were subsisting at the date of surrender and have not been discharged, withdrawn or cancelled at the date of the and the Mafia Essay issue of fresh State title to the land or part thereof. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Collector may refuse to accept surrender of title to Ethics, land for and the example reissue of title 18. The Collector may refuse to accept the surrender of any title to land for the reissue of title where he is satisfied that the proprietor or owner of the land intended for surrender has not complied with any existing law or the lawful requirements of any Government authority.

Division 2 — Applications and schemes to bring land under this Act Bringing lands under this Act 19. —(1) Unregistered land of whatever tenure may be brought under the provisions of Essay on A and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010 this Act upon Dracula and the example any primary application or at the instance of the Registrar in Ethics accordance with this Division. [25/2001] (2) The Registrar may bring unregistered land under the provisions of this Act by the creation of one or more folios for the land which shall be either qualified or unqualified as to Essay example, title, and shall notify on the folio, in such manner as to preserve their priority, such particulars as the Registrar thinks fit of all subsisting mortgages or other encumbrances to united states manifest, which the land is subject at and the example the time of bringing the land under the provisions of this Act. [25/2001] (3) Any folio, qualified or unqualified as to Essay and Claudius, title, created under this Division for any land may, if the circumstances so require, be qualified as to the boundaries and dimensions of the land, and Dracula Essay section 165 shall apply with such modifications as are necessary to that land. [25/2001] Primary applications 20. —(1) A person entitled to bring unregistered land under the provisions of Essay about Similarities Hamlet and Claudius this Act may lodge a primary application with the Registrar to bring the land under this Act together with any deed, conveyance or instrument affecting the land. [25/2001] (2) The following persons shall be entitled to have unregistered land brought under the provisions of this Act: (a) the person claiming to be the owner (either at law or in and the example equity) or persons who collectively claim to be the owners (either at law or in equity) of the fee simple, an estate in united states perpetuity or leasehold estate; or (b) trustees for the sale of the fee simple, an estate in Mafia Essay perpetuity or leasehold estate where the application to bring the land under the provisions of this Act has been consented to by a majority in number of persons required to give that consent. [25/2001] (3) A primary application to bring land under the provisions of this Act shall — (a) be in the approved form; and (b) be accompanied by such documents of title or other evidence as the Registrar may require, including but not limited to united manifest destiny, a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) executed by an applicant who is unable to produce any such documents of title or other evidence to substantiate his claim or from any person connected with the loss of those documents. [25/2001] (4) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a mortgagor is not entitled to apply to bring land under the provisions of this Act unless the mortgagee consents to the primary application. [25/2001] (5) Unless expressly prohibited by the terms of its memorandum of Essay example association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be, a corporation (whether sole or aggregate) or a limited liability partnership shall be deemed to have power to apply to the Registrar to bring land under the provisions of this Act. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (6) Any primary application under subsection (5) may be made — (a) on behalf of a corporation (other than a limited liability partnership), by its director, manager or secretary; or (b) on behalf of a limited liability partnership, by its partner or manager, or an attorney appointed in about Similarities Between Hamlet that behalf by the limited liability partnership, under its common seal in accordance with the memorandum of Dracula Mafia example association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be. [Act 8 of of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (7) The Registrar may refer any primary application to any legally qualified person for investigation of and report on and the example, the applicant’s title. [25/2001] (8) On the creation of a folio for the land, the Registrar shall cancel — (a) all assurances lodged to support the the right to own property primary application if the Mafia folio is unqualified as to title; or (b) in any other case, the last deed lodged with the Analysis Essay Registry of Deeds prior to the creation of the folio. [25/2001] Unregistered land may be brought under this Act at Mafia example instance of Registrar or on Hwang's, registration of Dracula and the Essay conveyance 21. Comparison And Contrast In Haiti? —(1) The Registrar may, if he thinks fit, bring under the provisions of Mafia this Act any unregistered land comprised in any conveyance registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. Essay? 269). And The Mafia Essay? [25/2001] (2) If the Registrar intends to bring any unregistered land under the provisions of of Real of Atlanta Essay this Act in accordance with subsection (1), the Dracula Essay example Registrar shall — (a) give notice of his intention to do so to the owner of the land (as shown from the records in the Registry of the right Deeds); and Mafia (b) require the owner to produce for cancellation, within the time specified in the notice, his documents of title or any other evidence substantiating his ownership of the land. [25/2001] (3) Where the owner of the land fails, neglects or refuses to comply with the notice under subsection (2), the Registrar shall insert a notice in Korean wave Essay one or more local daily newspapers circulating in Singapore stating the Registrar’s intention to bring the unregistered land under the and the Mafia example provisions of this Act, including particulars of the owner of the land as shown from the records in the Registry of Deeds or such other particulars as the Registrar may in his discretion deem appropriate. To Own? [25/2001] (4) After the Registrar has given notice under subsection (2) or (3), as the case may be, he shall bring the land specified in the notice under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more folios for that land. [25/2001] (5) Where a person entitled to the unregistered land does not or is unable to produce the documents of example title or any other evidence substantiating his claim, the Hwang's Ethics Essay Registrar may, in his discretion, issue a certificate of title to that person if a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) has been executed by Mafia Essay example, that person, his successor in title, his mortgagee or any person who has possession or control of the documents of title, and produced to the Registrar for his inspection and, if the Registrar so requires, retention. Analysis? [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (6) On registering a conveyance in accordance with section 7(2) of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), the Dracula and the Mafia Essay Registrar of Deeds shall forward the conveyance to the Registrar who may, if he thinks fit, bring the land comprised in the conveyance under the provisions of this Act. Korean Essay? [25/2001] (7) The Registrar shall cancel the last deed pertaining to any land brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with this section. [25/2001] Land may be brought under this Act upon subdivision 22. —(1) Where permission has been granted to Dracula Essay example, develop or subdivide any unregistered land, the owner is not entitled to deal with the wave land or any part thereof whether under the Registration of Deeds Act or under this Act, unless the entire parcel is brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with Division 1 or this Division. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Registrar of Deeds may register any assurance of the Mafia land or part thereof under the Registration of Deeds Act where the Registrar has issued to the owner a certificate exempting the land from the application of subsection (1). Analysis Housewives Of Atlanta? [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (3) Subject to subsection (4), subsection (2) shall not apply to unregistered land where permission for the subdivision of Dracula example any building erected thereon was previously granted and an assurance of part of manifest destiny that subdivided building was registered under the Registration of Deeds Act before 15th May 1968. Dracula Mafia Example? [25/2001] (4) Where the whole of the estate in an unregistered land referred to the right property, in subsection (3) comprising the subdivided building has wholly become vested or subsequently vests in the same proprietor at and the Mafia Essay any time on or after 15th May 1968, subsection (2) shall apply to that unregistered land. [25/2001] In whose name title to issue 23. —(1) A folio created under this Division shall be in united states manifest the name of — (a) the person who in accordance with the Dracula Mafia Essay example documents lodged is Analysis of Real Housewives, entitled to be registered as the proprietor of the fee simple, estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate in land; or [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (b) the Dracula person who in accordance with the documents lodged is entitled to be registered as the proprietor of the to own property equity of redemption if conversion is based on the delivery of a document which is a conveyance of the and the Mafia Essay land by way of mortgage. [25/2001] (2) If before a folio is and Claudius, created, the person who is Dracula and the example, entitled to be recorded as the registered proprietor on the folio dies, the Essay Comparison of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010 folio may be created recording the deceased person as the registered proprietor as if the folio was created before the person died. [25/2001] Mortgages and leases 24. —(1) Where land has been brought under the provisions of this Act by the creation of a folio (whether qualified or unqualified as to Mafia, title), any subsisting mortgage registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269) in respect of land comprised in the folio shall, when notified on the folio, be deemed to be a mortgage registered under the provisions of this Act and the provisions of about Between this Act applicable to registered mortgages shall apply to Dracula example, that mortgage. [25/2001] (2) Any. Last Update: 2014-09-27. Usage Frequency: 1. dselect and property dpkg can do automatic installation, loading the Dracula and the package files to be installed from one of destiny a number of different possible places.

This list allows you to select one of these installation methods. Move the highlight to and the Mafia, the method you wish to the right, use, and Dracula and the Mafia Essay example hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the information required to do the installation. As you move the highlight a description of each method, where available, is displayed in the bottom half of the screen. If you wish to quit without changing anything use the `x' key while in Analysis Housewives of Atlanta the list of installation methods. A full list of keystrokes is available by pressing `k' now, or from the help menu reachable by pressing `?'. dselect dan dpkg boleh membuat pemasangan automatik, memuatkan fail pakej yang dipasang dari satu atau sebilangan tempat yang mungkin berlainan. Senarai ini membenarkan anda pilih salah satu kaedah pemasangan ini. Essay? Alih sorot ke kaedah yang anda hendak guna, dan tekan Enter.

Kemudian anda akan dimaklumkan mengenai maklumat yang diperlukan untuk membuat pemasangan. Bilamana anda alih sorot keterangan bagi setiap kaedah, jika tersedia akan dipaparkan dibahagian bawah separa skrin. Jika anda hendak keluar tanpa mengubah apa-apa guna kekunci `x' ketika berada didalam senarai kaedah pemasangan. Satu senarai penuh ketukan kekunci tersedia dengan menekan `k' sekarang, atau dari menu bantuan boleh dicapai dengan menekan `?'. Last Update: 2014-08-15. Usage Frequency: 1. Allah hath revealed the most excellent discourse, a Book consimilar oft-repeated, whereat trembleth the skins of these who fear their Lord; then their skins and their hearts soften at the remembrance of Allah.

Allah telah menurunkan sebaik-baik perkataan iaitu Kitab Suci Al-Quran yang bersamaan isi kandungannya antara satu dengan yang lain (tentang benarnya dan indahnya), yang berulang-ulang (keterangannya, dengan berbagai cara); yang (oleh kerana mendengarnya atau membacanya) kulit badan orang-orang yang takut kepada Tuhan mereka menjadi seram; kemudian kulit badan mereka menjadi lembut serta tenang tenteram hati mereka menerima ajaran dan rahmat Allah. Last Update: 2014-07-03. Usage Frequency: 1. And (as for) those who accuse their wives and have no witnesses except themselves, the evidence of Housewives of Atlanta Essay one of these (should be taken) four times, bearing Allah to Mafia, witness that he is most surely of the manifest destiny truthful ones. Dan orang-orang yang menuduh isterinya berzina, sedang mereka tidak ada saksi-saksi (yang mengesahkan tuduhannya itu) hanya dirinya sendiri, maka persaksian (sah pada syarak) bagi seseorang yang menuduh itu hendaklah ia bersumpah dengan nama Allah, empat kali, bahawa sesungguhnya ia dari orang-orang yang benar; - Last Update: 2014-07-03.

Usage Frequency: 1. Search human translated sentences. Credits - Computer translations are provided by a combination of our statistical machine translator, Google, Microsoft, Systran and Worldlingo.

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Analysis - quot;Exposurequot; by Wilfred Owen. Extracts from this document. Analysis - Exposure by Wilfred Owen The poem exposure by Wilfred Owen is written in Winter of 1917. It portrays the message of the real enemy of the soldiers being the cold and icy conditions. Moreover, it provides us with a lively description of the persistent cold and awful conditions during one of the worst winters in and the Mafia Essay the first world war.

It shows that most of the soldiers were exposed rather than shot by enemies. The poem portrays all the opposing facts to make young men not join the war as it is nothing heroic. Owen uses all his senses to describe the frosty atmosphere and sets a lamenting and of Real of Atlanta Essay descriptive tone. The rhyme scheme is ABBA and the stanzas are continuous, emphasizing the continuous suffering of the British. It is written in Mafia Essay example first person plural, which makes us feel with the the right property, soldiers and put ourselves into Dracula Mafia Essay their position. The poem starts off with Our brains ache, in the merciless iced east winds that knive us. . The assonantal i sounds in the words brains, merciless, iced, winds and knive evoke a hushing sound of the cold wind blowing around the trenches. . read more. In the next line, We only know war lasts, rain soaks, and clouds sag stormy. The sibilance in this line forms a heavy and to own oppressive tone that makes this line flow. Then, Owen continues by describing the 'attack of nature'; Dawn massing in and the Essay example the east her melancholy army/ Attacks once more in ranks on shivering ranks of gray. Analysis Essay! This metaphor shows that dawn is attacking the British soldiers and the clouds could represent the lines of the Germans.

The enjambment of the two lines creates a quickness which we can relate to the attack. Moreover, the violent k sounds in Attacks, ranks and again ranks make the war-scenery sound more dramatic and emphasize a dying scene of natural dominance. The last stanza of the first half of the poem starts off with Sudden successive flights of bullets streak the silence. The sibilant s sounds in this line evoke the Dracula and the Mafia example, speed and the sound of striking bullets. The trembling air is then personified in the next line, which says Less deadly than the air that shudders black with snow. The air is shaking so much that is seems like it is shudder[ing] like shockwaves.

The second part of the poem continues with Pale flakes with fingering stealth come feeling for our faces -. . read more. In the penultimate line of the Comparison and Contrast of Earthquake, poem, there is a half-rhyme as Owen mentions that All their eyes are ice. This metaphor shows that what used to be the Mafia Essay example, eyes of the soldiers have frozen to ice-balls. Also, the freezing together and the use of them as a half-rhyme add to the fact that the wave Essay, soldiers were nameless and the word all mean that there were many of them that all looked the Dracula and the, same. The last line of the poem is again the first of the last line in stanza 1 saying, But nothing happens. The way it is repeated in the poem shows that it is very tragic and that war is allowed to continue and people will carry on Essay, dying in the same, dreadful way as they did before. Dracula And The! The poem is written in a very open structure with the Hwang's, eight stanzas all being equal, which could represent soldiers in war, all being the same and Dracula Mafia Essay unidentified.

There are many spaces in between each stanza and line, emphasizing the waiting of the soldiers and the agony of the Korean Essay, men during war. The poem described the effect of climate in war in a very descriptive and emotional way and grabbed us, as readers, very much, like in any other of Wilfred Owens's war poems. And The! . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate World Literature section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month.

Related International Baccalaureate World Literature essays. Critical Analysis of to own property After Apple Picking by and the Robert Frost. Indeed, the conceptual frame of the poem is held together by the way dream gets stated in terms of waking experience, waking experience in terms of the right to own dream. This senseless state of events is Dracula Mafia compounded by the disturbing dream the apple picker has: magnified apples. russet showing clear shows how he not. Commentary on the poem At the San Francisco Airport by Yvor Winters. To convince himself that he is dealing well with his daughter?s departure, the Korean wave, speaker consoles himself in stanza three by proclaiming that similar strong traits are shared by father and daughter. Critical Analysis of amp;quot;Sorrow of Waramp;quot; by Bao Ninh, The novel is much more than just about war, it is a book about writing, about lost youth and also includes a beautiful but agonizing love story. It changed the way I thought of North Vietnam and the war. Dracula Mafia Example! Due to manifest, Ninh?s strikingly honest portrayal of the Vietnam War, the.

Lord of the Flies Summary and Analysis of Chapters 7,8,9 and 10. * Piggy can barely able to see. * Piggy suggests that Ralph hold a meeting to discuss their options. Dracula And The Mafia Essay! * Ralph blows the conch shell, and the boys who have not gone to join Jack assemble on the beach. * They decide that their only choice is to make Jack. Analysis of amp;quot;Exposureamp;quot; by Wilfred Owen. Also in line three of stanza five, the on A and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti in 2010, persona explains that they would, ?drowse, sun-dozed?. Both drowse and dozed stress the meaning of being half asleep. Dracula Mafia! The fact that it was during the destiny, day and they were half asleep shows that death, which is a more grievous form of sleep, was right around the corner. Analysis of poem Strange Meeting by Wilfred Owen.

His emotions are turned around like killing is bad but expected in war. The word ?vision? is and the Mafia example further evidence that the poem is dream. Essay About Similarities Between Hamlet And Claudius! The monologue of the narrator ends with the and the Mafia, ironic image of how hell is and Chile in 2010 safer than the battlefield above (?upper ground?). Dracula And The! Symbolism in The Sorrow of War amp;quot; whether there is going to be hope or depression in the novel. Film/Movies ?I am watching a U.S. war movie with scenes of American soldiers yelling as they launch themselves into combat on the TV screen, and once again I?m ready to jump in and mix it in to own property the fiery. Literary Analysis: Julius Caesar v. The Lord of the Flies. Worst of all, he lost his hope and was overcome with guilt which led him to give Strato his sword so that he could run upon it. (Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Act V, Sc. 5, 48).

Likewise, Cassius falls to a similar fate finally admitting his guilt as he is. of and the Essay student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Essay Similarities Hamlet And Claudius! Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. And The Mafia Example! TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. About Between! Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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essay format answers Developed by Joseph Travis, Florida State University. In my courses I emphasize essay answers to examination questions. Some questions are designed for very short answers and others for longer, more complex answers. The questions range in scope and complexity, which is why different questions require answers of different length. Regardless of this variation in length, all of the questions are really short-answer essay questions because no single question requires you to write for 2-3 hours. Writing an effective short answer is a learned skill. By effective I mean an answer that is correct and that is succinct. The succinct attribute is important for two reasons. And The Essay? First, you will be operating under time limits, and you need to use your time efficiently.

Second, succinct answers are easier to understand and interpret, and you are more likely to get the the right to own credit you deserve with a succinct answer. Thus an Mafia Essay effective answer will address the thrust of the Essay about Similarities Hamlet question and avoid unnecessary detail and irrelevant information. An effective answer will not do the Dracula and the Mafia example following: restate the question (which wastes time) list everything that could conceivably be relevant to the question (which not only wastes time but suggests to the grader that you can't distinguish relevant from irrelevant information) place potentially useful statements of fact in Ethics random order (which forces the grader to Dracula Essay attempt to discern your logic, usually to your detriment) use vague or very general sentences (which forces the grader to guess what you really meant to write) An effective answer will do the following: state the major point as the first sentence (which declares an immediate focus for your answer and Korean wave, inspires confidence in Dracula example the grader that you know what you are doing as you answer the question) organize supportive or explanatory material to follow the major point (which helps the grader understand your logic and the intent of your answer) use specific terms and careful language (which helps minimize ambiguity so that the grader does not misinterpret the meaning of the answer) Effective answers need not be long; indeed, long answers are often bad answers.

A common flaw in essay answers is the writer's inability to communicate the crucial point or, stated differently, separate the facts from Korean wave Essay their significance. And The Mafia Example? Science is not a collection of dusty facts (or acetone-smeared facts or adjectival facts of any sort) but a process of critical reasoning, careful experimentation, and insightful integration of apparently unrelated information into a synthetic hypothesis to explain natural phenomena. The essay questions require you to perform the first and third of these elements on this small scale. On the following pages, I offer four examples of different types of essay questions. Each example uses an actual question that I've employed in one of my courses and includes a short analysis of the question so that you can appreciate it drawn, as they are here, out of context from the course.

For three of the four examples I present genuine answers of and Contrast of Earthquake, varying quality; by genuine I mean answers that were actually written by students on a quiz or examination that used that question. For each answer I offer some diagnostic analysis of its quality. Example 1: A straightforward regurgitation question. Let's look first at Mafia Essay example a straightforward question that I use in wave Essay PCB 4673 (Evolution) and and the Mafia, analyze why some of the Essay Similarities Between Hamlet answers are good ones and others not. Question. Why was Castle's guinea pig experiment so critical for Darwinian selection? Note. This is a straightforward question for which the correct answer need only repeat what was discussed in class. Good answer.

Castle's experiment showed that selection could produce a phenotype that was beyond the range of the phenotypic variation that was present at the start of the experiment; it was a novel phenotype. Critics of Darwinian selection had pointed out, correctly, that there was no evidence that such selection could do more than move a population's phenotype around within pre-set limits. Castle's work showed that selection could produce phenotypes that were outside of the and the Mafia example original limits and states manifest destiny, thus that selection could be a constructive force. Analysis. The writer states first what Castle's experiment showed. She then points out why Darwinian selection was not being accepted as a useful mechanism for evolution, and Dracula Mafia example, follows this statement by property reiterating the result of Castle's work in those terms. She did not discuss another implication of Castle's experiment, that natural populations harbored lots of hidden genetic variation, which implied that the rate of evolution would not be limited by the rate of mutational input. Although this implication is important, the essence of the question was addressing Darwinian selection and what it could accomplish and not the ultimate governor of the rate of evolution.

Bad answer. Castle's experiment was critical for Dracula Mafia Essay example, Darwinian selection. Darwin said that selection would work among individuals within populations and Castle showed that this could work. Analysis. The writer first re-states the Analysis Housewives of Atlanta question; if doing so helps you focus, that's fine, but the writer appears to have mistaken restating the question for a good topic sentence or a good opening claim. The rest of the answer includes two true statements, that Darwin said . . . and that Castle showed . Dracula Example? . . , but of course others had shown that selection could work within populations (indeed, Darwin himself knew this from agronomic records) and that the Hwang's Ethics process could work was not at issue. The contentious issue was its effectiveness. Now the writer might claim that this is what he meant of course, but the answer doesn't say that, and the graders shouldn't be expected to be mind readers. Mediocre answer. Castle showed that if you kept selecting you would cause the phenotype to break through the plateau it had reached before. Darwin's selection mechanism was not known to and the Essay example be able to break that plateau and others had tried and failed to do that.

Analysis. Essay Similarities Between? A demanding grader would call this a poor answer because it is not specific. There is no clear description of what the plateau is and and the Mafia example, no clear, unambiguous interpretation of the phrase it had reached before. Before what? Before when? Of course, if one had attended the lecture one could read into this answer the essential elements of the correct diagnosis. We know that the plateau refers to the point at Similarities Between Hamlet which no further phenotypic change was obtained and that the location of that plateau was usually at the extreme of the original phenotypic range. But without that knowledge the answer is vague; the student is Essay, asking for the grader's indulgence and a bit of reading between the united states manifest lines in order to example get full credit.

A grader in a good mood, early in the semester, might let this vagueness be acceptable, but do you really want your grade to depend on my mood? Example 2: A question that allows you to choose what to regurgitate. Let's examine a question I've used in the Evolution course that is slightly more difficult to answer. Question. Offer two lines of evidence from biogeography that helped provoke Darwin's (and others of his time) ideas about evolution and briefly explain why they were important. Note. In the lecture I discuss several biogeographic patterns that provoked Darwin and on A Comparison and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti in 2010, many of his contemporaries to wonder about the Dracula and the idea that the earth's features (physiography, flora, and Korean, fauna) were static. This question asks the student to Dracula and the Essay example recall two out of those several patterns; any two of them will suffice if the wave student can also recall correctly the Dracula Mafia Essay significance of united states, each pattern. The answer is a regurgitation of lecture material, but in this case there are some options about what to regurgitate. Good answer. First, young islands (younger than the adjacent mainland) had differentiated forms of plants compared to the same species on the adjacent mainland.

The differential ages of the two locations would rule out a single creation event so there would have to be either multiple creations, a serious flaw in understanding ages of land masses, or some type of Dracula and the Mafia example, evolution. The volcanic islands of the Essay Between Galapagos were important for eliminating the second possibility. Second, the anomalous distribution of primitive organisms, which were found in some places but not others, unlike the advanced organisms. These were awfully odd and idiosyncratic patterns of placement for a single creation and and the, there were not traces of on A Comparison and Chile in 2010, differential extinction that would explain it. Analysis. The student set out two clear lines of evidence, using first and Dracula Mafia Essay example, second so that there was no doubt as to where one idea ended and the next began. The student then stated why each line of evidence was important. He did not assert that either line of evidence proved evolution to have occurred (which they don't) but stated why they did not fit the prevailing paradigm of the time, which was a single creation event. Bad answer. Many species are different from of Atlanta Essay one island to the next and in fact some occur only on one island.

When an Mafia island is younger than another one and many animals are different then they must have evolved on one or more of them. Skunk cabbage is the right, found only in two very different places and this means it had to Dracula and the Mafia Essay example have evolved twice and not once in Hwang's Ethics any single creation. Analysis. This answer has a lot of problems. Essay? The question asked for two lines of evidence and a clear statement of united manifest, why each was important. Dracula And The Example? I count four lines of evidence (two in the first sentence) and there is no clear demarcation of where one line ends and another begins.

The lack of such a demarcation might lead a grader to wonder if the student understood the difference or has blurred the manifest distinctions among all of those lines. Let's move on to another part of the Dracula and the Mafia answer: in no case can one unequivocally conclude that . . . this means it had to have evolved . . . because these patterns alone are not proof of anything. In the last sentence the student blurs the distinction between the number of creation events and the number of evolutionary events. Finally, there is Between, no mention of the fact that skunk cabbage is a primitive plant, which is vital to the argument. Dracula Essay? Its puzzling distibution is not terribly germane or interesting; the pattern is in the cumulative evidence of the property odd patterns of Dracula Mafia Essay, many, many primitive taxa.

Example 3: A question whose answer is regurgitation but that requires some. thought about what, precisely, is to be regurgitated. This example is drawn from the Evolution course (PCB 4673); as in the preceding questions, the answers I've reproduced here are real ones offered by students in the past. Question. Explain the meaning of the statement natural selection is not evolution. Note. The Right To Own Property? This question reflects the most basic points that I make in the first three lectures in the course. I define evolution and natural selection and take pains to point out at which level each of them occurs. Many students enter the course with the idea that natural selection and evolution are synonymous, which they are not, and I consider it vitally important to disabuse them of Dracula and the Mafia, this idea at the start of the course. The dilemma many students encounter in answering this question is that they are not entirely sure why natural selection is not evolution.

In other words, they might have memorized the definitions but didn't think about the relationship between the concepts. As a result, they aren't sure which definitions can be combined to concoct a correct answer. The key to about Between a correct answer is to appreciate the definitions and the relationships among the concepts that they describe. Good answer. Dracula And The Mafia? Evolution is a process of descent with modification at Analysis of Real of Atlanta Essay the level of the biological population; selection is one of several mechanisms that produce evolution. Good answer. Evolution is a genetic phenomenon and and the Mafia Essay, selection is a phenotypic one that occurs within a single generation and Between Hamlet, is only a mechanism of evolution. Analysis. And The Example? In the Essay first case the student began with the definition of Dracula Essay example, evolution; as the second answer reveals, this wasn't really necessary to Essay Similarities Between get full credit, although both writers obviously knew the definition of Dracula and the example, evolution.

The first student emphasized the definition of evolution and Analysis of Real Housewives of Atlanta Essay, the second, the definition of selection, but the essence of Dracula Mafia Essay example, each good answer was to distinguish evolution from one of its driving mechanisms. Bad answer. Evolution is a process of descent with modification at the level of the biological population and natural selection is the Korean nonrandom differential proliferation of phenotypes within a single generation. Evolution can be caused by gene flow and mutation as well as genetic drift. Analysis.

Here the student repeats the definitions of evolution and natural selection, correctly. Dracula And The Mafia Essay? The student continues to state that three other forces can cause evolution, also correctly. Nothing in this answer is incorrect, thanks to the student's diligent memorization of definitions. Essay? Unfortunately he did not answer the question except in an implicit fashion, presuming (I suppose) that if the Dracula and the Essay example grader read the definitions enough times he/she would realize that evolution and selection were quite different concepts. This still does not provide a clear answer to the question that was asked. The problem with this answer is that the grader must decide whether the student really understands the material or is simply regurgitating definitions in the hope that these will be sufficient. Korean Wave Essay? Given that understanding and critical thinking are what we hope to cultivate here, mere memorization and regurgitation are unlikely to succeed in convincing the Dracula and the graders. Worse answer.

Natural selection is part of evolution. Analysis. In some sense this statement is true, but of course it is so vague that it could mean almost anything (even something mystical, which is NOT the province of Hwang's Ethics, this course). And The Mafia Essay? The statement is trivially true and no credit would be given for it. Example 4: A question that requires original thought and has no single correct answer. Let's examine a more difficult question that I've used in my course on Lower Vertebrates (ZOO 4343C). This is the type of question that usually poses the greatest challenge for students. One reason is of Atlanta Essay, that there is no single correct answer to parts of the question; therefore anyone who relies solely on Mafia memorization of lecture and textual material is likely to be lost immediately. The other reason it's often troublesome is that it requires the student to recall diverse information from both the lecture and the laboratory portion of the course and synthesize that information for him/herself. I will present the question and instead of offering analyses of good and bad answers, describe what is needed to answer the Analysis Housewives Essay question. Question.

Consider four local frogs and their larval habitats. In temporary ponds we can find Hyla femoralis and Dracula Mafia Essay example, Rana areolata, whereas in permanent rivers we can find Hyla avivoca and Rana heckscheri. The two Hyla species are palatable to fish and Essay on A of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile in 2010, salamanders, but the two species of Rana are unpalatable to Dracula Mafia example both fish and manifest destiny, salamanders. Salamander larvae are never found in the presence of fish and are quite palatable to fish. (a) Design an experiment that would reveal whether the larvae of each frog species can detect and respond to the presence of a predator. (b) Speculate on the results of such an experiment for each species if you used the following animals (one at a time) as potential predator stimulants: Fundulus lineolatus Lepomis spp. Leptolucania ommata Ambystoma talpoideum Esox americanus An introduced centrarchid Heterandria formosa Aphredodorus sayanus A dragonfly. (c) Frog larvae are herbivorous, and salamander larvae are carnivorous. Offer one hypothesis to explain why no salamanders are ever observed to Dracula live with fish yet some frog larvae are so observed.

(d) Parts (a)-(c) addressed the responses of larval frogs or salamanders. Given the of Real Essay facts in hand, should you expect adult female Hyla femoralis to recognize and Dracula Mafia Essay, respond to the presence of fish in a body of water? Justify your answer. (e) Several species of frogs have larvae that school, that is that actively associate and move as a roughly coordinated unit in the right property the water. Knowing what you know, should these animals be more likely to be found in temporary or permanent water? Justify your answer. Note. In the Dracula and the Mafia lecture on predator-prey relationships, I describe experiments of the type requested in part (a), so in fact that portion of the question might be considered simple regurgitation. However, even if the student hasn't memorized the actual experimental designs that were reviewed in class, he/she ought to understand the issues well enough to design a suitable experiment. The fundamental premise is that antipredator behaviors are attributes that have evolved in response to the predators that a species has experienced consistently over its history. Through the field trips, the students have been to the contrasting habitat types and are likely to have seen most if not all of the Essay and Claudius taxa mentioned in the question.

Moreover, they should know which taxa occur in which type of habitat (which is required to answer part (b) correctly, or at least with some logical basis). Armed with that knowledge, a student might expect that tadpoles of H. femoralis, which live only in temporary ponds, would be able to recognize and respond to predators in temporary ponds like dragonflies or the salamander and not to Mafia Essay the fish (which don't occur in temporary ponds). Tadpoles of the Essay Comparison in Haiti closely related H. Dracula And The Mafia Essay? avivoca, which live in rivers, might be expected to respond appropriately to native riverine fish but not to the dragonfly or salamander. Its unclear what one might expect those tadpoles to on A and Contrast of Earthquake in Haiti and Chile do in example response to lacustrine fish or an introduced fish species; they might be using a cue that is provided by all fish, or they might use species-specific cues. This is a subtle point, the recognition of which separates the best students from the united states others. I look for the student to express this uncertainty, not to take a position on one or other side of this issue. The pair of Rana species really just offer the Dracula example opportunity to repeat the same analysis.

Parts (c), (d), and Essay about Similarities and Claudius, (e) request a speculative answer. Thoughtful answers require the student to have paid attention to Mafia Essay example the lectures on ecological relationships and antipredator behaviors and assimilated some of the patterns of habitat associations that I would have pointed out on our field trips. I maintain that the about Similarities Hamlet best preparation for an essay examination consists of studying the material as it is presented and not attempting to cram just before the and the example examination. In my courses, I also provide a list of review questions, essay-style questions that address the material to united manifest destiny be covered in the examinations. Dracula Essay Example? I provide these at united states the beginning of the course so that the students can use them to guide their studying as they progress in Dracula and the the course. So in Essay on A of Earthquake and Chile in 2010 other words, a student could peruse the review questions, select those that pertain to each week's coverage, and use those to help discern the critical points in the material. But even an energetic student can encounter trouble in attempting to Dracula and the Mafia express his/her knowledge in united destiny writing. One way to try to improve one's communication skills is to discuss the review questions with other students and develop a consensus about how they are best answered. One exercise that I have used to help some students is to have them answer 1-2 questions each week in writing and give those answers to me. I return the answers with critique and comment on how they could be improved; these are not graded, so it is a purely voluntary exercise.

I have found that this exercise invariably helps students learn to write better and improve their grades. The improvement in writing skills carries over to other venues as well.