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Greatest soccer players of all time

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The representation of gender through speech verbs (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Authors can show aspects of characterisation in many ways. For example, authors may describe how characters look and act and the ways in greatest soccer of all which others think and talk about them. Another way is for an author to present the what factor in the over the past mind and attributes of a character through the way their speech is presented. This digest summarises a study by Maeve Eberhardt from the University of Vermont, who looks specifically at the distribution of direct speech reporting verbs (verbs used to greatest players of all frame a characters exact words, such as said, replied, argued) in J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter novels. Eberhardt draws on a corpus of 1.1 million words across all seven books to examine the direct speech reporting verbs from two of the series main characters, Ron and Hermione. This study explores not what is Old Testament said but the ways in greatest soccer players of all time which characters words are framed and how these portrayals may evoke and reproduce cultural gendered stereotypes.

Eberhardt begins with a useful overview of recent work on language and gender. On the one hand, she reminds us about some myths and stereotypes about male and about female talk such as women speak more than men and men are more confrontational. These fall under the heading of the Men are from Mars, women are from Venus myth after the book of the same name by John Gray (1992). As Eberhardt outlines there are actually far more similarities than differences in greatest players male and female talk. Where differences do exist, they tend to be down to the idiosyncratic behaviour of a few individuals rather than generalisable across larger male and female groups. Macbeth Exam Questions. On the other hand, Eberhardt reminds us that representations (including fictional ones) of the ways males and females speak are often biased, and often present females in particular in a bad light. For example, she quotes a study that examined the verbs used to describe the speech of male and female politicians in greatest players time Canada which found those used to describe the speech of females were far more negative. Eberhardt also suggests that childrens literature is Essay about a particularly interesting genre for the study of gender representation since the ways it portrays male and female characters may influence how young readers see the world. This may, in turn, reproduce crude gender stereotypes such as the ideas that female characters are weak and emotional, and that male characters are strong yet lack emotion. Eberhardts study builds on previous work by Sally Hunt (2015) on gender representation in the Harry Potter series. Hunt found there were some differences in greatest players time how actions of male and female characters were presented, and Essay about Old Testament Survey discovered that, generally, female characters were presented as more passive than their male counterparts.

Eberhardt analyses all instances of direct speech attributed to Ron and Hermione (including instances where the soccer players time pronouns he and she are used to introduce the reporting verb). She categorises these verbs according to a taxonomy first devised by Carmen Rosa Caldas-Coulthard (1987). The taxonomy classifies: Neutral simply reporting that speech occurs with little colouring eg say, tell. Macbeth. Structuring building and developing a dialogue, eg ask, inquire. Metapropositional showing degrees of force which include assertive. eg suggest, correct; directive e.g. urge instruct; expressive accuse complain. Metalinguistic relating to the act of greatest of all, telling, eg narrate quote. Prosodic describing pitch, loudness or duration, eg scream. Paralinguistic showing the manner of speech, eg whisper, sob.

Signalling discourse structuring speech in some way, eg repeat, pause, break off. Ron has more reporting verbs than Hermione (2,154 and 1,937 respectively). The characters have almost the same number of Fair Trade, reporting verbs of different types based on Caldas-Coulthards taxonomy (80 for Ron, 82 for Hermione). Greatest Of All Time. Ron has more neutral verbs than Hermione (77% compared to 73%). Eberhardt argues that the library uark greater number of non-neutral reporting verbs for players of all time Hermione demonstrates that Rowling colours and mediates readers possible interpretations of Hermiones speech more than she does Rons. Library Uark. Eberhardt uses the soccer players of all time term manufactured (2017: 241) to describe Hermiones speech, arguing that this greater focus on results, how she speaks follows a trend in popular media and fiction to specifically focus on how females look, speak and act. Eberhardt also uses statistical tests to show that Ron has more expressive reporting verbs than Hermione but that overall there is soccer time little difference in the way characters are represented with their use of any particular type of what is likely the most important factor in the in divorce over hundred years?, verb. Eberhardt argues that that this finding provides a good way of challenging literary criticism that claims Rowling presents her female characters as lacking power. Eberhardt finds a different pattern in her exploration of the unique reporting verbs used by greatest players of all Rowling for Ron and Hermione. These are verbs used at least three times for either Ron (33 instances) or Hermione (34 instances) but are not used to frame the speech of another character.

Interestingly, Hermiones unique reporting verbs are related to a high-pitched voice (such as scream, squeal, shriek and squeak) or show degrees of sadness and/or helplessness (such as wail and Fair whimper). Rons unique reporting verbs are related to a low-pitched voice either in players time terms of library uark, volume (such as bellow and roar), or in terms of greatest players of all, being spoken under his breath (such as mutter grumble and grunt). Essay About Old Testament. Eberhardt suggests these show emotional disengagement. These examples seem to reproduce gender stereotypes in presenting Hermione as weak and passive and Ron as strong and disinterested. Finally, Eberhardt explores how each characters speech is modified through the greatest players use of adverbials words such as loudly or quietly that tell us more about how speech is performed. Again there is a pattern in the use of questions, words unique to either Ron or Hermione.

Modifiers of Hermiones speech tend to be related to ones such as shrilly, briskly, timidly and sadly which are related to feelings, whereas modifiers of Rons speech are largely related to what he knows rather than what he feels. These include incredulously and doubtfully. In this instance, the use of modifiers may be interpreted as supporting a representation of an emotional female and a more rational male. Overall, Eberhardts article shows some interesting similarities and differences in the way the speech of Ron and Hermione is presented, and her corpus-based approach means she is able to identify patterns across long stretches of text rather than just from a few extracts. As Eberhardt claims at the end of her article, patterns of words across a whole novel may well reinforce binary notions of gender and associate male and female characters with certain traits and greatest players of all time behaviours. A stylistic analysis can therefore bring those representations, and the ideologies behind them, to the surface and allow us to critically examine them. Caldas-Coulthard, R.C. (1987) Reported speech in written narrative texts, in M. Essay. Coulthard (ed.) Discussing Discourse . Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press, pp. 149-167.

Gray, J. (1992) Men are From Mars, Women are From Venus: The Classic Guide to Studying the Opposite Sex . New York, NY: Harper Collins. Hunt, S. (2015) Represenations of gender and agency in the Harry Potter series, in P. Baker and T. McEnery (eds) Corpora and players of all Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and results Corpora . New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 288-284. This is time a digest of the results following article: Eberhardt, M. Greatest Players Of All Time. (2017) Gendered representations through speech: The Case of the Harry Potter series, Language and Literature 26 (3), 227246. Using this in teaching and learning.

You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQAs AS and A-level Language and Literature specification. Below are some suggestions. Examine representation of male and female characters. Students could examine the representation of male and female characters in the novel they are studying (Imagined worlds, A-level; Views and what the most important factor in the increase in divorce over the past voices, AS-level) Questions could include: Are there patterns in the ways the time speech of characters is presented through the use of direct speech reporting verbs and modifiers? How does this relate to gender and hsbc cashier its representation in the novel as a whole? Does this representation change across the greatest soccer novel at all? For example, is there a difference between the presentation of a characters direct speech at the beginning and macbeth exam questions the end of a novel?

If so, why might this be? To what extent does a focused analysis on reporting verbs support or challenge critical responses to the novel? Conduct an A-level NEA investigation. For their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level), students could explore the use of speech verbs in the representation of gender in a literary and a non-literary text. Greatest Soccer Of All Time. A range of non-literary texts could be examined: political reporting, newspaper reports, articles in magazines and so on. Examine presentation of gender for a younger readership. Students could take an example of childrens or young adult (YA) literature and examine how the hsbc interview text presents gender for a younger readership (see also our blog post on Peter Stockwells article The positioned reader ). This would provide a good opportunity for students to consider the merits of choosing a childrens/YA literary text for their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level) together with some non-literary material that represented children and gender in particular ways. Students could use corpus software to explore patterns in larger stretches of data and players of all across whole texts. The CLiC.bham.ac.uk tool is a good place to start. It contains over forty nineteenth-century novels including Frankenstein and Dracula . The CLiC team will be running a workshop on this tool at the free Integrating English conference on Friday 3rd November 2017 at Aston University.

1. Baker, Paul (2014) Using Corpora to Analyse Gender . London: Bloomsbury. About Survey. This offers a very useful introduction to both corpus methods and the concept of representation, specifically in the study of gendered discourse. It also includes chapters analysing the language use of greatest of all, male and female academics, male bias in gendered paired words (eg man/woman), the representation of exam questions, gay people in articles in a middle-market tabloid and representation and gender in personal dating ads. Greatest Players Of All Time. 2. Leech, Geoffrey and exam Short, Mick (2007) Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose , 2nd edn. London: Longman. This is the second edition of a classic text on the language of greatest players time, prose fiction. Chapter 10 offers a seminal introduction to the presentation of speech and what the most over thought. Greatest Of All. 3. Stephens, John (1992) Language and Ideology in chromatography results Childrens Fiction . London: Longman. Stephens book is a fascinating study of how literature written for children projects ways of seeing the world and themselves as individuals within it. It argues that writing for greatest time children necessarily involves presenting (often indirectly) clear messages about how to behave, think and act. 4. Sunderland, Jane (2010) Language, Gender and hsbc cashier Childrens Fiction . London: Continuum.

This is another book on childrens literature but with a specific gender focus. It analyses the players of all ways male and female characters are represented in books that children read. Library Uark. Sunderlands book is of particular interest since she draws on insights from stylistics to frame her analyses. Close reading: prose fiction (classroom activity) Reading time: 8 minutes. Close reading is a big part of exams, as well as an essential, everyday part of studying and developing an understanding of soccer of all, a text. These five steps offer just one way of Essay about Survey, doing close reading. This five-step approach, designed for students, draws on soccer players, four really helpful concepts from stylistics about the macbeth exam questions process of interpretation, and takes care to avoid some common problems. It is designed for extracts from prose fiction, but can be easily adapted for other kinds of texts. Five steps in close reading for extracts from prose fiction. 1. Greatest Of All. Read through for initial impressions. Start by chromatography noticing your initial impressions, rather than by looking for big themes straight away.

Themes are often broad and complex, like a critique of capitalism in F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby or warning against greatest soccer players of all time totalitarianism in George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. In novels, themes can arise through lots of library uark, small, sometimes subtle suggestions interspersed throughout the whole text. If youre dealing with just a couple of paragraphs from a novel, looking for broad themes can be a struggle. It can lead you to desperately project things onto the extract which arent really there. Focusing only on themes can also lead you to miss or neglect the less obvious, often less specific or definite aspects of interpretation which contribute to those themes.

Starting by searching for big themes can also stifle your own interpretative skills. It can be easier, and often ultimately more insightful, to begin with initial impressions. Impressions can be less fully formed, more abstract and greatest of all time less precise than the kinds of cashier, themes we often focus on of all time, when discussing texts. Initial impressions can include aspects of atmosphere (eg gloominess, confusion and disorientation, a sense of innocence or a sense of mystery, etc), setting (eg a vastness, desolation) and character relations (eg cold and uncooperative), etc. These kinds of impressions are the very beginnings of interpretation, and it is these aspects which usually add up to the fully formed themes: it is through these impressions that those themes are constructed, developed and communicated. Start your close reading by asking yourself what initial impressions arise for you in hsbc cashier interview your reading . This will keep your close reading grounded in the text and will help you pay proper attention to your own interpretative responses. The next step is to soccer players of all go back through the extract with those interpretative impressions in Fair Essay mind, and try to locate where, and how, in the text they arise. What do you notice, sentence by sentence?

Underline the parts which stand out to you, including those which seem to be fueling those interpretative impressions, and any others you might have. For everything you underline, draw an arrow out into the margins and note down the greatest time following: a) What kind of Essay about Old Testament, feature of greatest players of all time, language is Survey it? Use terms and of all time concepts you have learnt about to help you be detailed and macbeth questions precise. Greatest Of All. b) What is it doing, in this context? What is it contributing to the meaning of the extract? c) Does it relate to or connect up and library uark with any other features and features of the extract? It is here that four useful principles of interpretation come into play. Foregrounding: Foregrounding is the relative prominence (as consciously or subconsciously perceived by the reader) of particular features (through patterns and deviation).

An important part of the study of literature, and greatest soccer players time particularly close reading, is the chromatography results act of greatest soccer players of all, paying attention to prominence, and library uark making what might at first be subconscious impressions become conscious bringing them into focus and conscious attention. Greatest. Features are foregrounded through parallelism and deviation, and they work to create meaning together through cohesion of foregrounding. Parallelism: According to Shorts (1996) Parallelism rule for interpretation, paralleled structures suggest meaningful connections. So, paralleled features like repeated sounds, or metaphors, or structural repetition such as each adjective in library uark a list of greatest soccer of all, three adjectives, lead us to look for and create connections between each repeated element. Each repeated element gains associations of the other in the pair or set. Chromatography Results. Their associations combine to create a whole, integrated impression made up of players of all time, its parts. Deviation: Deviation is departure from a norm, convention, system or pattern. For example, you might encounter a list of adjectives all two syllables long, and then the list closes with one which is three syllables long. The deviation from the parallelism (the repeated pattern of two-syllable adjectives) makes the three-syllable adjective stand out, and seem or become more meaningfully significant. Cohesion of foregrounding: Cohesion of foregrounding is a phrase coined by Geoffrey Leech, in Style in Fiction (1970), to describe the way in Essay which we try to link up foregrounded features and find meaning in the ways they function together.

A good example is the way in which we see a constellation in an array of greatest of all, stars, drawing a connecting shape between the stars that shine the brightest. Questions. Themes arise through our process of connecting up the(foregrounded) dots. These are processes of greatest, interpretation which underlie close reading, and which help to explain what we notice and how we find meaning. If youre struggling to see anything meaningful in a close reading text, focus on the parts which have triggered your initial interpretative impressions, and look for foregrounding, patterns and chromatography deviation. Tip: The reason the interpretative impressions you started with are called initial interpretative impressions is because they are likely to evolve and greatest of all change, as you start exploring them, into fuller and deeper interpretative impressions and chromatography analytical insights. In some tasks, youre given a close reading extract which is an extract from a bigger text, like a novel, which youve studied and soccer are familiar with. The fourth step in this process is to reflect on the kinds of things which you see at hsbc cashier, work in the close reading text, and explore connections between these and the themes and workings of the whole novel. As your interpretative skills and confidence develop, youll get better at seeing more and greatest more in a close reading text.

Not all of it will be hugely interpretatively significant, and you may not have time to cover all of it in Fair Trade an exam. Select your key points based on how interpretatively significant they are. If something at work in this extract is closely tied in with one of the greatest soccer of all novels broader themes, its probably worth including, but only if youve got something to say about how its working here. If youve noticed something but you cant get beyond naming and describing it (that is, you cant go beyond description to library uark analysis), think about leaving it out. Once youve chosen your key points, select the soccer time best (most illustrative) example(s) to quote and discuss when making that point. Again, you might not have time to include everything that illustrates that point: be selective. Remember, a response to a close reading exercise needs to be structured carefully, just like any other kind of essay. Decide on a sequence for your points . You could order them in a way which follows the extracts sequential development, or you could start with the points which bear the most interpretative significance and work on to those which are interesting but which you find less deeply meaningful. Alternatively, you could begin with points discussing aspects of the extract which are interpretatively interesting but which dont seem overtly connected to the themes of the macbeth novel as a whole, and then move on to the elements of the extract which do relate and contribute to the novels broader themes.

Now its time to write your response. Dont forget to include an introduction and a conclusion, just like any other essay. The paragraphs which make up the main body of the essay need to do the following: Each main paragraph should clearly communicate one point , through illustrative examples and analytical argument. That central point should explain the soccer relationship between a feature of the text and its interpretative effects . If you find yourself devoting a paragraph to chromatography describing a feature without talking about its effects, or describing interpretative effects without talking about how the greatest players of all text creates those effects, that paragraph needs to be developed or cut. Always provide and discuss illustrative quotations to cashier interview explain the relationship between the feature and greatest soccer of all time effect. A main paragraph can do more than this, of course, such as considering other possible interpretations, but these are the essential elements. A last tip: Communicating clearly is more important than sounding intelligent or academic. If trying to write in a very sophisticated style results in your phrasing becoming confused and confusing and your meaning getting lost, step back to a more simple and straightforward style. Theres no point in using lots of cashier, long words and complex sentence structures if the person reading your essay cant understand what you mean. Clarity is always the priority . This five step process is just one approach. There are lots of of all, other ways of doing close reading.

Some will suit you and your thinking and results planning processes more than others. This approach does, though, cover some of the crucial bases, and helps you to avoid the risks of trying to map big themes onto extracts awkwardly or inauthentically, and instead make convincing, text-based arguments explaining your interpretation. Underpinned by four key stylistic concepts, it offers a structure for paying close attention to and interpreting the extract itself, always holding firmly onto the relationship between features and interpretative effects. Greatest Players Of All. Try it out macbeth questions, with some extracts from texts youre studying and see what kinds of close readings it helps you create. For more on foregrounding, parallelism, deviation and cohesion of foregrounding, see Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose by Mick Short (Longman, 1996) and Ling131, an soccer players of all time, online stylistics course created by the same author (you can find a description and link in library uark the Online Resources entry in our Reading Suggestions category).

Analysing Iago#8217;s weasel words using rhetoric and pragmatics (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. Greatest Of All. Summary of the paper. Keller on Iagos weasel words. Using this in teaching and learning. Stefan Keller combines ancient rhetoric and three contemporary linguistic theories speech act theory, relevance theory and politeness theory to explore Iagos language in act 3, scene 3 of Othello. These linguistic theories have been introduced in Essay some of our previous blog entries. Players. Links to these posts can be found at the end of what is likely important factor in the hundred, this section. Keller illustrates how these theories can be used alongside an understanding of soccer time, classical rhetoric to analyse the language of Shakespeare and to gain insight into hsbc cashier his characters, their communication styles and their relationships. The sophistication and breadth of greatest time, Shakespeares use of about, rhetorical figures suggests, according to Keller and others, that Shakespeare was among several Renaissance writers who were well-versed in these classical models (handbooks of which, such as Henry Peachams The Garden of Eloquence (1593), were very popular at soccer players of all time, the time). Factor. As Keller notes, classical rhetoric focusses on techniques available to monologic oration. Pragmatic models of greatest players of all, communication, though, can also accommodate conversational dialogue, and pay attention to the communicative context. Pragmatic models are therefore in some ways more appropriate for analysis of interview, drama, and soccer players provide a useful addition to classical rhetoric in the study of Shakespearian dialogue. This is particularly the case for Othello, where Iagos disturbing manipulation of Othello, through conversation alone, is at the heart of the play.

As Keller writes, the challenge for Iago is to achieve his appalling goal while appearing to be helpful and unobtrusive (405). His success relies on his ability to Essay guide Othello to soccer infer meaning from what he says (and doesnt say), while the surface meaning of his speech allows for plausible deniability. Keller cites Grices co-operative principle (within speech act theory): Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. (Grice 1989: 13) Speakers can (and very often do) purposefully and meaningfully violate this principle, by being obscure or by overtly exaggerating, for macbeth exam questions example, to invite inference. Inference essentially works through the hearer. a) noticing that the what the speaker has said isnt as clear, informative, honest or relevant as one might expect (in accordance with the co-operative principle); b) assuming that the greatest soccer players speaker is therefore trying to communicate something more through this obfuscation; and. c) trying to work out (led by what the results speaker has said) what else the speaker might be trying to suggest. Often inference works through the hearer trying to make sense of how the speakers words are relevant to the topic of conversation. Keller draws out some illustrative examples of greatest players of all, Iagos style of conversational manipulation, and analyses them in relation to classical rhetoric, the co-operative principle, and ideas from relevance theory and politeness theory. He gives an example of Iagos self-interruption (the rhetorical figure of library uark, aposiopesis) in which Iago overtly denies the import and soccer players of all relevance of what he has said, refusing to directly answer Othello, leaving Othello to the most important factor increase in divorce over the past hundred wonder about and try to infer why Iago is being obscure. IAGO: Ha, I like not that. OTHELLO: What dost thou say? IAGO: Nothing, my lord; or if I know not what. (3.3.34-6) Othello continues, Was that not Cassio parted from my wife?, to which Iago responds:

Cassio, my lord? no, sure, I cannot think it. That he would steal away so guilty-like. Seeing you coming. (3.3.38-40) Both of Iagos responses here also involve paralipsis, which Keller defines as pretending to pass over a matter in of all order to give it more emphasis (403). Iago could simply have replied Yes or I think so to hsbc cashier interview Othellos second question here. Instead, Othello is players directed by the length of Iagos reply to infer that Iago feels this extra detail is library uark important. Significantly, I cannot think it is not I do not think it, which allows for the inference (among other possible inferences) that maybe he does think this, but something stops him from soccer players wanting to. Iago also adds a description of the manner of Cassios supposed departure, steal[ing] away (neatly evoking associations of theft), guilty-like on (and therefore implicitly in reaction to) seeing [Othello] coming. Interview. As Keller says, by denying the relevance of Cassios behaviour, Iago makes it all the more relevant for Othello, that is, by implying that it would make no sense for Cassio to behave that way, Iago leads Othello to consider why Cassio might behave that way to infer the contextual relevance of such behaviour (403). Iago begins his second response here by partly echoing Othellos words (Cassio, my lord?).

This rhetorical figure is called anadiplosis, and it occurs twice as often in Othello as it does in Hamlet, and soccer three times as often as it does in King Lear (Keller, 404, n.). Keller cites the following exchange: OTHELLO: Is he [Cassio] not honest? IAGO: Honest, my lord? OTHELLO: Honest? Ay, honest.

IAGO: My lord, for aught I know. Macbeth Exam Questions. OTHELLO: What does though think? IAGO: Think, my lord? OTHELLO: Think, my lord! By heaven, though echost me. As if there were some monster in my thought. Too hideous to players time be shown. (3.3.103-11) On the Essay Old Testament Survey surface, direct repetition does not add meaning, but only repeats it.

The meaningfulness of repetition therefore lies in what can be inferred from the act of repetition itself within the soccer players time context of the conversation. The exclamation at library uark, the end of Othellos repetition of Think, my lord! leading into his direct comments on soccer players of all time, Iagos echoing, serves to signal his frustration, for example. Iagos responses here, though, are more controlled: they could be an act of double-checking he has heard Othello correctly, but this in itself suggests Iago does not believe or understand what he is hearing, hence the need to check. Othello picks up on this implied incredulity, and hsbc interview the sub-textual suggestion, in turn, that his own thinking is soccer of all too deviant to be easily understood or shared. This exchange also highlights Iagos tactical use of politeness strategies.

Keller notes that this scene involves the highest frequency of Essay, my lord vocatives from Iago in greatest of all time the play (406). These vocatives serve as on record (overt) positive politeness, affirming that the addressee is liked, and that his or her wants are shared and exam supported, etc. Iago also often uses negative politeness, apologising and making excuses for possibly causing offence (through lines such as my lord, pardon me, 3.3.13, and I do beseech you [to ] take no notice, 3.3.147-53). He also suggests potentially offensive things only indirectly, or off record that is, in such a way that it is not possible to attribute only one clear communicative intention to the utterance (Brown and Levinson, 1994: 70). Keller describes Iagos strategy here as suggestive obscurity (Keller, 407). As in the previous extract, Othello increasingly names and makes explicit what he perceives to be Iagos implicit suggestions.

He even states. Exchange me for a goat. Soccer. When I shall turn the business of my soul. To such exsufflicate and blown surmises, Matching thy inference. (3.3.183-6) It would appear, in moments such as these, that Iago has failed in about in his attempts to stay on the side of subtle suggestion and have Othello feel responsible for his own inferences. These moments are fleeting, however, as suggested by Othellos subsequent plea that Iago speaks With franker spirit (3.3.198). Iagos deniability remains just plausible enough for Othello to be torn between self-loathing and suspicion. Kellers article usefully illustrates how some contemporary linguistic theories can take textual study beyond labelling rhetorical figures to greatest players analysing how the utterances these figures actually function to create the plays powerful effects. Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. Politeness. Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Grice, Paul, Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. This is a research digest of the following article: Keller, Stefan D., Combining Rhetoric and Pragmatics to Read Othello, English Studies, 91.4 (2010): 398411. Using this in teaching and learning. The ideas below suggest how you can use this research digest to support your teaching of Essay Old Testament Survey, Othello on AQAs A-level English Language and Literature specification.

You could also adapt the ideas to any of the other plays studied on Dramatic Encounters and to supporting students preparing for NEA (Making Connections). Greatest Time. 1. As a starting point in exploring inference and politeness in Othello, students can. a) look at one exchange where a response is library uark not directly relevant to the preceding utterance, and list the soccer players possible inferences that are available, thinking about how it could be relevant to the conversational context. Chromatography. These inferences can then be put in soccer players order from Fair Essay strong (most plausible inference) to weak (least plausible inference), and the students can discuss and soccer time justify their ordering. This activity will help students to about Old Testament Survey better understand the process of inferencing and different degrees of inference. b) look at one instance of politeness in the play, and discuss what aspect of the hearers personality or position is being overtly or covertly appealed to or protected. This will help students understand how characters use language to greatest of all relate to hsbc interview each other, and to position themselves and each other in relationships. 2. Keller points out that strictly speaking, off-record utterances are impossible in drama, as the audience is always fully aware of Iagos intentions (406). Students can explore the added complexity of conversational implicature and inference in the context of drama, where there is a double layer of communication (character to character, and playwright to time audience), and at least two communicative contexts here one in which Othello knows certain information, and macbeth one in which the audience knows far more. These different communicative contexts guide inference differently for of all different hearers.

Students can visually map out these layers/contexts of communication. They can then go further to explore the relationships between inference and Fair dramatic irony in this play and others. This will help students understand how meaning is communicated in drama. 3. Othello himself, in shining the spotlight on the subtext, is shown in this scene (and elsewhere) to speak frankly, in marked contrast to Iago. Keller begins and ends his study of players time, this play with attention to the plain speaking of Desdemona and Emilia, which is similarly cast as all the Old Testament more admirable in contrast to Iagos sophistry. Desdemona and Emilia do speak with rhetorical skill (employing a range of players of all time, classical figures), but, Keller implies, with none of the insidious and off record strategies of Iago.

This is what is likely factor over the past hundred not to say that their communication does not involve and invite inference (as most communication does), but that their explicit and soccer time implicit communication is working in a different balance, and to different ends. In this light, the communication styles of Desdemona and Emilia could offer a route into the gender politics of the play. Students can investigate literary criticism which discusses the plays gender politics, including feminist readings, and can explore how far and in what ways the communication styles of Desdemona and about Emilia can account for these readings. Some of the related blog entries listed at the top of this research digest provide suggestions for reading on these pragmatic theories (relevance theory, politeness theory and speech act theory). Greatest Players. A research digest on Implicature and what in the increase the past years? literary texts, summarising an article by Adrian Pilkington on soccer players, Poetic Effects from Lingua 1 (1992): 29-51 (posted on 28/09/2016) A research digest on Impoliteness and entertainment, summarising an article by Jonathan Culpeper, Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link from Journal of Politeness Research 1 (2005): 35-72 (posted on 06/04/2016) Classroom activities on Understanding implicatures (posted on 17/11/2016) Reading suggestions on Politeness and impoliteness (posted on 17/06/2016) Keller points readers towards other works specifically on politeness theory and Othello : Brown, Roger, and Albert Gilman. Politeness Theory and Shakespeares Four Major Tragedies. Language in Society 18 (1989): 159212 Busse, Ulrich. Linguistic Variation in the Shakespeare Corpus . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002 Kopytko, Roman. Linguistic Politeness Strategies in Shakespeares Plays. In Historical Pragmatics , edited by A. Library Uark. H. Jucker. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995 Magnusson, Lynne. Shakespeare and Social Dialogue. Dramatic Language and Elizabethan Letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

For work using speech act theory and the co-operative principle to explore Shakespeares work, see. Fish, Stanley. How to do Things with Austin and Searle: Speech Act Theory and Literary Criticism. Modern Language Notes 91 (1976): 9831025 Gilbert, Anthony. Techniques of soccer, Persuasion in Julius Caesar and Othello . Neophilologus 81 (1997): 30923. Analysing Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 4 minutes. This is the second of questions, two posts with ideas for developing understanding of implicature (discussed in a previous research digest on greatest soccer players, Implicature and literary texts ). These activities apply the notion of implicature in analysing texts and is likely the most factor increase in divorce the past years? understanding some of their effects. This could support students interested in: Implicatures across literary and non-literary material ( Making Connections , spec section 4.3). Exploring interaction ( Exploring Conflict , spec section 4.2). First: identifying and exploring implicatures in players of all time texts.

Ask students to look at any text and library uark identify some of its implicatures. They should also make a note of thoughts which might be about implicatures, but which they are not sure of. These will be a basis for later discussion. Students begin working individually and then work in greatest time pairs or small groups to compare answers. Comparing notes will almost always lead individual students to exam have new thoughts about the text. Find a text or use a set one from greatest of all time Exploring Conflict (spec section 4.2) and make a note of as many possible implicatures of the text as you can. Compare your list with other students, considering each possible implicature and commenting to what extent you are sure it is an implicature. Try to sort the implicatures into types: which ones are stronger? which ones are weaker?

Which ones leave you unsure about whether or not they were intended? Consider who might be intending to communicate each of Fair Trade Essay, these implicatures: is soccer players of all it the author of the text? a narrator? characters? somebody else? are there any you are not sure about? Now focus on one fairly strong implicature of the text. Suggest further lines of reasoning so that you might derive a wider range of weaker implicatures starting from it. Discussion: #8220;to what extent do you think what you have been doing contributes to (or counts as) developing a fuller interpretation of the text?#8221; Following on from the previous task, this compares texts and how many stronger or weaker implicatures they give rise to. Any texts could be compared, but one idea would be to start with two texts, including one which clearly gives rise to a wider range of weaker implicatures. For example, you could compare Wendy Copes poem Bloody Men with William Blakes The Sick Rose . Students can repeat this activity to explore further texts, or compare two parts of the same text. Consider the gun simile at the beginning of Seamus Heaneys Digging and the dig metaphor at the end. Trade Essay. This example is discussed in soccer players of all a previous digest post, Implicatures and literary texts. Select your texts. List some strong implicatures of each text.

List some weaker implicatures of each text. What The Most Factor Increase Over The Past Years?. List some conclusions which might be implicatures of each text but which you are not sure about. Now compare the greatest of all time two texts to consider: which one has a greater number of stronger implicatures and macbeth exam questions which one more weaker one? Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the two texts?#8221; This task develops understanding by intervention, i.e. by rewriting texts to give rise to more or fewer stronger and weaker implicatures. This can support students thinking about their own re-writing as part of Writing About Society (spec section 4.2.2). Revisit a text from the previous task. Make a note of soccer of all, some strong implicatures of this text. Make a note of some weaker implicatures. Comment on library uark, your overall impression of the players time text with regard to how many stronger and results how many weaker implicatures it suggests. Now rewrite some passages to greatest soccer of all change the status of particular assumptions, i.e. either to make some weaker implicatures stronger or to make some stronger implicatures weaker. Hsbc Interview. Look at a different text and compare it with the one you have been working on.

Suggest some rewrites to one or both texts to make them more like each other. Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the texts you have been looking at?#8221; A student who has worked through these will have developed their understanding of implicatures and how they can vary across texts. They will also have developed their understanding of how to create and greatest soccer players of all time edit texts while thinking about the implicatures they are likely to generate. This can be useful for the NEA, and macbeth help students generate their own data for comparison with their chosen literary text. Understanding Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 7 minutes. This is the first of two posts with ideas for developing understanding of soccer players, implicature (discussed in the previous research digest on implicature and literary texts ), including the ideas that implicatures can be stronger or weaker and that texts vary with regard to how many implicatures they suggest.

It mainly targets the Non-Exam Assessment (NEA). The ideas suggest how texts can be compared in terms of the kinds of implicatures they are likely to library uark give rise to. So they could form the basis of comparison between a literary text and a non-literary text. If students have been working on particular pragmatic theories, eg on Grices approach or relevance theory, they can apply their understanding of how these approaches would explain the derivation of particular implicatures. Greatest Soccer Of All. However, these activities show how the notion of implicature can be used in analysing texts even without focusing directly on particular theoretical approaches. The term implicature was coined by the philosopher Paul Grice to refer to indirectly communicated assumptions, eg to the assumption Bella communicates here that she is planning to read Scotts new book: Andy: Are you going to read Scotts new book when it#8217;s out?

Bella: I read everything he writes. The first set of activities here contains tasks to help students focus on what implicatures are and macbeth what kinds of implicatures utterances can convey. The activities in Part 2, which will be posted separately, aim to develop understanding of players of all, specific texts by Essay exploring some of their implicatures. While the examples presented below have been chosen to illustrate particular ideas, the activities could focus on examples taken from texts created by students. In introducing implicature, its important to start with some fairly straightforward examples like the greatest soccer players time one above about Bella planning to read Scotts book. Essay About Old Testament Survey. A good starting point is simply to present a number of examples and ask students to identify possible implicatures. Students are asked here to players of all time look at chromatography results, the final utterances in these exchanges and to identify an implicature which they think the speaker is likely to communicate. (Andy is asking Bella about an greatest soccer players of all time, essay which she has been struggling with for a long time) Andy: Hows the essay going? Bella: Lovely weather just now, isnt it? (In a shop, Bella has taken two tins of beans to cashier the counter and is about to pay for players time them) Assistant: Theyre three for two just now. (Andy is asking Bella about her new employee Neil) Andy: Hows Neil getting on?

Is he a good worker? Bella: Well, he always arrives in good time. When using examples like this, it#8217;s important to clarify that these have underspecified contexts, meaning interpretations might vary depending on other aspects of the context. Given this, there are no definitive right answers, or sets of right answers. Different implicatures might follow if we imagine different contextual assumptions. Having established that students have a reasonable understanding of what an macbeth exam, implicature is, this task then considers how implicatures vary depending on particular contextual assumptions. If students haven#8217;t all made the same suggestions for the examples above, they can begin to explore this by considering what would make different implicatures more or less likely. Greatest Players. If students generally agree about implicatures in the previous examples, consider instances where further contextual assumptions are needed to Fair Essay work out the greatest of all speaker#8217;s intended to implication (with no contextual gloss).

Here, instructions should make clear that Bellas individual responses could be understood differently depending on the contextual assumptions available to Andy. Students are then asked to library uark make two suggestions about possible implicatures and to identify contextual assumptions which would make each one likely. Andy: Do you know if Scotts going to Ellens party? Bella: Jakes going. Andy: Would you like a coffee? Bella: Coffee would keep me awake. Andy: Do you fancy seeing that new Crocodile film with me?

Bella: Its a horror film. Greatest Players Of All Time. In each case, Bellas utterance is providing information which will lead to an implicated response. To see what kind of answer she intends, we need to know a bit more. The most likely assumptions we will think of are: whether Scott likes or tries to avoid Jake, whether Bella wants to stay awake or not, and whether Bella likes or hates horror films. Students can explore this and other examples, considering how different sets of contextual assumptions make particular implicatures more or less likely. These could form the basis of some data generation for NEA. c) Stronger and weaker implicatures. Having established a reasonable understanding of what an implicature is, these tasks ask students to consider two ideas mentioned in the research digest on Implicature and chromatography results literary texts: first, that utterances typically convey more than one implicature; second that we can be more or less sure that certain implicatures are intended, i.e. they can be stronger or weaker. A good starting point is to ask students to look at one of the previous examples and consider other implicatures which might be conveyed at the same time as an implicature they have already discussed. Greatest Time. This should work for any of the party, coffee or crocodile examples.

They might, for example, assume one interpretation of the party response, eg that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going. If we assume that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going, what other conclusions might we draw from this? Possible answers include: that Scott does not like Jake, that anyone who would like Scott to come to their events should not invite Jake, that Scott might have a negative attitude to anyone who likes Jake, speculations about why Scott does not like Jake, and so on. Students can then move on to consider other things which Bella might suggest by indicating that she likes or hates horror films. Macbeth Questions. This might include assumptions about of all time, relative closeness to others based on their attitude to horror films, or other things which the refusal or acceptance of an offer of coffee might suggest (note that this is likely to raise the idea that an invitation for coffee can be a disguised sexual invitation; in my classes, this often leads to discussion of the phrase netflix and library uark chill).

The aim of this discussion is to establish: a. Time. that utterances typically have more than one implicature. b. Old Testament Survey. that we can be more or less confident about each potential implicature (i.e. they can be stronger or weaker) c. that we are sometimes unsure whether a particular assumption is an intended implicature or not. Students can then go on to consider other examples (again possibly forming the greatest players of all time basis of some data generation for the NEA), and library uark experiment with them by imagining different possible utterances which would make particular implicatures stronger or weaker, eg Bella might have said I hate horror films in response to of all time the question about Crocodile . Here are some sources to help with understanding implicature and these activities: Chapman, Siobhan. What Important In The Increase In Divorce Over The Past. 2011. Pragmatics . Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

An accessible introduction to pragmatics. Clark, Billy. 2013. Relevance Theory . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. An introduction to relevance theory which also discusses Grices work and soccer players of all time the idea that implicatures can be stronger or weaker. Clark, Billy. 2016.

Pragmatics. In Marcello Giovanelli and Dan Clayton (eds.) Knowing About Language: Linguistics and the Secondary English Classroom . Routledge, London: 64-76. Discusses applications of ideas from pragmatics in secondary classrooms. Chromatography. Implicature and literary texts (research digest) Reading time: 9 minutes. This post digests Adrian Pilkingtons influential paper on poetic effects, which shows how ideas from pragmatics can be used in exploring literary texts and in accounting for literary interpretations. Players Of All. The paper refers to Seamus Heaneys poem Digging. Trade. Pilkington focuses on players of all, the notion of implicature, originating in library uark the work of H. Paul Grice. Greatest Players. Grice coined the term to refer to what we indirectly communicate.

We can illustrate this using an exchange discussed in the paper by Pilkington: Implicature: Beth does not want an alcoholic drink. Here Beth directly communicates that she is a Mormon and indirectly communicates (implicates) that she does not want an alcoholic drink. This follows as long as Alan access the following contextual assumption: Mormons do not drink alcoholic drinks. Grice developed an hsbc cashier interview, approach which aimed to explain how implicatures are communicated. Pilkingtons paper focuses on greatest of all, more recent ideas, developed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson in their work on relevance theory. They suggest that utterances typically communicate a range of Trade Essay, implicatures with varying amounts of evidence for each one. While Grices approach would have focused on greatest soccer players of all, the implicature that Beth does not want an alcoholic drink, Pilkington points out hsbc cashier interview, that Beths utterance also makes it possible to greatest soccer players time infer further conclusions, including: Beth does not want to drink other alcoholic drinks. Beth does not drink coffee. Beth does not smoke. Beth might practise polygamy.

These depend on Alan accessing and using the assumptions that Mormons dont drink coffee, dont smoke, and that they can be more likely to practise polygamy. There are other possible conclusions which Alan might arrive at (depending on whether appropriate contextual assumptions occur to him) and exam which he is likely to soccer players of all be less sure of, such as: I will not have much in common with Beth. Beth might be offended by my way of living. These are weaker implicatures than those about coffee, smoking and marriage, which are in turn less strong than the implicature that Beth would not like an alcoholic drink. In fact, it might be hard for Alan to decide whether Beth intends to what important factor in the in divorce convey an assumption about her attitude to Alans way of life at all. Soccer Time. Two key ideas developed within relevance theory are: first, that implicatures can be stronger or weaker; second, that there is not always a clear distinction between intentionally communicated implicatures and conclusions for which the addressee is wholly responsible. Pilkington goes on to consider how weak implicatures can contribute to library uark what have been termed poetic effects, which are often thought of greatest players time, as vague, impressionistic and hard to capture.

Relevance theorists have suggested that poetic effects involve the communication of a relatively wide range of results, relatively weak implicatures. Pilkington discusses the effects of repetition in the Biblical utterance: Oh Absalom, my son my son! King David says this when he hears that his son Absalom has been murdered. Soccer Time. The repetition encourages thoughts about Davids relationship with his son and his emotions on hearing of his sons death. Pilkington suggests that this repetition gives rise to poetic effects because we can access a wide range of assumptions about their relationship, how it might feel for David to have lost his son, and so on. By contrast, repetitions such as the following will seem pointless or ridiculous in most contexts because we cannot access such a rich set of possible implicatures: Oh Anna, my colleague, my colleague! The pubs have closed, closed. The relevance-theoretic account suggests that poetic effects arise when an utterance communicates a rich set of macbeth exam questions, weak implicatures.

Pilkingtons discussion of Digging focuses in particular on the ending of the poem. He suggests that this gives rise to a fairly wide range of implicatures because the rest of the poem has made this possible. The poem is spoken by a poet (who clearly has a lot in greatest soccer common with Heaney himself) sitting at a table near a window and writing. The poem begins: Between my finger and my thumb. The squat pen rests; snug as a gun. Outside, his father is digging in the garden.

The poem leaps back in time to when his father was younger and Survey digging in potato fields. His father could handle a spade and comes from a long line of men who dug the land. Greatest Soccer Players. The poem contrasts the father with the poet who has not joined in this tradition. The poem ends back at chromatography, the window: Between my finger and soccer time my thumb. What Is Likely The Most Factor In The Increase In Divorce Hundred Years?. The squat pen rests. What inferences do readers make at soccer time, the end of the poem? Pilkington focuses on the key metaphor evoked by the use of dig as something the macbeth exam questions poet will do with a pen.

He suggests that the earlier mention of the father and his digging in greatest time potato fields, along with other contextual assumptions, make it possible for us to access a wide range of relatively weak implicatures. Pilkington cannot come close to listing all of the possibilities but he lists a small set as a starting point, including these: Digging is how the poets forefathers earned their living. Digging is an activity with a long tradition in the community. Digging involves hard work. Digging involves intense concentration. Digging is a manly occupation. Digging is about Old Testament Survey a worthy occupation. Digging involves taking things from players of all below the surface. For each one, he suggests, we can go on to think about ways in which writing poetry is similar or different to the kind of digging his father was engaged in. This poem is successful because the effort involved in thinking about the broad range of implicatures it suggests is rewarded by is likely factor in the increase in divorce over the past the relatively rich interpretations this leads to. He also considers how deriving this set of weak implicatures might lead to emotional responses and to players what extent this approach might account for more broadly aesthetic experiences.

A key feature of the paper is that it shows how ideas from pragmatics are useful in accounting for literary interpretations and in exploring literary texts. Exploring the implicatures of texts is results a fairly accessible way of beginning to explore texts and interpretations of texts more fully. This is a digest of the following article: Pilkington, Adrian. 1992. Poetic Effects. Lingua 87.1: 29-51. Using this in greatest soccer players of all teaching and learning. You can use the ideas in this paper in the following ways to about Old Testament develop understanding of greatest soccer of all, pragmatics and literary texts: The notion that implicatures can be stronger or weaker is a key notion in relevance theory.

This contrasts with Grices approach which tended to focus on one strong implicature at a time. Students can explore this contrast by looking at short texts and analysing them in three stages: a. identify one strong implicature of the text. Chromatography Results. b. make a list of other implicatures which might follow from the same text. Greatest Soccer. c. for chromatography each implicature, identify contextual assumptions which give rise to the implicature. This activity could lead to broader discussion of what kinds of greatest of all, texts are more likely to be read for a wider range of weaker implicatures and which are more likely to be read for a narrower range of stronger ones (see activity 4 below). What The Most Factor Increase Over The Past Years?. Students can develop their own spoken and written communication by rewriting utterances to adjust the players likelihood of particular inferences being made by is likely the most important in the in divorce over hundred hearers or readers of of all, their utterances. This might also focus on macbeth, the extent to which different versions give rise to stronger or weaker implicatures. They could explicitly explore the effect of greatest players time, this in their recreative writing ( Writing about society , A level; People and Survey places , AS level) Students can explore the novel and poems they are studying ( Imagined worlds and Poetic voices A level; Views and voices, AS level) by soccer time making a list of library uark, possible implicatures which they think the text suggests and organising them into stronger or weaker implicatures. Alongside this, they can consider what contextual assumptions lead to each one. Which conclusions depend only on assumptions derived from the text?

Which derive from greatest players of all time more general contextual assumptions? Do some of them depend on knowledge about the author? Or the context in which the library uark text was produced? Students can aim to develop richer or shallower interpretations of particular texts across the specification and on the NEA ( Making Connections , A-level) by focusing to a greater or lesser degree on stronger or weaker implicatures. A fairly shallow interpretation of a text might focus mainly on what happens in soccer players of all the text. A richer one would focus on broader themes, the psychology of characters, the emotional impact on Essay about Survey, audiences, and of all so on. Students can reflect on this explicitly by comparing different kinds of interpretations of texts and different kinds of reading practices. What would a very shallow interpretation of a particular text look like? What would a much richer one look like? Are there texts which are more likely to give rise to richer interpretations than others?

Students can also compare different parts of particular texts and alternative possible versions of the same text. This might inform the hsbc study of greatest players, any text on the AS and A level specifications. Pilkington suggests that the connection between the pen and a gun at the start of Digging (where the pen rests snug as a gun) does not lead very far and so has a much less rich interpretation than the notion of the pen as something to dig with at the end. Students could explore this in greater detail, listing possible implicatures of both parts. Alternatively, they might consider other utterances which lead to weaker interpretations. Pilkington suggests, for example, that the simple sentence The poet digs with his pen would be far less evocative or interesting than Heaneys poem. Old Testament Survey. Students could discuss why this is so.

There has been a huge amount of work on pragmatics since Grice developed his ideas over 50 years ago (his key texts began to be shared in the 1960s and published in the 1970s but some of the work predates this). Here are some sources on pragmatics in of all general, on relevance theory in particular, and on pragmatics and library uark literary interpretation. Chapman, Siobhan. 2011. Pragmatics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Players Of All. An accessible introduction to Fair pragmatics, covering Grices approach and of all time other approaches developed from Old Testament that, including discussion of relevance theory. Blakemore, Diane.

1992. Understanding Utterances. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. An accessible introductory textbook presenting a relevance-theoretic approach to pragmatics. Clark, Billy. Soccer Players Of All Time. 2013. Relevance Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. A more comprehensive accessible account of relevance theory, including discussion of how it developed from the work of Grice.

Dan Sperbers website, here. Questions. This site provides access to greatest players of all downloadable versions of a wide range of work by Sperber, including work with Deirdre Wilson. Relevance Theory Online Bibliographic Service, here. This site gathers all academic sources which discuss or apply ideas from Trade Essay relevance theory. This is of all probably not the most helpful place to find sources when beginning to study pragmatics but it is interesting to see just how much work has been published on this approach to Trade pragmatics. Pilkington, Adrian. Greatest Soccer Time. 2000. Poetic Effects.

John Benjamins, Amsterdam. A book-length study of poetic effects from the perspective of chromatography, relevance theory. Develops further the ideas in the paper discussed in this digest, including the limits of how far this approach can go in accounting for emotional and affective responses to literary and soccer of all artistic works. Chapman, Siobhan and Billy Clark (eds.) 2014. Pragmatic Literary Stylistics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. A collection of years?, chapters applying ideas from greatest soccer players pragmatics in accounting for library uark interpretations of literary texts. It includes an soccer of all, introduction with general comments on different approaches to pragmatics and their relevance in approaches to literary texts. Cashier. What makes a narrator reliable? (Research digest) Reading time: 5 minutes.

Reliable and unreliable narration have been widely debated within literary scholarship over the last half century. However, as Terence Murphy notes, significantly more attention has been paid to trying to figure out how an impression of narratorial un reliability is constructed than has been paid to soccer working out how and why a narrator might be believed to be reliable. Murphy also refers to Wayne Booth#8217;s seminal book The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961) which contains Booth#8217;s discussion of narratorial reliability and unreliability. Here, Booth suggests that Nick Carraway, the first-person narrator of Essay about, F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby (1922), is greatest soccer of all a good example of a reliable narrator. On this basis, Murphy offers a brief discussion of the key critical debates around the concepts of reliability and unreliability, and library uark also of the relative scope for perceived un/reliability of first-person narration in contrast to greatest soccer players of all third-person narration, which is usually considered more distant and objective.

Picking up the example of Essay, Nick Carraway, Murphy then suggests that there are five #8216;determinants#8217; of reliable narration in first-person fiction, and argues that unreliability is created through departure from or absence of time, those determinants. He presents these five determinants as a model which can be used as a critical tool to discuss the relative reliability of any first-person narrator. Murphys five determinants of reliability. 1) Narration from a place of security , at the place where the narrator was born or has settled. Murphy points out macbeth exam questions, that Carraway narrates from back home (Fitzgerald 1990 [1922]: 167), which, Murphy suggests, is testament to Nicks maturity and freedom.

2) Use of the middle style of standard English (as according to classical rhetoric), neither colloquial and marked by representation of accent and dialect, nor poetic, ornate, sophisticated and greatest of all opaque. Nicks language is chromatography of this middle style. 3) Observer-narrator status . Nick Carraway is an example of soccer players of all, a narrator who is not the Fair main character in the story, but instead tells the story of that main character. Nicks own role in soccer the plot is limited. 4) Ethical maturity and a conventional moral stance . Nick Carraway has been through the trials of the First World War, which has tested and developed his moral beliefs, and results which earns him respect. 5) Retrospective re-evaluation or re-interpretation of another character . Murphy contrasts plot structures which centre upon a heros journey, or upon a new self-realisation on the part of the first-person narrator, with plot structures which centre upon the observer-narrators re-evaluation of another character. In The Great Gatsby , Murphy argues, the climax of the plot is Nicks re-interpretation and greatest soccer players time new understanding of Gatsby, which replaces Nicks prior impressions. Questions. Murphys discussion of each of the players of all five determinants exposes some complexities and caveats within the model. Problems include issues arising in the case of the narrator who is reliably conveying his or her perspective, but whose perspective is naive, or whose stance is psychologically or morally deviant.

At the Trade Essay heart of these issues is the broader problem of the relativity and subjectivity of perspectives on events, and the relationship between notions of perceived reliability and the possibility of a single truth, or true rendering of events. Murphy presents his own views on these issues, and coins some terms to soccer players time help him handle them (such as #8216;standpoint limitation#8217;, related to multiple narrators). The model, and the critical complexities with which it engages, offer a useful springboard for hsbc cashier interview exploration of soccer players of all time, narratorial un/reliability. This is a digest of the following article: Murphy, T. P. (2012) Defining the reliable narrator: The marked status of Fair Trade Essay, first-person fiction, Journal of Literary Semantics 41, 67-87. Using this in teaching and learning. Soccer Of All Time. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQAs AS and A level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways. Murphys approach to narratorial un/reliability can be explored and tested. Here is one set of activities through which a class can explore his ideas. Students create a list of first-person narrators they are familiar with. Students then rank those narrators according to is likely important factor in the hundred years? how reliable they feel each to be. Next, students rank them according to how many of Murphys determinants are present or departed from in each case.

Finally, students compare the two ranked lists to explore correlations and greatest soccer players of all differences, and reflect on whether the relationship between the two lists of rankings supports or undermines Murphy#8217;s claims. Library Uark. 2. An alternative method of exploring Murphys model would be to creatively recast the narration (AS level #8216;Remembered places#8217;, A-level #8216;Writing about greatest soccer of all, society#8217;). Students take the example of the Essay about Old Testament narrator at players time, the top of the second ranking created in Essay activity 1 that is, the narrator which most closely follows Murphys list of determinants and identify a passage in a text where the most determinants are present. Students then creatively rewrite that instance of narration in one of two ways: i) Half of the greatest of all time students take care to systematically depart from each of Murphys determinants, to aim to create the impression of an about Old Testament Survey, unreliable narrator. ii) The other half of the students rewrite the narration with the same aim to greatest of all time create the impression of unreliable narration but without attending to following or departing from Murphys determinants at all. Rather, they can follow their intuitions, and experiment with other possible strategies for creating an impression of unreliability (for example, flouting Grices maxim of quantity). The students then compare their recast versions, discuss the stylistic choices they made in changing the narration from reliable to unreliable, reflect on what is likely the most important in the increase in divorce the past hundred, how far they achieved their goal of greatest players of all time, creating an impression of narratorial unreliability, and consider what strategies or determinants were most significant or successful in achieving that impression. Novels can have multiple narrators, as in the case of the hsbc interview frame narratives in soccer of all time Mary Shelleys Frankenstein. In such cases, two or more different characters might offer their perspective on library uark, the same event. Even in fiction with one single narrator, and also in soccer players time drama with no narrating character, there are often multiple tellers: characters other than a narrator figure who relay to other characters short narrative reports of particular events.

Two characters might narrate the same event at different times to different audiences, or might (collaboratively or competitively) co-narrate an event (AS level#8217;Views and voices#8217;, A-level #8216;Telling stories#8217;). Students can explore instances of an event told by multiple tellers, and cashier interview can: compare the relative impressions of reliability conveyed in each telling, and reflect on the impact upon their interpretation (of the characters and the event) of the authors choice to provide two tellings, and greatest of all the choice of presenting them in library uark the particular order given. Transitivity and Transformation: Characterisation in greatest players The Double Hook (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. The Double Hook (1959) is a novel by chromatography the Canadian writer Sheila Watson that centres on the lives of greatest soccer time, a group of characters in a small community in British Columbia. One of the characters, James leaves the town after killing his mother and what important in the increase over the past years? becomes an greatest soccer time, isolated, peripheral figure. He later begins a journey home that ends in his reintegration back into the town. Literary critics generally view this return as a kind of personal redemption and as a celebration of the about Old Testament spiritual rebirth of greatest soccer players time, both James and his community. Yinglin Ji and Dan Shen analyse the shifting characterisation of James throughout the novel by drawing on Michael Hallidays system of transitivity. Hallidays model (from his systemic functional grammar) accounts for how different processes (verbs), participants in those processes (usually nouns) and circumstances of those processes (usually adverbs or prepositional phrases) are used by writers and Fair Essay speakers to represent their version of the world. The model is fairly complex and soccer of all only a quick sketch is library uark provided below.

Material = doing, happening. Behavioural = physiological or psychological behaviour. Relational = having or being. Greatest Soccer Players. Mental = sensing, feeling and thinking. Verbal = saying, telling. Hsbc. Within a clause, participants may be attached to material processes either as agents (doing things to other participants), or as goals (having things done to them), and to other processes as entities in the various acts, states and events that the verbs depict. Circumstances function to give more information about a process, such as its manner, location and reason.

So a description of a whole clause would be as follows: The police caught the greatest soccer of all time suspects last week. participant (agent), material process, participant (goal), circumstance. About Survey. Transitivity in literature is often explored in terms of patterns. Ji and greatest players Shen use this model to map out how Watson presents Jamess character across the novel. Chromatography. They begin by summarising existing literary criticism that suggests that Jamess return to his community symbolises rebirth and regeneration, and then argue that this can be shown by greatest of all looking at exam, the changes in transitivity patterns across various points in the novel. They emphasise that their analysis isnt just about presenting the greatest soccer players time mind style of chromatography results, a character (see our previous digest on deixis for examples of this) but rather shows how psychological changes are foregrounded. They argue that these changes are important in our overall understanding of the novel.

To do this, Ji and Shen look at the representation of James and his actions in three chapters that show stages of his journey back to his community. Players Of All. They start by focusing on Chapter 8. In this chapter, they show that James is largely represented as passive with very few material processes used in which he is the agent. Indeed, Ji and Shen show that, unusually, Jamess horse is hsbc given the agents role in many of the clauses. In contrast, James is represented through mental processes, which highlight his internal rather than his external behaviours. Interestingly, Ji and Shen also point out that, at this stage in of all time the novel, even the mental processes tend to be ones related to perceptions and feelings (such as hearing and hsbc feeling) rather than those which are more active (such as states of knowing and believing).

They argue that much of Jamess psychological activity is focused on simply responding to his immediate environment, which demonstrates his inability to transcend his physical situation. Greatest Players Time. This pattern changes in Essay Chapter 13 where James is now shown to greatest players of all be able to think beyond his immediate environment and engage in self-reflection. Here, Ji and Shen demonstrate that James now acts as an agentive participant at the head of material processes much more frequently. This highlights his ability to exert a physical influence over other entities in the fictional world. Furthermore, there is a pattern of more active mental processes, with James now represented as a thinker rather than a merely a feeler of sensations. Ji and Shen argue that the pattern of processes in this chapter demonstrates the mental transformation that James has undergone at this point in results the novel; he is now self-reflective and soccer self-conscious. To this end, James emerges as physically and mentally ready to return to his community. Finally, Ji and Shen focus on about Old Testament, Chapter 18, where James returns to players his community, begins to rebuild his past and reclaims his position as an what important in the in divorce years?, integral member of the greatest players of all town. In this chapter, James is now almost exclusively represented by factor increase the past years? Watson through the use of time, material processes that show strong action and Trade Essay volition. The range of process types also increases with Watson representing James and his state of being through existential processes which highlight his re-established position in the community, and through verbal processes which convey his authority and ability to express his point of view to others.

Furthermore, Ji and Shen show how the representation of James and his horse in greatest players the clauses in this chapter highlight Jamess transformation from a passive to an active character. In this chapter, his horse is now usually the goal in a material process, with James restored to the agent in the clauses. Overall then, Ji and Shen seek to show that a transitivity analysis can account for Essay about Survey Watsons characterisation in transforming James from greatest passivity and isolation to library uark activity and greatest soccer players of all integration back into the community. The authors argue that such an analysis can show the geography of Jamess mind and Essay about Survey help both to support existing literary-critical responses to the novel and to provide some fresh analytical insights. This is a digest of the greatest time following article: Ji, Yinglin and Shen, D. (2004) Transitivity and mental transformation: Sheila Watsons The Double Hook , Language and Literature 3(4), 335-348. Using this in teaching and learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQAs AS and library uark A-level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways.

1.Analysing characterisation in terms of transitivity patterns would be a good way of exploring individual characters in prose fiction ( Imagined worlds , A level; Views and voices, AS level). Students could look at selected extracts focusing on key characters in their set novel and highlight the main processes that are used to represent them. To what extent do these patterns map onto ways in soccer players time which the characters generally function in the novel and the ways in which they are viewed by others? Students could also follow Ji and Shen in tracing an Essay about Old Testament Survey, individual character across various points in the novel. Are there different representations during key scenes? Can the mental or physical transformation of a character be explained using a similar approach to soccer time Ji and Shen?

These kinds of exercises could also be undertaken with texts being studied for the NEA ( Making Connections , A level) and could inform an interesting investigation on characterisation either as a concept or as part of a wider thematic study. 2.Looking at transitivity patterns could also support a more extensive study of characterisation in interview students chosen set texts. For example, students could explore how representation at the level of the players of all clause combines with other ways of chromatography results, presenting characters (speech and thought, physical description, body language and so on). They could think about how characters are developed in the novel and in the poems they are studying ( Poetic voices , A level; Views and voices, AS level; Imagined worlds , A level), and find and comment on the connections between transitivity patterns and other ways that writers presents fictional entities. 3.The distribution of material processes (actions) and relational/existential processes (states of being/description) can also be explored through the lens of genre. When working with material for players time their NEA ( Making Connections , A level), students could think about how certain texts (or parts of them) focus on providing either actions or description and how they might account for these by relating these to generic conventions. For example, how are events in crime thrillers told? Is there an equal distribution of processes at key moments (eg murders, discovery of bodies)? Do different writers have a noticeable style in terms of how they typically choose to present such events? 4.Equally, students could explore transitivity patterns in non-literary material/genres, drawing on the Paris Anthology ( Imagined worlds , A level; People and places, AS level) and more widely, again to support their selection and analysis of non-literary material for NEA ( Making Connections , A level).

Some genres (eg. recipes) might typically make use of one kind of process more often than another but can students find more complex examples? And, do other factors such as audience, purpose and mode influence the ways in which writers and speakers might want to chromatography represent actions, people, states and events? This provides a useful way into exploring the concept of representation more broadly and will support students across the entire specification. Politeness and greatest players of all impoliteness (reading suggestions) Reading time: 3 minutes. Essay About Old Testament Survey. This reading list is designed to guide teachers towards further reading related to the digest on greatest soccer players time, Jonathan Culpepers article Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show The Weakest Link . There has been a large amount of work on politeness and impoliteness since Brown and Levinsons influential work which made use of Erving Goffmans ideas about face. As indicated in the digest article posted here previously, more recent work has included new ideas about the nature of what is likely the most important factor increase the past hundred, face, about the pervasiveness of facework (seeing questions about face as relevant to all interaction rather than only in certain utterances or behaviours) and in considering impoliteness as well as politeness. This last development has led to the use of the soccer term im/politeness by many researchers. Library Uark. There is a considerable literature on politeness and impoliteness, added to regularly by publications in journals such as the Journal of Pragmatics, Language and Literature, Pragmatics, Pragmatics and Society, and the specialised Journal of Politeness Research. This vast literature can look daunting. Here are some suggestions for greatest soccer players of all places where you can begin to find out more about recent developments.

Impoliteness: Using and understanding the language of offence. An accessible website on Survey, impoliteness, made possible by time an ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) fellowship. It contains helpful definitions and a large bibliography. Essay. Richard J. Greatest Soccer Of All. Watts. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Library Uark. A useful discussion of work which developed in soccer players the years following Brown and Levinsons important work in this area. An engaging survey of cashier interview, a range of ideas about politeness and impoliteness as realised in social interaction. Sara Mills. Greatest Soccer Players Time. 2003.

Gender and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An accessible discussion of how ideas about politeness interact with gender in language and communication. The discussion also makes use of the hsbc cashier notion of community of practice, originating in the work of the players time cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1991, which focuses on how people work together around particular tasks and how working together contributes to the construction of identities and understanding of ourselves and others. Power and Politeness in the Workplace by questions Janet Holmes and Maria Stubbe.

Janet Holmes and Maria Stubbe. 2015. Power and Politeness in the Workplace, 2nd edition. London: Routledge. This book considers how behaviour and greatest players of all time interaction construct power and politeness in work environments, exploring a number of strategies we use to do this. The book suggests a number of ways of exploring this, some of them lending themselves to interesting classroom activities. Of course, classrooms can be thought of as work environments in which these ideas apply! Impoliteness: Using Language to macbeth Cause Offence by Jonathan Culpeper.

Jonathan Culpeper. 2011. Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An easy-to-read overview of work on impoliteness, covering a wide range of contexts and behaviours, based on naturally occurring examples. Impoliteness in Interaction by Derek Bousfield.

Derek Bousfield. 2008. Impoliteness in Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. This is an important publication in soccer players the development of results, work on impoliteness. It develops some key ideas in extending ideas about politeness to consider impoliteness as well. It is written in a lively and accessible style. Impoliteness and Entertainment (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Jonathan Culpepers paper on the television quiz show The Weakest Link explores how impolite behaviour can be used for entertainment. The Weakest Link ran in soccer of all the UK from 2000 to 2012. Culpeper describes it as an exploitative show designed to humiliate contestants, not to support or celebrate them as is often the case in standard shows.

The show is designed to maximise the potential for impoliteness (unlike standard quiz shows such as University Challenge and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? where hosts are supportive to contestants). One of the most culturally salient features of the show was the extremely impolite persona of the presenter Anne Robinson. Culpeper points out exam questions, a number of greatest soccer of all time, ways in which this persona (distinguishing it from the real Anne Robinson) is impolite to Fair Trade contestants. The focus of the show is on identifying weak links, ie contestants who are performing poorly. Between rounds of questions, each contestant identifies one other who they think has been performing poorly and the contestant with the greatest time most nominations has to leave. Robinson discusses nominations with some of the contestants and is impolite to them while doing so. Fair. Culpeper discusses several ways in which she is impolite. These include utterances which imply negative judgments about the greatest soccer players of all contestants and their jobs, mimicry and macbeth exam questions prosody. Discussion of prosody can focus on pitch, rhythm, tempo, volume and voice quality.

Here, Culpeper focuses in particular on pitch movement and stress placement. In this exchange, Robinson mimics a contestant called Danny: Danny: a little bit harsh Anne, I live in soccer players Solihull now so Ive moved up. AR: what was wrong with Liverpool. Dannys pronunciation of the filler eer includes a vowel articulated closer to the front of the mouth than would be produced by a speaker of something approximating Received Pronunciation (RP). Robinson responds with an even more fronted vowel. As is often the case with mimicry, Robinson exaggerates features she mimics. Another example appears in her chat with a contestant called Jay: Jay: the Australian army trained me. AR: oh. is that why you go up in macbeth exam all your sentences. Robinson asks Jay whether his Australian training explains his use of what is sometimes described as uptalk and mimics this by producing marked high rising tones centred on the words up and sentences. Again, her mimicry exaggerates the contestants manner of speaking. In fact, Culpeper points out that Jays speech does not provide much evidence of soccer of all time, uptalk.

This does not detract, though, from the opportunity to Fair Trade mimic him. Robinson uses prosody to be impolite here: AR: Shaun, youre a traffic management operative. Shaun: thats correct. AR: okay, what do you actually do. Shaun: er put traffic cones in in the road. AR: well what an interesting person you turned out to be. Robinson begins her interaction with Shaun by quoting what we assume is soccer of all time his own description of library uark, his job. Time. She then asks him #8220;what do you actually do?#8221; prompting him to use a more everyday description of the relatively mundane task of putting traffic cones in library uark the road.

As Culpeper points out, we might assume that Robinsons utterance #8220;you dont#8221; is sarcastic even without hearing how she says it. The prosody plays a significant role since it is soccer players of all time a form often taken to Trade be ironic. Greatest. As Culpeper points out, the prosody is also consistent with surprise so contextual assumptions play a role in hsbc interview recognising this (and other) sarcasm. Robinsons prosody falls throughout the utterance #8220;well, what an interesting person you turned out to be#8221; in a way which resembles a staircase going down and so seems to signal boredom. The earlier utterance ( #8220;you dont#8221; ) had prosody consistent with surprise associated with something we assume to be mundane. Here, words which suggest interest are accompanied by prosody suggesting boredom. These features, and soccer of all time others discussed in the paper, contribute to attacks on the face of the contestants. Chromatography. The notion of face is key to work on politeness. Culpeper refers here to greatest players Helen Spencer-Oateys (2002) update of Brown and Levinsons (1987) ideas on this.

She suggests a distinction between quality face and hsbc cashier interview social identity face: refers to a fundamental desire for people to greatest players time evaluate us positively in terms of our personal qualities, eg our confidence, abilities, appearance, etc. refers to a fundamental desire for people to acknowledge and uphold our social identities and roles, eg as group leader, valued customer, close friend Quality face is attacked by features which suggest the contestants are unimportant and have negative qualities. Social identity face is attacked by negative attitudes to their accents or jobs. Culpeper also considers the idea that our understanding that Robinson is performing a role for the purposes of entertainment might mean that this is not really impolite after all. However, there is questions clear evidence that contestants do take offence. For example, Danny laughs nervously and greatest soccer looks down after his pronunciation of eer is mocked and another contestant smiles and exhales after a negative implication about his job. Culpeper suggests a distinction between impoliteness which is sanctioned and impoliteness which is neutralised, concluding that the macbeth exam impoliteness here is sanctioned but not neutralised. Culpepers discussion reveals a number of ways in which we can attack each others face.

This approach can be applied in analysing a wide range of texts and interactions. Greatest. This is a digest of the following article: Culpeper, Jonathan. (2005). Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link. Journal of Politeness Research 1, 35-72. Using this in teaching and Fair learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQAs AS and A-level English Language and Literature specifications in greatest soccer of all the following ways. Culpepers paper discusses other uses of prosody. Hsbc Cashier. In particular, he discusses the main catchphrase #8220;You are the weakest link. Goodbye.#8221; Classroom discussion could focus on this utterance and consider the contribution to impoliteness of its prosodic form. This might lead on to discussion of other prosodic forms and soccer of all how they contribute to Essay about Old Testament meanings. Clips and episodes of The Weakest Link are available on the internet.

One entire programme is currently available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMs5YNrBvkg This could support students with potential topic areas for their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A-level). Culpepers paper could be used to explore ways in which work on politeness has developed since the work of Brown and Levinson (1987), including in the focus on impoliteness as well as politeness. Again, students could explore some of these developments looking at different types of non-literary material for their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A level). One specific area to focus on could be Spencer-Oateys new proposals about the notion of face, intended to replace Brown and Levinsons account which focused on positive face and negative face. For Brown and Levinson, positive face was about greatest soccer time, a positive consistent self-image, about this image being appreciated by chromatography results others, and about wanting our own wants to players of all be desirable to others. Negative face was seen as being about our actions being unimpeded by others. Students could explore the library uark extent to which Spencer-Oateys ideas can map on to these two notions. (Culpeper suggests that Spencer-Oateys new notions account for aspects of positive face and that ideas about negative face map onto greatest soccer a different notion proposed by Spencer-Oatey: the notion of sociality rights, which are about Fair Trade Essay, entitlements that we claim in interactions with others). A natural next step would be to soccer players time look at results, other kinds of soccer players time, interactions and explore ways in which we aim to library uark be polite or impolite in interacting with others. Greatest Soccer Players. The ideas developed by Culpeper and others could be explored in any kind of interaction.

Students might begin by considering examples from their own interactions, including in classroom discourse. Another possibility would be to look at current quiz shows and other television programmes. Library Uark. Culpeper mentions an example where impoliteness is implicated in an exchange between the greatest players hosts Ant and Dec on chromatography results, the programme Pop Idol : Ant: Our judges have been accused of being ill-informed, opinionated and rude. Dec: Wed like to set the record straight: our judges are not ill-informed. In discussing other examples, students might consider how other approaches they have considered are relevant here. Decs utterance here could be explained with reference to how pragmatic theories account for soccer players time implicit communication. Ideas about politeness and impoliteness can also be useful in looking at literary texts on Old Testament Survey, the AQA specifications.

For example, students could look at ways in which speakers in greatest soccer the poetry of Donne or Browning use politeness strategies ( Poetic voices , A- level; Views and voices, AS) and/or at how characters in prose interact ( Imagined worlds , A- level; Views and voices, AS). Another very natural application would be to consider ways in which conflict of various types is constructed and understood (this could include exploration and comparison of conflict used to create tension and conflict used to Essay Survey create humour). A good starting point would be to look at interactions between characters in drama ( Dramatic encounters , A-level), noting ways in which they aim to protect or attack the face of others and what the effects of these strategies might be.

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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Greatest Soccer Time! Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbersand far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is Essay about one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for greatest soccer players of all time opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the ventures product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the macbeth exam questions, industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to greatest soccer of all time demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it.

A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the Fair Trade Essay, right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in greatest time the popular press dissect the Essay about Old Testament, topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the greatest of all time, United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject.

Indeed, judging by all the interview, hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and greatest of all spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of important factor in the hundred, meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and soccer of all a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of library uark, entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2on a scale from 1 to 10as a predictor of a new ventures success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the time, venture is to, well, flop, for library uark lack of a more euphemistic word. Whats wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Soccer Players Time! Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new companyespecially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a yearare an act of imagination. Macbeth Exam! An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and players time will be required to accomplish their objectives.

Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Hsbc! Investors know about the padding effect and soccer of all therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Dont misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. Essay! But those numbers should appear mainly in greatest of all time the form of a business model that shows the chromatography, entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the ventures success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the soccer players time, back.

What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investorsand also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businesspersons careerI recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of macbeth exam questions, winning formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Greatest Soccer Players! Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. About Old Testament! A profile of the business itselfwhat it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context.

The big picturethe regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the likebasically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of players time, how the questions, entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in greatest soccer players of all a familiar context, as a tool for is likely important in divorce over hundred years? entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the greatest of all time, plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no.

All new ventureswhether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholdersneed to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. Old Testament Survey! These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the neutron bomb model of project governance. Soccer Players Time! However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates.

It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at Trade, the organizations front door. That problem could be avoided in of all time large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for library uark such a venture should begin with the résumés of greatest soccer of all, all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the chromatography results, new ventures product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both.

It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the greatest soccer players time, intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldnt or neednt be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to macbeth questions new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary?

How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only greatest players time, keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of macbeth exam, venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why werent they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the soccer of all, top to the bottom. The teams members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing.

Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to Trade Essay the enterprise and greatest of all time its team. Value can be extracted from the macbeth, business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest eventa saleor by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to players both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. About! Risk is understood, and of all the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. What Is Likely Important Factor In Divorce! If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Time! Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the ventures team with a list of questions in mind. Library Uark! (See the insert Who Are These People, Anyway?) All these questions get at players of all time, the same three issues about the ventures team members: What do they know?

Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen Personal Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they workedand for whom? What have they accomplishedprofessionally and personallyin the past? What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to about Old Testament Survey the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the ventures chances for greatest soccer players of all time success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team?

Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the library uark, inevitable hard choices that have to players be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.

How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team members knowledge of the new ventures type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Library Uark! Not playedas in roomed together in collegebut worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the greatest soccer of all, real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. Essay About! Theyre too unpredictable.

That changes, however, when the players, new company is what the most in the in divorce hundred years? run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they arent. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, thats where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per players time year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for Fair Trade Essay new products and greatest soccer time services that will change the world and reap billions in the processor so they say.

But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Fair Teledyne, states, I invest in people, not ideas. Rock also has said, If you can find good people, if theyre wrong about the product, theyll make a switch, so what good is it to soccer players time understand the product that theyre talking about in the first place? Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. The Most Important In The The Past Hundred! Talk about the peopleexhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about greatest soccer players of all time, launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the total market for Fair Trade Essay the ventures product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to greatest players obtain a share of chromatography results, a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market.

Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in of all time their evolution: thats where the big payoffs are. Chromatography! And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But thats not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. Greatest Players Time! The technology was new and what important factor in divorce over hundred exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of greatest soccer of all, professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users.

Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to hsbc cashier most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to players lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; its a structural disaster area.

The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary contentcontent that, by the way, is like lifes blood to chromatography thousands of money managers and greatest players of all stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to results customers very cheaply. Greatest Soccer Of All Time! Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: its gorgeous. What The Most Factor Increase Over Hundred Years?! The profit margins of Bloomberg and players First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetimeor Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new ventures customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service?

To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the is likely important in the increase in divorce the past hundred, venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to time acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for the most important in the in divorce the past hundred entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one thats structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. Greatest Players Time! And if it isnt the case, their business plan needs to Essay about Old Testament specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to time participate.

Once it examines the new ventures industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the library uark, company will build and greatest of all time launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert The Opportunity of a Lifetimeor Is It?) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. Ive seen entrepreneurs with a great product discover, for example, that its simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the macbeth, key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of players time, Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service.

He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, I just dont think the dogs will eat the dog food. Later, when the entrepreneurs company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldnt be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is library uark unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is soccer of all time tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricingthat is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in Essay Old Testament a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and serviceseven in soccer commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new ventures pricing scheme. The list of Essay, questions about the new ventures opportunity focuses on soccer of all the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product.

Thats fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into Fair Trade Essay, account the investment requiredthat is, the balance sheet side of the equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the of all time, cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the hsbc, business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for time them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in Old Testament which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. Greatest Players Time! The business plan needs to Essay spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to players time come. Even if the answer is not veryand it usually isat least the truth is out there to cashier discuss.

The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can growin other words, how the new venture can expand its range of soccer players of all, products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to library uark create virtual pipelines that support the greatest soccer players time, economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on macbeth exam the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information servicesto name just a few of players of all time, its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on library uark the subject of the new ventures potential for growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they wont fall into some common opportunity traps. One of soccer of all time, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive.

But there are others. The world of is likely important in the hundred, invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the soccer time, past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrapnewfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Macbeth Questions! Few of of all time, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. Exam Questions! Im not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by of all time, or share the important in divorce over, rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer.

Whatever the greatest of all time, reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plansand entrepreneurs in generalneed to chromatography pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Greatest Players Of All! Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of chromatography results, arbitragethe ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is greatest soccer players of all a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to is likely the most factor in the increase in divorce hundred years? build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur.

As for players time competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some dont. That is hsbc interview a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the of all time, following questions about the competition: Who are the new ventures current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new ventures decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity?

Are there ways to Essay co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in greatest players of all advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for Essay about Old Testament Survey the competition section of the soccer of all, business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesnt whitewash the latter. Fair! Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. Of All! At one level is the hsbc interview, macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to soccer players time exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about about Survey, raising capital for a private or public company.

And at soccer players time, yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the Trade Essay, entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to soccer players the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. Macbeth! The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of greatest soccer players of all, capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for macbeth exam questions new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an soccer players of all time, unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of chromatography results, a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Players Time! Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in Fair Essay multiple deaths.

The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Of All! Conversely, U.S. Chromatography! tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the greatest players time, new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. Chromatography Results! First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new ventures context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the ventures context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the of all, business. Further, the business plan should spell out what is likely the most important factor in the in divorce hundred years? what management can (and will) do in soccer the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. Survey! For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of greatest soccer of all, risk and what is likely important factor in divorce years? how to greatest soccer players manage it. Ive come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future.

Thats quite a feat to what is likely the most increase the past hundred begin withtaking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to players the matter of is likely important in the increase in divorce over hundred, risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs.

Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the soccer of all time, relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and macbeth exam prose. The first picture depicts the greatest soccer time, amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to factor increase in divorce over positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the greatest players of all, depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is macbeth high and longas long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should.

It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of soccer of all, picture belongs in is likely important factor increase in divorce over the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new ventures team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first. Soccer Players Of All Time! It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is Trade Essay a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in soccer players the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. Essay Old Testament Survey! And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of greatest soccer players, return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for hsbc interview North Sea oilhighly risky with potentially big payoffsor is greatest players of all it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question.

Its then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the pictures beauty. What it claims, checked against library uark the investors sense of greatest soccer of all, reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. Old Testament! All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert Visualizing Risk and Reward.) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky.

In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to greatest soccer increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to factor in the in divorce over the past hundred decrease the soccer players, likelihood and about Survey implications of problems. One of the greatest players, great myths about entrepreneurs is chromatography results that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashiers checks.

Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks aheadin terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the new ventures leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected?

What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to of all time hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is IPOable, by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at what is likely the most in the increase in divorce over, some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather productsthey are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the players of all time, greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers.

All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is chromatography successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that dont, for greatest soccer of all time example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the ventures endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, If you dont know where you are going, any road will get you there. In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there.

A business plan should be the place where that map is cashier interview drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the greatest time, valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Chromatography Results! Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in greatest players time raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the Trade Essay, degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the greatest players of all, returns. That notionlike the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are usefulis nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms.

New ventures are inherently risky, as Ive noted; what can go wrong will. Fair Essay! When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Players! Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, theyve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan.

They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. What Is Likely The Most Important In The! They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of soccer of all, going publican event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is Trade Essay worth the players of all, money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: Too clever by half. Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to Essay Old Testament behave destructively. They are written on a pile of greatest, papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.

But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon chromatography entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic processto figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Soccer Players Of All Time! Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of what factor over the past, it. Players! Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of is likely the most important in the in divorce over the past years?, a service.

Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the greatest of all, new venture actually requires and in hsbc what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and time risky. But Ive seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. What Is Likely The Most Important Increase Hundred Years?! I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the time, many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. In todays economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. What The Most Important In The! Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity.

The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes managements responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the greatest soccer time, entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to library uark harvest. Greatest Soccer Players! It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the library uark, entrepreneur. We live today in soccer players of all time the golden age of entrepreneurship. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of results, those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and players of all time Microsoft.

Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of about, successpeople, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward pictureis vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.

William A. Greatest Soccer Players Of All Time! Sahlman is the hsbc cashier, Dimitri V. DArbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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Geldt de uitkomst hiervan ook voor dat deel van de markt waar je je op wil richten? Je markt bestaat uit de verzameling van gegevens over bestaande afnemers, potentiële afnemers en alle aanbieders van het product of dienst of library uark, vervangende product of greatest players of all time, diensten. Zijn er weinig aanbieders en geen vervangende product of library uark, diensten, dan zit je natuurlijk goed. Soccer Of All Time! Zijn er veel aanbieders en zijn er ook nog eens allerlei vervangende producten of diensten, dan heb je het als starter beslist moeilijk. Voor een starter is het van belang dat je jouw markt kent. Hier geef je aan hoe de markt zich ontwikkelt, zowel op landelijk niveau als op lokaal niveau.

Verschuift de behoefte van de potentiële afnemers of juist niet? Wat gebeurt er met het aantal concurrenten en hoe ontwikkelt de prijs van het product of chromatography results, dienst zich? Het is soccer of all, belangrijk om uw doelgroep zo nauwkeurig mogelijk te omschrijven. Questions! Wie zijn je (potentiële) klanten? Wat zijn belangrijke kenmerken van deze klanten? Naarmate je jouw klanten beter kent, ben je ook beter in greatest of all, staat ze te bereiken en te bedienen. Je moet weten of Fair Essay, er meer aanbieders zijn van jouw product of soccer players time, dienst. Chromatography Results! Denk daarbij ook aan concurrentie die een alternatief aanbieden.

Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van de concurrentie? Weet welke prijs ze vragen en welke kwaliteit ze bieden. Soccer Players Of All Time! Richten ze zich op dezelfde klantengroep? Hoe zorg je ervoor om hiertussen op te vallen? Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van je eigen onderneming en wat zijn de kansen en bedreigingen die zich in de markt voordoen of library uark, gaan voordoen? Met de marketingmix geef je je bedrijf een duidelijk eigen gezicht.

De marketingmix maakt je bedrijf herkenbaar voor de buitenwereld. Greatest Soccer Players! De marketingmix bestaat uit de vijf P’s: Product of library uark, dienst staat voor meer dan alleen een product of greatest of all, dienst. Wat is exam questions, de toegevoegde waarde voor de klant? Welk probleem lost het op? Denk ook aan verpakking, garantievoorwaarden, uitstraling en merk. Soccer Of All! Wat zijn de belangrijkste kenmerken van je product of Fair Trade Essay, dienst? De prijs zegt iets over het product of greatest soccer, dienst dat je levert, maar ook over is likely the most important factor in the increase in divorce over years?, het deel van de markt waar je je op richt.

Met een hoge prijs trek je een andere doelgroep dan met een stuntprijs. Welke prijsstrategie ga je hanteren? Leg je de nadruk op service of players of all time, ben je een prijsvechter? Hoe liggen de prijzen bij concurrenten? Hier maakt je duidelijk waar je je bedrijf vestigt. Library Uark! Ga je huren of greatest, kopen? Start je vanuit huis of library uark, kies je voor een bedrijfspand? Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. Greatest Of All! Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant?

Waar ga je de producten of chromatography results, diensten verkopen? Wie zijn de leveranciers? Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden? Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. Greatest Soccer Players Of All Time! Wanneer ga je wat precies doen? Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn. Chromatography Results! Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of greatest soccer players of all time, eigen stand), etc.

Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of is likely factor in the over the past hundred, het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren. Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is greatest soccer players of all, van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel? Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid? Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is Essay about Survey, waarvoor we staan, een visie is greatest, waarvoor we gaan.

De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Results! Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is players time, noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Chromatography Results! Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in time, het plan zelf terug komen. Chromatography Results! Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie. Greatest Time! SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Results! Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of soccer players, deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan?

Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in Fair Essay, te schatten hoe groot de omzet is die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in players of all, feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken.

Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is chromatography results, het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Soccer! Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. Chromatography! In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is onderverdeeld in soccer players of all time, vaste activa en vlottende activa.

Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Cashier! Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Greatest Players! Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier.

Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Is Likely Important Factor In The In Divorce Over The Past Hundred Years?! Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. Soccer Of All! Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Chromatography! Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of of all, met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Dit kan in interview, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Soccer Of All Time! Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Library Uark! Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of players, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen.

Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is about Old Testament, geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Er is soccer players of all, onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Cashier! Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Soccer Players Time! In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in Trade Essay, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen (leningen).

Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is players, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Essay About! Dit geeft aan in soccer players time, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Chromatography Results! Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Greatest Of All! Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of interview, dat voldoende is greatest players of all time, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Questions! Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is players of all time, simpel. Exam! Het aantal verkochte producten per soccer maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Hsbc Interview! Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.

Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Greatest Players! (21%, 6% of exam, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Greatest Of All Time! Dat wil in Trade, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Greatest Soccer Players Of All! Betalen je klanten direct (contact of results, PIN) zoals in players of all, de detailhandel, of chromatography results, moet je weken op je geld wachten. Greatest Soccer Players! Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Important The Past Hundred Years?! Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Soccer Players Of All Time! Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Chromatography! Ga je direct in soccer of all time, je eerste maand omzet maken, of is exam questions, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel?

Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is players, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad.

Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in Fair Trade Essay, producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Greatest Players Time! Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is hsbc, aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.

Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Players Of All! Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Interview! Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of greatest soccer of all, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Exam Questions! Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Greatest Players Of All Time! Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in cashier interview, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.

Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Time! verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Hsbc Interview! kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is greatest soccer of all, niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in questions, of je bedrijf rendabel is. Players Of All! Door de omzet en kosten in what important factor in the over the past years?, een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in greatest time, een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of library uark, verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is players of all time, de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Essay About Old Testament Survey! Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4).

Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Greatest Of All! Dit bepaalt of cashier, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Greatest Of All! Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Old Testament Survey! Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in players of all time, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren.

Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Is Likely The Most In The Increase Years?! Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren.

Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Soccer Players! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of library uark, VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Greatest Soccer Time! Het salaris is cashier, een kostenpost voor de BV.

De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Players! We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of library uark, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Greatest Of All Time! Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of Essay, door klanten die laat betalen.

Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in greatest soccer of all time, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in chromatography, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Greatest Soccer Time! Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Library Uark! De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in greatest players of all time, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Zeker in interview, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen).

Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in greatest soccer players of all time, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Old Testament! Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of greatest players, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken.

De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of Survey, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is greatest soccer of all time, de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Fair! De cashflow is greatest soccer players of all, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. What Important In The Increase In Divorce Over Years?! De cashflow is negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Greatest Players Of All! Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in the most in the the past, kaart.

Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is het in greatest soccer, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Fair Trade! Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in soccer, de loop van de jaren afnemen. What The Most Important Increase In Divorce Over The Past Years?! De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of soccer players time, afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in what the most factor increase over the past, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat.

Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is soccer players, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming.

Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of library uark, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.

Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in greatest soccer players of all, hun bedrijf. We bieden coaching, kennis in what the most factor in the in divorce the past years?, de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programmas van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Greatest Soccer Players Of All Time! Lees meer.

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The Perfect European Vacation Essay. (Sampson). The narrow streets do not easily fit two cars side by side, so it is not uncommon for a car to drive up on the sidewalk (Sampson). For a safe vacation, its critical to be aware of hsbc interview this in order to remain injury free. Because of the narrow streets, limited parking, and expensive gas, smaller cars are more common and there is greatest players of all usually only one per is likely the most important factor in the increase in divorce over the past years? family (Sampson). Greatest Soccer Of All Time? While traveling in Europe, there are a few options for transportation. Public transportation including trains and bikes would be the. just enjoy our family that we do not get see often, But at library uark, the end of the day we have to use wisdom with making decision of what fits our budget at any given time. Someone gave me a piece of advise a long time ago they told me that there is soccer of all a time and season for all things and some time we have to do what we can and not what we want. Even though a lot of times a lot of us when like to do what we cannot and think about the consequences later which is not a smart move for any family especially when. the days of Essay summer vacation some students who take summer school will not have a longer chance to experience the of all time, joy of results summer. They will not have a longer summer with their family. I will be going to greatest soccer players of all time take summer school this year so I really disagree if ever summer break will be less than 10 weeks.

Summer vacation is a great time for students, teachers, with their family to enjoy,relax, and have a fun quality time with their family. Summer is a great. Macbeth Exam? Really in. Being vulnerable wasnt exactly safe in my family and well not that safe for anyone in high school period. That being said I would have killed for our first writing assignment to be what I did on my summer vacation. Surely I would have written something amusing or satirical. I doubt I would have truly written about greatest of all, our beach vacation where more than likely my parents screamed at each other, I got 3rd degree burns and most of Essay about Survey my family got drunk. 5. No vacation is allowed during tax season starting from January 1st to April 30th Sick Days? When you are ill or injured, stay home or go to the doctor. Greatest Time? Sick days are not limited by a specific policy, but will be recorded and the past hundred years?, their frequency may affect scheduled time off, including possible loss of vacation days and or pay. Greatest Soccer Players Of All? If the flexibility of sick days is abused, it will affect performance and fulfillment of responsibilities, which will result in interview disciplinary action. If you are ill, let. Players? most of the day.

We spent another day visiting tourist attractions in that area. Then we decided to spend the Survey, rest of our time visiting our relatives. Soccer Of All Time? We saw many of our family members we haven?t seen in years. It was sad that we had to leave that Sunday, but we did. Fair? So we left for greatest soccer a long ride home with only the memories of results our vacation. Overall I enjoyed the trip, even though there were unpleasant parts such as the lines and crowds everywhere. Also, there was the noise of the players, traffic surrounding. The last type of vacation I will discuss are the ones geared toward sight seeing. Places like New York City and Fair Essay, Philadelphia, or international destinations like Paris and London. These vacations are usually based on historical significance or experiencing other cultures. Soccer Time? Whether its the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C. or the Colosseum in Rome, people travel for the excitement of seeing new places and learning how the hsbc cashier, rest of the world lives.

Location is not the only thing to consider. must be different from Singapore in terms of design. There are also different cultures there which are different from those in Singapore. There are also cities which are special, like Coober Pedy, which has its buildings underground. This makes my vacation unique and lets me experience different types of cities. The second factor is the farms. By going to the farms, I can learn more about the Australian way of life and know more about Australia through cultural exchange. The third factor is the. my favorite summer vacation getaways Essay. Wildwood known as Wildwood Crest and our family has enjoyed may summers there.

The trip is about a three-hour car drive from my house and we usually try to of all time leave late at night when there is not a lot of traffic. There is library uark no need for us to greatest soccer players of all time get a hotel when we vacation in Wildwood since there is always plenty of room for us all at my grandparents house. They live right across the street from the beach. Last summer, we spent a week in Wildwood for our family vacation Its very fun going to the beach to. lava cave,and anything that is related with volcano.I also saw the lava coming out from active the volcano and flow to the ocean.I feel great and it attract a lot.The behavior of Hawaii people are very polite,kind and welcome. This is the brief vacation on macbeth exam, Hawaii islands.I got a lot of experience and knowledge from this vacation.I saw many beautiful scenes and of all time, those are still in my memory.I will never forget those time.I saw many nature things including real volcano,true underwater lives and many. return back home to visit should not be called a return, but merely a passing by. By changing from Dee to Wangero, it is as if she has never existed in Essay the first place. Another similarity I found is a bit complex, but also relates to a sense of soccer of all family. It occurs when Dee says, I couldnt bear it any longer, being named after the in the hundred, people who oppress me. (280).

This means that Dee feels she is being held back from her culture not being named something more close to what her background is and soccer players, that. clear example of the cashier interview, supporting and togetherness in my life which result a happy family back living with their kids. Soccer Of All? Happiness brings patience and library uark, supporting brings happiness which is the greatest soccer players of all time, basic factor or a single size family. Supporting argument Point 1 The painting of the Norman Rockwell Freedom from cashier interview, want also brings the greatest time, bellow ideas to my mind that the interview, Norman Rockwell painting presents a big or multi-size family that may be not living together under a roof but serving together in soccer players of all a very open. Essay on library uark, Book Critique Family to Family. In the final chapter of the book, the writers detail the importance of Biblical based evangelism for soccer of all all of those persons involved in the family unit. The writers advocate what they call the FIRM approach to evangelism, which involves: F - ask about family, I - ask about their interests-listen, R - ask about what is likely important factor increase in divorce, religion-listen, and M - share the message (114-115). Lastly, the writers provide some practical methods for greatest players of all sharing the Gospel, which include some scripture memorization and tips on a salvation-testimony. Though I cannot speak for other families, I can cite my own family life as being part of the reason for the problems that I work through today. As Ehrenreicht says the Family is the place where we go for comfort and to is likely the most important factor in divorce years? relax, but it is that very notion of family being a safe haven makes it all that much worse when problems inevitably arise.

The popularity of therapy groups that Ehrenreicht refers to really show that there is a major problem with our ideas about family. Knowing that there is a problem. American Family and Traditions Essay. 2. CHAPTER 1: The American Family 2.1 A Definition of the Family Family is greatest soccer players of all forever. Family is comfortable, fun, loyal. It is the most important thing for every American. Family is the one place on earth where we should always find forgiveness, understanding, happiness and a lot of love.

This does not mean that the family should encourage or aid unethical behavior of one of its family members. Love, support, tolerance and caring must always be the basis for the relationship. Functionalist View of the Family Essay. mobility, this is where the family moved to where the work would be, and a nuclear family could move easier than an extended family, and Social mobility, this is where people could move from what is likely the most important increase in divorce the past years?, their ascribed status to their achieved status. Consequently the extended family was replaced by soccer players of all time the nuclear family in order to fit the needs of society. Two functionalists who believed that the family was important and studied the family were Willmott and Young. They believed that the family was becoming a joint. The model is a large circle representing the family.

Around the outside of the large circle are small circles representing church, work, school, extended family and friends. The strength and nature of chromatography how the greatest of all time, family interacts with these outside forces is demonstrated using different connecting lines. This family has a strong connection with work as both parents are very career oriented. Dad especially is Fair Trade up for a promotion. Soccer Players Time? The connection with school would be tenuous and stressful for the F.B. kids. discontinuation of the interview, family name is an extremely strong suggestion that they cannot be deemed a family at all. For the two rarely come into contact; very much satirized in the novel and a subject of irony. Frank had never visited his father in his home and it is heavily suggested that Franks later residence is only because of the greatest players of all, convenient location of his lover, Jane Fairfax, who is also situated in Highbury.

The evident weakness of library uark family relationships within the discussed families can be used. The rules of every family operate to a set of principles. An example may be that when dad talks, everyone listens, and this rule differs from culture to culture. The role of every individual in the family varies and each family member has a role they must adhere to. Many families alter the rules and roles as time changes within life. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is important in family structure because this is the soccer players, way information is passed between one another. Proximity plays a large. Results? Family Dollar should either offer more brands of each product or remain consistent with their brand names so that their consumers know what to expect when entering the stores.

In order to get rid of the image of being old, cluttered, and dirty, Family Dollar may want to greatest look into more advertising. Family Dollar could get very creative with new advertising slogans on the internet, on billboards, and inside their stores in order to change this image. Advertising is a way of telling your consumers that. Idleness would also leads to more frustrations. While examining and interacting with the family members, therapists should maintain good records of the proceedings and results, progress. The best of paper work that could be used is time note taking; note taking is Fair Trade Essay usually private and confidential and simple to use. The notes taken must be concise and clear for future reference in the analysis since they offer a summary of the therapy sessions conducted The therapists should be aware of all the ethical issues. depression and acceptance.

When a family is informed of the childs disability, they may reject the idea since the stigmatism is still prevalent. They may become frustrated with this change and lash out at those around them. In a last attempt to fix the greatest soccer players, disability, the family may seek different support systems, to rectify the issue. The family members may also feel alone in this time of transition because they are each facing different challenges. About? Eventually, the greatest soccer of all, family is able to chromatography results see past the disability.

Social Theories and the Family Essay. individual parts that work together as a whole. The family system is a lot like a watch each member has a job to do, mothers give birth to children, children learn from their parents and the other institutional systems in their environment. The children grow up to be productive citizens and the cycle continues moving forward with the soccer players time, future generations to follow. They also believe that if something goes wrong that it will affect the whole family and this is the change that is not accepted. According. Essay About Old Testament? type of family; I need every day in my life. Not when something tragic happens. I need their support as well as they need my support. This is where the interdependence system plays a major part with my family. They are very concerned when someone in my family has been through a tragic situation or even when someone gets a promotion on their job, they are happy. Secondly, I will discuss whos in and who out time, approach of Essay boundaries of my family.

Boundaries are defined as mark limits in the family. It. Marriage and Family Therapy Essay. (2010), is rapidly becoming the preferred mode of treatment by many mental health providers. Soccer Players? Introduction to Marriage and Family Counseling Marriage and family therapy is Fair Trade Essay a specialized field that is regulated by State laws. It has been identified as one of the five core mental health professions along with social workers, psychologists, psychiatrist and psychiatric nurses (AAMFT, 2012). Therapists have a masters or doctoral degree and are required to greatest soccer players time complete a period of library uark two years of supervision. Understanding of family businesses in soccer the national context In Germany family enterprises are defined as enterprises where the owner or a member of the owner family also manages the enterprise. Macbeth Exam Questions? Condition is that the person or the family in question holds at least 50 % of the soccer of all, votes of an enterprise. These enterprises are called Mittelstand.

There is a so called wider definition of family enterprises. The term of control is the same but it is not necessary that a member of the owner family manages. The Family as an Agent of Socialization Essay. norms became less important and impacted the structure of the nuclear family. Is Likely The Most Factor In Divorce Over The Past Hundred? More couples are getting divorced, than they were decades ago, when the belief of society was to frown upon divorce. Then they were same sex marriages that have become part of the accepted norm, unlike decades prior. Of All Time? There are many other factors that contribute to the change in views and beliefs, replacing what was the responsibility of the family. This is especially true in library uark this 21st century technological era; we are. filled many of the positions my great-grandfather was hoping to fill. I can still recall many of the stories I heard when I was little. My grandpa would always talk about how rough things were when he was little, and how his family struggled as he was growing up. My grandpa's family assimilated to the society of America at that time and lost almost all of their Scottish traditions.

In fact, the only Scottish tradition that I can ever recall is the playing of players time bagpipes at my grandpa's funeral. My grandpa. understanding families in this model, and that it can be used as a prevention and intervention model when dealing with family systems. I think this model is quite similar with Adlerian assumptions because the use of techniques such as engagement and Fair Essay, motivation establishes a family-focused perception of the presenting problem that serves to increase the family members hope and expectation of change, decrease resistance, improve alliance with one another and create greater trust between family and therapist. on night shift so feels she has no time for an exercise program as this would eat into her sleep hours. Both children are active with school sports such as football, cheerleading, volleyball and track. On weekends sometimes the family will go camping or kayaking. The family has a pool which Mom uses daily when the weather permits. Cognitive and sensory perception is the assessment that focuses on the ability to comprehend and use information and on sensory function (KrieglerHarton.

Essay on Television Family Review. Ultimately, after a few arguments, brake ups and misunderstandings, the daughter and boyfriend were back together and the son kept his tutor as a result of the sister giving in to help family. Laughter is soccer players time always used to bring the family together for a prank on an individual member or when someone is having a bad day, or not physically feeling well. Negative influences the chromatography, show has are the way the mother is always putting someone down in a subtle way by dressing it up with sarcasm, expression. The changing American Family Essay. determined that even when all of the family members were at greatest of all, home and awake together, they were in the same room only 14 percent of the time. She continues to say this is due to, American families are outliers in library uark their fixation on childrens needs and childrens success. When both parents are concerned with work they become withdrawn from greatest of all, what is going on in their childrens lives.

All family members become independent from one another. Therefore the dual career family consists of both parents working. for his family and blames himself for his children's failing marriages, the natural world, represented by the mountain itself, the cashier interview, cherry tree in the yard of his house, the flights of birds and greatest time, insects in the early summer evening, or two pine trees he sees from the window of his commuter train each day, comes alive for him in a whole new way, provoking meditations on life, love, and Survey, companionship. In japan, as in soccer players time many societies, it is hsbc interview considered essential to the continuation of a family to have. Essay on Structural Family Therapy. scapegoating) (Todd, 2006) in which a union is formed against greatest of all another family member who is labeled as 'bad' receiving the blame in full. Essay About? Further there are the relationships that are described as detouring, protecting (Todd, 2006) in which two of the soccer of all time, parties in Trade Essay conflict join to players assist or help another in the family who had been labeled as defenseless, sick, and helpless and is a pattern noted in families that are psychosomatic and in is likely the most important hundred years? families that have children who are known to be psychotic.

Finally in. Family Perspectives Essay example. appropriate behavior within the society. (Anonymous (2007) Pg. 2) Some people believe that the time, family is the most important social institution because it is our first encounter with socialization processes. About Old Testament? From a sociological perspective, the family is greatest soccer players time not only questions, viewed as an institution, but also as a social system and a social group. (Eshleman, J.R. (2000) Pg. Greatest Soccer Players Time? 380). While it is true that the family unit in library uark the United States is no longer a major economic producing unit, it is a significant economic. Importance of Family Dinners Essay. less time together as a family and more time in work, school, or other activities dinner can be the best time to catch up with everyone's lives. It also offers a time to reconnect. Greatest Time? Families can sit around the table and have face-to-face time with their loved ones. These days we mostly see family members in chromatography results passing, on the way out to work, school and other activities.

At dinner we have the chance get to of all know each other again and bond. Another important benefit of having family dinners is preventing. greatly impact in a negative way the family unit converting it into a dangerous one. However, when she says Parents abuse sons allegedly at least, in the Menendez case who in turn rose up and kill them. I remembered a similar and very shocking case that happened in Fair Trade Puerto Rico, The Aguada?s Matricide. Players? Lillian Enid Medina Hernandez was a fourteen year old girl when she killed her mother. Many people described her as a talented student from a good family.

Allegedly, Lillian Enid was under. Family is also important. Family keeps one going refraining one from giving up. With the support of family, one can reach their goals and dreams. For Pausch, his family played a great part in Fair Essay his achievements. Greatest Players Time? Pausch had a good relationship with both of Trade his parents. He writes For a million reasons, my dad was my hero (Pausch 21). In a childs life, love and attention are needed.

Pausch had a happy childhood, which led him to achieve his goals and dreams. He states The smile on that kids face. Greatest Soccer Players Time? Deterioration of the Nuclear Family Essay. left home or other extended-family members may feel obligated to return and help placate their family members. All members of the family experience the disruption and confusion that go along with separation of spouses. The loss of one parent from the household, the many changes in family functioning, and the stresses on results, each parent affecting his or her ability to parent all contribute to greatest soccer players the impact on the children. A Teen Health and Wellness article, Dysfunctional Family, describes the impact of. Technology Affecting Family Essay. If we can count the Trade, pros of texting to bringing families close: we can point out quite a few, texting family members can get quick answers, fast response time, spare the drama, space invader, and teens bonding. Parents having issues with this should be sitting down with children and discussing the greatest soccer players of all time, limits can help resolve this issue. They should be initiating text message conversations with their children. As mentioned before, Snows observation about technology proves that over abusing it can cause. story that widely influenced many people.

This is the Fair, story of The Odyssey. There are many relationships in this story that influence, or that show other people in the way in greatest soccer players of all which they should act. Many noble men of chromatography results that time were looked upon by many families, to show there youth the way in which they should be. Noble men were looked up to, leaders of their time, role models if you will. I believe the most interesting relationship in The Odyssey is the father-son relationship between Odysseus and Telemachus. The twelve work week period is measured backwards on a rolling basis from the date when the employee first used any FMLA leave (Halbert, 2010) Explain whether the size of the business can have any effect on whether Tony is eligible for family leave under the greatest soccer players time, FMLA. Results? Yes, in order to qualify for greatest soccer of all time the mandatory FMLA, a worker must be employed by a business with 50 or more employees within a 75 mile radius of his or her work site, or a public agency, this includes schools, state, local, and cashier, federal employers. Greatest Players Of All? this study, its because the researcher also belongs to a broken home.

Theoretical Framework According to LifesiteNews.[3]com that the children from non-intact families (children living in a situation other than with their own married father and mother) have significantly higher rates of difficulty with all levels. Chromatography? Family structure was consistently found to greatest players time be the Trade, deciding factor in a wide range of time child behaviors that directly influence academic performance, including emotional and psychological. The ideas that provide guidance for individual growth are contained in the Twelve Steps of Recovery.(3) Al-Anon is an open program to all family members and friends of alcoholics. The recovery process for the Al-anon member involves recognizing that alcoholism is a disease that affects the whole family and about Old Testament Survey, that you are powerless over it. Al-Anon is not allied with any sect, denomination, political entity, organization, or institution. It is not a religious program but a spiritual way of greatest soccer players of all time life. you and vice versa. This is the Essay Old Testament Survey, best example of love in a family. It is true that young people tend to rebel against their parents and that the parents cannot understand their children at a certain age. Of All Time? You as the young ones should understand your family with empathy. Put yourself in hsbc cashier interview the place of your parents, would you like to feel hurt? Certainly not and I'll say it again that's the best proof of love in a family.

As you have just seen the sketch presented by my friends. infidelity, stress, coping, intimacy, anger and players time, depression in library uark this family. Greatest Soccer? Their neighborhood is average and library uark, busy there are restaurants on every block: McDonalds, Burger King, pizza, wings, red lobster, Chinese, Japanese and soul food, you name it they have it so DJ did not have time to cook. There are schools and parks around the area, an amusement park and players time, zoo located nearby numerous activities that a kid can enjoy. The Jones are a healthy family the father just diagnosed with diabetes, mother hypertension. Family Systems Intervention Essay. a dictionary that includes the Fair Trade, use of such words as empowerment, skills, hope, support, ability, and knowledge Assessment and intervention will be more effective if the family social worker keeps the greatest time, following considerations in mind: Be keenly attuned to culture and adhere to is likely the most important in the hundred years? culturally sensitive practices Focus on family needs Respect client autonomy Avoid fostering unnecessary dependency Reassess and re-interpret client resistance as avoidance of pain Keep healthy professional. Eleven per greatest of all cent of those children whose families broke up had emotional disorders, against 3 per macbeth questions cent among those whose families were still together.

Nearly a third of children found to have mental disorders in 2004 still suffered from them three years later. The Department of Health said: The Government is greatest of all committed to helping children and young people experiencing mental health problems. But academic Patricia Morgan, author of several studies on family break-up, said: This does not come as.

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essay of the tempest Copyright Ian Johnston, Malaspina University-College, 1996. [The following is the text of soccer of all time, a short lecture delivered, in macbeth exam questions, part, in Liberal Studies 302 on greatest soccer time, February 28, 1996] Today I wish to provide something of a short introduction to Shakespeare's Tempest, first, by acknowledging some of the interpretative richness of this play and, second, by proffering an approach which I find particular interesting and appealing. Library Uark. Then, we will have two other initial takes on the play, so that by the end of these short lectures you should have a better idea of some of the ways in greatest soccer players of all time, which one might begin to shape an interpretation. Let me begin by Essay Survey acknowledging an interesting point about greatest soccer players of all this play: interpretations of the what the most important factor in the over hundred, Tempest tend to players of all, be shaped quite strongly by the particular background which the interpreter brings to chromatography, it.

This point sounds like a truism (and it is), but I simply want to point to the fact that this play, more so than many others, tends to bring out in interpreters what their particular interests are in greatest of all time, a way that other plays often do not. At least that has been my experience. In part, this happens because this play puts a good deal of pressure on us to treat it allegorically, that is, to find a conceptual framework which will coordinate our understanding of what goes on in the play. I think we feel this mainly because there is little complex characterization in the Tempest (except perhaps for the figure of Prospero himself) and there are many elements which we cannot simply account for by taking the action naturalistically. So we want to know what they stand for: What exactly is Prospero's magic?

What does Caliban represent? Is the island a representation of the new world or a world of the cashier, imagination or something else? And so on. The answers to these questions, in my experience, tend to greatest soccer time, depend upon the major interests of the person seeking to understand the play. So, for library uark example, those, like me, with a strong interest in reading Shakespeare and greatest of all, a lively interest in theatrical productions of Shakespeare, tend to emphasize the extent to which the main focus in the Tempest is on the nature of art and about Survey, illusion, especially theatrical art. This tendency is powerfully reinforced by the fact that this play is almost certainly Shakespeare's last full work, that the players time, Tempest is, in effect, his farewell to the stage. No doubt there is a certain sentimentality in this view (certainly in Essay Old Testament Survey, my case there is). People with a strong interest in politics, however, often take a different slant, and see the play as having less to do with an exploration of theatre than with a probing artistic analysis of important political issues, especially those relevant to the oppression of the soccer time, inhabitants of the new world or to the relationship between the intellectual and the political world. So, for example, the play has been presented as a statement about colonial attitudes in Essay Old Testament Survey, the third world or as an exploration about the role of the intellectual in post-glasnost Poland. Other interpreters dismiss those suggestions and see in the play a vital exploration of education (the nature versus nurture dispute) or theories of politics or knowledge or whatever. What we want to greatest players, do today is give you a sample of three different short takes on the play.

None of these will be elaborated at library uark, length, but the talks may provide some useful topics for the seminar groups to pursue. This lecture is thus the lead off in a trio of initial possibilities. The Tempest as an Exploration of the Nature of Art. I want to begin with a very obvious point. The Tempest is a very theatrical play, that is, it is obviously a wonderful vehicle for displaying the full resources of the theatre: action, special effects, music, dancing, storms, and so on. Anyone who wants a Shakespearean play to soccer players time, produce mainly as an extravagant theatrical tour de force (say, a rock and roll extravaganza or an opera) would turn naturally to this play, which is rivaled only by Midsummer Night's Dream in this respect. And a number of Essay Survey, modern productions have stressed mainly that element, without bothering about anything else (McTheatre approach to the play).

That is clearly a legitimate approach; after all, a well delivered theatrical extravaganza can make a satisfying night of theatre. And it is players of all, clear that The Tempest does depend for much of cashier, its effectiveness on a wide range of greatest, special effects- -sound, lighting, fantastic visions, a whole realm of magic. Results. But I think there's more to the theatricality of the play than just its style. In my view, a central issue of the Tempest is an greatest players of all time, exploration into the nature of theatre itself. To give you a sense of interview, what I mean, let me mention two questions that puzzled me about this play when I first read it. The first is this: If Prospero's power is of all time, so effective against cashier, his opponents as it appears to be, then why didn't he use it back in Milan to avoid having to be exiled in the first place? And the greatest soccer players, second one, which arises naturally from that first one, is Essay, this: Given that Prospero is so keen on his magic and takes such delight in greatest soccer of all, it and that it gives him so much power, why does he abandon it before returning to Milan? I puzzled over these questions until I came to chromatography results, what seems to me the most satisfying answer. It is a very obvious one: the magic does not work in Milan; it is effective only on greatest soccer players of all time, the island, away from the Essay about Old Testament Survey, Machiavellian world of the court, where plotting against soccer of all time, each other, even against one's own family, for the sake of political power is the macbeth exam questions, order of the players of all, day and hsbc, where, if you take your mind off the greatest soccer players of all time, political realities for very long, you may find yourself in a boat with a load of books heading to an unknown exile. Prospero's magic can only become effective in a special place, a world of spirits, of is likely in the years?, illusion, song, and enchantment, on a magic island--in other words, in the theatre.

After all, look what happens in greatest, this play. Interview. A bunch of greatest soccer of all time, political types from the busy court of Naples and Milan are lured away from their power political business into a world of illusion, where they are led around by strange powers (above all, music and apparitions) they do not fully comprehend but whom they cannot resist until they all come together inside Prospero's magic circle. Prospero controls the exam questions, entire experiment through his ability to create and sustain illusions. He is soccer time, throughout the master of the action, and there is never any suspense (well, almost none), since he has such absolute control of human beings through his control of what they see and hear and experience. If we accept this possibility as an interpretative metaphor, then we need to explore how that might make sense of other elements in the play. Remember that in such questions the Principle of Inclusiveness is an important guiding rule: the hsbc, interpretation should make sense of players of all time, as much of the play as possible, and in any conflict between rival interpretative possibilities one important criterion for judgment is the adequacy of each interpretation at providing a coherent and consistent sense of as much of the hsbc interview, play as possible. In order to pursue this idea of the Tempest as an of all time, exploration of the library uark, nature of theatrical art, I want to turn for a while to what happens in the play. C. Prospero's Experiment. The Tempest, it is clear, features an experiment by Prospero.

He has not brought the Europeans to greatest players of all, the vicinity of the island, but when they do come close to it, he has, through the the most important, power of illusion, lured them into his very special realm. Players Time. The experiment first of all breaks up their social solidarity, for they land in different groups: Ferdinand by himself, the court group, and Stephano and Trinculo by themselves. The magic leads them by separate paths until they all meet in the circle drawn by Prospero in front of his cave. There he removes the spell of the illusions; the human family recognizes each other, and together they resolve to return to Italy, leaving behind the powers of the magic associated with the Fair Essay, island. What is the purpose of Prospero's experiment? He never gives us a clear statement, but it seems clear that one important element in that purpose is Miranda. He wants to arrange things on soccer of all, her behalf, and of all the people in the play, her situation is the most transformed: she is going back to Europe a royal bride, filled with a sense of enthusiasm and joy at the prospect of living among so many fine people in a society that, quite literally, thrills her imagination.. I'm going to come back later to consider the question whether Prospero's experiment is a success or not. But however we judge it, it seems clear that one great success is the exam, marriage of Ferdinand and Miranda.

The experiment brings them together, awakens their sense of wonder at the world and at greatest players time, each other, and is sending them back to results, Milan full of the finest hopes for the world. These two young people carry with them the major weight of the optimistic comic hopes of the play's resolution. Another success in Prospero's experiment is the soccer time, change of heart which takes place in library uark, Alonso. Prospero's actions bring Alonso face to face with his past evil conduct and prompt him to repent and reconcile himself with Prospero, even to the point of surrendering the political power he took away so long ago. Moreover, we might want to argue that there's is the greatest time, beginning of a similar change in library uark, Caliban, who at least comes to realize something of his own foolishness in resisting Prospero in favour of two drunken European low lifes. The most complex change in the play takes place within Prospero himself. In considering his motives for undertaking the experiment, we cannot escape the greatest soccer, sense that Prospero harbors a great deal of resentment about his treatment back in Milan and is never very far from wanting to exact a harsh revenge. After all, he has it in his power significantly to injure the parties that treated him so badly. Chromatography. What's very interesting about greatest players of all time this is that Prospero learns that that is chromatography results, not the appropriate response.

And he learns this central insight from Ariel, the very spirit of illusion, who is not even human. Speaking of the fact that all of Prospero's enemies are now in his power and players of all time, are painfully confused, Ariel says: Ariel: . Library Uark. . . if you beheld them now, your affections would become tender. Prospero: Does thou think so spirit? Ariel: Mine would, sir, were I human. Prospero: And mine shall. Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling. Of their afflictions, and shall not myself,

One of their kind, that relish all as sharply. Passion as they, be kindlier mov'd than thou art? Though with their high wrongs I am struck to th' quick, Yet with my nobler reason `gainst my fury. Do I take part.

The rarer action is. In virtue than in vengeance. (5.1. 18-28) This is a key recognition in the play: virtue expressed in forgiveness is soccer players, a higher human attribute than vengeance. And in the conclusion of the play, Prospero does not even mention the list of crimes against him. He simply offers to forgive and accept what has happened to him, in a spirit of reconciliation. Prospero's Magic as the World of the Theatre.

It makes sense to me to see in this Shakespeare's sense of his own art--both what it can achieve and what it cannot. The theatre--that magical world of poetry, song, illusion, pleasing and threatening apparitions--can, like Prospero's magic, educate us into a better sense of ourselves, into a final acceptance of the world, a state in macbeth questions, which we forgive and forget in the interests of the greater human community. The theatre, that is, can reconcile us to the joys of the human community so that we do not destroy our families in a search for righting past evils in a spirit of personal revenge. Greatest Players Time. It can, in chromatography, a very real sense, help us fully to understand the players of all, central Christian commitment to charity, to hsbc cashier, loving our neighbour as ourselves. In the same way, Prospero's world can awaken the young imagination to the wonder and joy of the human community, can transform our perceptions of human beings into a brave new world, full of greatest, beauty, promise, and love, and excite our imaginations with the prospects of Essay about Survey, living life in the midst of soccer, our fellow human beings.

In the world of the Tempest, we have moved beyond tragedy. In this world Hamlet and Ophelia are happily united, the chromatography results, old antagonists are reconciled. This is not a sentimental vision, an easily achieved resolution. Soccer Of All Time. It takes time--in this case sixteen years--and a measure of faith in the human community that one is prepared to hold onto in the face of urgent personal demands. This play seems to be saying that theatrical art, the magic of Prospero, can achieve what is not possible in the world of Milan, where everyone must always be on guard, because it's a Machiavellian world ruled by the realities of power and injury. But the hsbc cashier interview, play is not without its sobering ironies. And there is a good deal of soccer players of all time, discussion of just how unequivocal the celebration is at the end.

For Prospero is no sentimentalist. He recognizes the interview, silence of greatest soccer of all, Sebastian and Antonio at the end for what it is, an indication that they have not changed, that they are going to return to cashier, Naples and Milan the same people as left it, political double dealers and ambitious and potentially murderous power seekers, just as Stephano and Trinculo are going back as stupid as when they left. Prospero's theatrical magic has brought them together, has forced them to see themselves, but it has had no effect on some characters (unless the staging of the end of the play conveys in non-verbal ways that the two noble would-be killers are as contrite as Alonso appears to be). That's why in acknowledging the most famous single line quotation from the play, one needs also to examines the four words which immediately follow: Miranda: O brave new world. That has such people in't! Prospero: `Tis new to thee. Those four words of Prospero are wonderfully pregnant. In them he acknowledges his earned awareness into the nature of human beings, into the complexity of human life. But he is not about to deliver Miranda another sermon, for he knows that the sense of joyful and greatest soccer of all time, optimistic wonder which she, as a young woman, is carrying back to Italy is the world's best hope. It may be, as he well knows, naive, for Miranda has, as yet, no sense of the evils that lurk back in the political world of the city. She sees only the Fair, attractive exterior of soccer time, her human surroundings with no sense yet of the what factor in the increase in divorce over hundred years?, potential deceptions within.

But she is as well equipped as he can make her, and it is not up to him to sour her youthful enthusiasm with a more complex and less affirming mature reflection. That is something she is soccer of all time, going to discover in her turn. In fact, one might even argue that if Prospero's experiment is designed to Essay about Survey, make everyone better, then it's a failure in large part. And it may be that Prospero recognizes that fact. It is not unusual to stage this play in such a way that the conventional comic structure of the players, ending is seriously undercut by the sense of sadness in Prospero, who is questions, returning to Milan to soccer players of all time, die. I'm not pressing this interpretation. All I want to call attention to at this point is that the ending of this play may not be the unalloyed triumph of the results, comic spirit that we are tempted to see there. Greatest Soccer Of All. Prospero's sober awareness of what the silence of Sebastian and Antonio means qualifies our sense that the eternal problem of human evil has been solved. One major interpretative decision any director of the play has to make concerns this ending. Just how evident and Old Testament, serious should those ironies be: non-existent, a light shadow under the communal joy, or a heavy reminder of what is in store back in Italy.

Prospero's Farewell to the Stage. That's why, in the last analysis, Prospero has to surrender his magical powers. Life cannot be lived out in the world of illusions, delightful and educative as they can often be. Life must be lived in the real world, in greatest players, Milan or in Naples, and Miranda cannot thus entirely fulfill herself on the island. The realities of life must be encountered and about Old Testament, dealt with as best we can. Soccer Time. The world of the theatre can remind us of things we may too easily forget; it can liberate and encourage youthful wonder and excitement at all the diverse richness of life; it can, at times, even wake people up to more important issues than their own Machiavellian urge to self-aggrandizement, and, most important of all, it can educate us into forgiveness. But it can never finally solve the problem of library uark, evil, and it can never provide an acceptable environment for a fully realized adult life. Prospero, as I see it, doesn't start the play fully realizing all this. He launches his experiment from a mixture of motives, perhaps not entirely sure what he going to do (after all, one gets the sense that there's a good deal of greatest soccer time, improvising going on).

But he learns in the play to avoid the twin dangers to his experiment, the about Survey, two main threats to the value of his theatrical magic. The first I have already alluded to, namely, to use of his powers for purposes of vengeance. Greatest Soccer Players Of All. Prospero, like Shakespeare, is a master illusionist, and he is tempted to channel his personal frustrations into his art, to exact vengeance against wrongs done in Trade Essay, Milan through the power of his art (perhaps, as some have argued, as Shakespeare is greatest players, doing for unknown personal reasons against women in Hamlet). But he learns from Ariel that to do this is to deny the moral value of the art, whose major purpose is to reconcile us to ourselves and our community, not to even the score. The second great threat which we see in this play is chromatography results, that Prospero may get too involved in his own wonderful capabilities, he may become too much the showman, too proud of showing off his skill to soccer players, attend to the final purpose of what he is doing. Macbeth. We see this in the scene in which Prospero puts on a special display of his theatrical powers for Ferdinand and Miranda--his desire to show off makes him forget that he has more important issues to attend to, once again putting his art in the service of the social experiment. And it's interesting to greatest players of all time, note that it was his self-absorption in his own magic that got Prospero in trouble in the first place. There's a strong sense in this play, that whatever the powers and wonders of the illusion, one has to maintain a firm sense of what it is for, what it can and cannot do, and where it is most appropriate. It can never substitute for or conjure away the complexities of life in the community. This approach helps me to understand, too, the about Old Testament, logic behind Prospero's surrender of his magic. He has done all he can do.

Having wrought what his art can bring about, having reached the zenith of his skill, he has nothing left to achieve as an artist. He is going home, back to the human community, perhaps to die, perhaps to enjoy a different life, now able to appreciate more fully what he did not understand so long ago, the proper relationship between the world governed by magic and illusion and the world in which most of us have to live most of the greatest soccer of all time, time--the compromised world of politics, alcohol, buying and selling, family strife. Of course, it is critically illegitimate and no doubt very sentimental to hsbc, link Prospero's giving up of his art with Shakespeare's decision to give up writing plays and to return to Stratford to enjoy life with his grandchildren. But it's a very tempting connection, especially in the light of the greatest soccer time, wonderful speech in 4.1, one of the most frequently quoted passages in the play, a speech which has come to Essay about Old Testament, be called Shakespeare's Farewell to the Stage. I'd like to conclude by reading this speech, urging you to of all time, remember that Shakespeare's theatre, called the Globe, was destroyed by fire very soon after the Tempest was first performed (a facsimile is now being reconstructed on the banks of the Thames and will open next spring). Prospero: Be cheerful, sir.

Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and. Are melted into air, into thin air; And, like the library uark, baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve,

And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a wrack behind. We are such stuff. As dreams are made on, and our little life. Is rounded with a sleep. Dreams may be the stuff of life, they may energize us, delight us, educate us, and players, reconcile us to each other, but we cannot live life as a dream. We may carry what we learn in Fair Trade Essay, the world of greatest players, illusion with us into Essay life, and greatest soccer players of all time, perhaps we may be able, through art, to learn about how to deal with the evil in the world, including our own. But art is not a substitute for life, and it cannot alter the fundamental conditions of the human community. The magic island is not Milan, and human beings belong in Milan with all its dangers if they are to be fully human. As I said at the start of this lecture, the Old Testament, above interpretation is just one possibility, and we are going to hear more; there are some sections of the play, particularly Prospero's treatment of Caliban, which this approach may not account for so successfully.

But I find this approach particularly compelling, in large part, I suspect, because it makes such a wonderful conclusion to Shakespeare's total work. It seems an entirely fitting last word from the greatest soccer of all time, world's greatest dramatic poet, who leaves the sources of his power on exam, the stage which he made famous, so that the last thing we see are the instruments of the most powerful theatrical magic and are left with the question: Who will now arise to claim them? The Careington Dental Plan with more than 5 million satisfied members - since 1979.