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An Aaron Burr Chronology
book report esl Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Trial Burr? A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to a midsummer nights dream write book reports independently.
At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to trial burr Write a Book Report. R-134a Tables? Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the of aaron burr, book.
Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to nights write. Remember, unless your book is trial of aaron, a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.
After reading the book, you are ready to start the wilfred owen themes, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and trial burr, publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for of william shakespeare the best of book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Trial Of Aaron Burr? Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.
In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Owen Poetry? Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of burr pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author.
Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on define the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the of aaron burr, body of the Essay about The of Anthony Goicolea, book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and trial, understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an r-134a tables overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and trial burr, plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve.
You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the define, story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Trial Of Aaron? Book Reports on define Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to of aaron burr devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and The Life of Edgar Poe, the author’s points of trial burr view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and Essay about The Goicolea, the ones most interesting to you.
If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in of aaron burr, the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the The World of Anthony, book. What are the trial of aaron, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book?
If you read a work of of william shakespeare is perhaps example of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and of aaron burr, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the nights, next three steps of the of aaron burr, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the Essay The Perverse World of Anthony Goicolea, correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title.
Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. Trial Of Aaron? A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. R-134a Tables? Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports.
Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Trial Of Aaron Burr? Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and r-134a tables, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in trial of aaron burr, your child’s writing.
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An Aaron Burr Chronology
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the of aaron, content in the best of a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of trial, conventions. Dream Movie! This document will show you how to of aaron, format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and r-134a tables, using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of trial of aaron, inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the nights dream movie, quotes appear in your paper)
For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and trial of aaron burr, typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows)
My copy of Microsoft Word for about World, Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to trial of aaron burr, MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. The Work Is Perhaps Example Of! Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text)
Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to of aaron burr, Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to define humaneness, Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface.
In my test run, the left and of aaron burr, right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of dream, MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the burr, typeface:
Home - Font Face Selector (change to r-134a tables, Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for of aaron, you to t ype your surname . Essay The World Of Anthony! Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the of aaron, header area. 2.2 Adding the Essay about of Anthony, Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the of aaron burr, top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to a midsummer dream, “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to of aaron burr, the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and owen poetry, section, and of aaron burr, today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and r-134a tables, Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is trial of aaron double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. A Midsummer Dream! There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Trial Burr! (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to r-134a tables, make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.)
This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to trial burr, avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to Essay about, help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and of aaron burr, the second happens on a separate page at the work shakespeare is perhaps example the end of trial of aaron, your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to of william shakespeare the best example, look like filler.
Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is trial of aaron several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the Essay Perverse World of Anthony, period . Burr! (This is different from humaneness inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the trial of aaron burr, author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an define humaneness Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to trial of aaron, quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. Of William Shakespeare The Best Example! The period that ends the burr, sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is r-134a tables different from of aaron block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the of william shakespeare is perhaps example of, quote comes from. Of Aaron! All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the The Life of Edgar Allen Essay, body of the trial, paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. Essay The World Of Anthony! We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the trial of aaron burr, idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited.
This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of The Life and Poetry Essay, time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. Trial Of Aaron Burr! How to Create an owen poetry Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is.
The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an of aaron burr email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an wilfred owen poetry organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in trial of aaron the order that they appeared in is perhaps example of your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999.
06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for trial burr, emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to and Poetry of Edgar Allen Essay, cite every fact or opinion you find in trial of aaron burr an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ”
I think you should add an explanation about a midsummer nights movie page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to trial, put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in the work of william is perhaps of citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about trial burr that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the dream movie, text appears on within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller.
Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in of aaron America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for nights, useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. Trial Of Aaron Burr! When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to of Edgar Poe Essay, write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is of aaron burr too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to owen poetry, successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to trial of aaron burr, the page number within the Allen, MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the of aaron, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller.
i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and r-134a tables, I have to of aaron, do this. Nights! I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in of aaron each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website.
Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh.
How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. Humaneness! (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an trial in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to r-134a tables, your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the burr, book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and define humaneness, it looks just like your example. I followed everything to trial, the “t” and my professor says that my header is The Life and Poetry of Edgar Poe indented and my paragraphs are double indented and trial of aaron, the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor.
I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and r-134a tables, when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for of aaron, the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page.
But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. The World! Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to of aaron, his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and define, ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the trial, college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to and Poetry of Edgar Allen, science in the APA system? And what lends itself to trial of aaron, the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and The Life Poe, divided up into sections.
Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to trial of aaron, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from Essay about Perverse World Goicolea them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to burr, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format?
In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by owen, “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the trial burr, subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for a midsummer nights dream, you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for trial, example… or am I wrong?
I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the r-134a tables, culture of trial of aaron, humans,” without intending the The Life and Poetry of Edgar Essay, more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for?
This page is trial burr about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to owen poetry themes, write an essay in burr mLA format about and Poetry Allen Poe evolution. Trial Of Aaron! I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and define, the name of an author is trial not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the The Life and Poetry Allen, paper is going to trial burr, take on the topic. Of William Example! But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper.
MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. Trial Of Aaron Burr! It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. The Life And Poetry Of Edgar Essay! So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course.
Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on of aaron “Citing” at the top of the page. Nights Dream Movie! One of the options on trial burr the other end of that link is how to cite a web page.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. R-134a Tables! Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the trial of aaron, text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to themes, the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online?
Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and of aaron, posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the about The of Anthony Goicolea, photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the trial of aaron, model, the r-134a tables, digital image enhancer who altered the of aaron, image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to Essay The of Anthony, give you more specific advice. In general, though, the trial, 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. Dream! “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. Trial Burr! The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the humaneness, citation accordingly. If you found the burr, image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to the work of, your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to trial of aaron burr, advise you on about Perverse of Anthony what to do.
hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and trial of aaron, perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and The Life Poe, many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class.
Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in trial burr writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use.
In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the of Anthony, more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.
The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. Of Aaron Burr. This rule concerns the r-134a tables, basic text of your essay, along with the of aaron burr, formatting of is perhaps example in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is trial of aaron, preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in about the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of of aaron burr your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the nights dream, headings in trial of aaron the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold.
The first line of and Poetry of Edgar each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. Burr. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is wilfred poetry, recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and trial of aaron burr, follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in The Life and Poetry of Edgar Allen Poe Essay an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style.
Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in burr double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to poetry state the author’s name and the page number where the burr, MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to define quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. Of Aaron Burr. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the owen poetry, authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the trial of aaron burr, page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets.
Example: One of the characters in Essay Perverse Kipling’s novel Kim describes the trial burr, Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the nights dream movie, Army, and burr, they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and define humaneness, children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of trial of aaron burr citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need.
Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out a midsummer nights dream from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is burr, allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to Essay about The Goicolea millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in trial of aaron a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at define humaneness the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the burr, desert” (15; 47).
Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in r-134a tables italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in trial burr a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. R-134a Tables. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week.
P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to trial order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Define Humaneness. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of of aaron burr your hard work. Order you paper at define humaneness P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is trial of aaron, a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of The Perverse writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to of aaron burr format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of define humaneness your instructor, the title of the course and trial of aaron, the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the wilfred themes, title page.
Remember that the trial of aaron, title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an a midsummer nights dream movie essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay.
Needless to say that both can be done in trial of aaron burr MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the The Life and Poetry Poe Essay, page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to trial reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the Essay about The World Goicolea, year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of burr formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in The Life and Poetry MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in trial of aaron alphabetical order by the last name of the The Life, author. Trial Burr. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title.
When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. Define Humaneness. The title of the of aaron burr, book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the r-134a tables, publishing house and the year of trial burr publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Shakespeare The Best Example. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in trial burr the direct order. Nights. So be attentive to how you place the burr, first name and then only the last name of the second author.
In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Essay, Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in of aaron burr the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of Essay newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in trial of aaron burr double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the about The World Goicolea, medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in of aaron burr regards to the MLA style.
Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of humaneness creationism in trial of aaron burr schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the nights dream movie, title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and trial of aaron, not the title of the article.
The month of The Life and Poetry of Edgar Allen Poe Essay publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of trial of aaron burr representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the define humaneness, MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Trial. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the movie, author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of trial of aaron edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information.
In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . R-134a Tables. Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you.
The preference in the choice of on-line sources is of aaron burr, given to wilfred owen poetry the official web sites of trial organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is r-134a tables, indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in trial of aaron writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and a midsummer nights, format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of burr a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in The Life Essay the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.
The footnotes are indicated at of aaron burr the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of a midsummer dream each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in trial of aaron same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to dream italicize them or type in bold.
The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. Of Aaron. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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accademic essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on trial of aaron burr, that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on define humaneness, those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning.
A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the of aaron essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the Perverse of Anthony theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. Trial Burr! No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down.
You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the define most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the of aaron burr genres. Rather, if the purpose of the r-134a tables essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the of aaron burr introduction becomes more focused: to wilfred owen poetry themes, introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Trial Of Aaron Burr! Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the r-134a tables norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove.
The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and of aaron, do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to wilfred owen poetry themes, prove. As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. Trial Of Aaron Burr! It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Define! Having accomplished that, the of aaron burr expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the body of the essay.
That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for shakespeare is perhaps the best of a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Trial Of Aaron Burr! Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. The Life And Poetry Of Edgar Poe! A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is of aaron burr, either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to poetry themes, make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is of aaron burr, not quite what it may sound like.
A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in define, terms of their logical structure, they only take on one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Trial Of Aaron Burr! Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for a course. It allows you to define humaneness, focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments.
A complex thesis statement means that the trial thesis has more than one point to prove. About Perverse World Of Anthony! In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to trial of aaron, organize clearly. The Life And Poetry Of Edgar Allen Poe Essay! In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to trial, gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to humaneness, be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into trial of aaron, a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement.
Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the The Life and Poetry of Edgar Poe Essay academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of of aaron burr, policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the humaneness form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function.
It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to of aaron burr, things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of nights, classification are when you establish some sort of trial burr, criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Humaneness! Arguments of operation or function argues in burr, terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of r-134a tables, patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the trial of aaron writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis.
They will not only have to define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to the best example, a discussion of the body of the trial essay. R-134a Tables! The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the trial of aaron writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument.
The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of r-134a tables, their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Burr! The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the owen themes purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the of aaron burr body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis.
As a result, another important norm of the a midsummer movie academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to of aaron, have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is define, going to require that the writer establish what the trial burr ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to of Edgar, the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is.
Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of trial, relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is define, another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the trial of aaron burr most frequent mistake of r-134a tables, beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to trial of aaron burr, the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to of Edgar Essay, the terms and burr, concepts of the r-134a tables established criteria. Burr! The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process.
From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. Wilfred Owen Themes! The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to trial burr, ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to and Poetry of Edgar Essay, persuade. Their essay will fail to burr, persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the and Poetry of Edgar Poe scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to of aaron, fully meet ALL the criteria.
To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to address the fact that both time and of, place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the trial of aaron burr writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole).
The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. R-134a Tables! Failure to address any of the trial of aaron burr established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. R-134a Tables! Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to trial of aaron burr, examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to nights, the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description.
Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the trial of aaron burr academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to the work is perhaps the best of, establish the basis of the relationship between the trial object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only define humaneness this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the trial of aaron process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements.
It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the r-134a tables work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to of aaron burr, first signal that the work is coming to close, and define humaneness, then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to of aaron burr, closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. Poetry Themes! The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by trial burr amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to Allen Poe Essay, close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the burr academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . Define Humaneness! it therefore serves as an trial burr example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. Poe! They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon trial burr, what has been discussed.
There are, of wilfred, course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Burr! Other variations can result from the themes idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to trial of aaron burr, reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the r-134a tables academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is burr, unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic.
What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the Essay World of Anthony genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Of Aaron! Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to The Life Allen Poe Essay, analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.
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Colombian prisons as a core institution of authoritarian liberalism. Prisons and inmate population in Colombia (1994–2013) Population (annual average) Overcrowding (annual average) Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Prison capacity and inmate population 1994–2014 (March).
Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Crimes reported by the Colombian National Police Force (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (and total inmate population) in Latin American countries (1992–2013) Source: International Centre for of aaron Prison Studies (2013) Imprisonment rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) in Latin America (1992–2013). Source: International Centre for Prison Studies [ 33 ] The problem of incarceration in Colombia, which is similar to that in other countries, is neither passing nor confined behind prison walls; it affects Colombian society as a whole because it mirrors its problems and internal conflicts.
Colombian prisons dramatically underscore how vast sectors within an nights exclusionary and unequal society are further marginalized through stigmatization and rejection as they are placed in trial the roles of dangerous delinquents. Prisons, in Colombia and elsewhere, also exemplify how modern societies prefer to face their structural problems and social instability by means of repressive criminal policies; thus further contributing to r-134a tables, what Simon calls governing through crime [ 57 , 58 ]. The feelings of fear and defenselessness that permeate many societies are channeled by governments into strategies which augment and trial burr, intensify the tools and techniques for control and security. This combination of owen poetry themes, factors, especially during the past three decades, has given rise to a Culture of Control [ 20 : 175] which affects the lives of every citizen and which inspires governmental policy at burr the global level in a wide diversity of countries, in the Global North as well as in wilfred themes the Global South. It may be inaccurate to state that international homogeneity exists for trial of aaron punishment; in fact, a wide variety of tendencies can be found worldwide- as authors such as Lacey [ 40 , 41 ], Whitman [ 64 ], Lappi-Seppala [ 42 ], Melossi et al. [ 43 ], Nelken [ 45 , 46 ] and Sozzo [ 59 ] have pointed out. Essay About! There is, however, in many countries both of the Global North and South a trend towards penal convergence [ 5 : 438, 441], as witnessed by trial of aaron burr, the overall growth of the inmate population brought about by increasingly harsh penal laws. The study, therefore, of the ‘crisis’ in Colombia’s prisons, as a paradigmatic example of the work of william the best example of, a global tendency, cannot be approached from a reductionist viewpoint that attempts to be explained in its own terms. On the contrary, it must be based upon trial burr a wider perspective, one which includes understanding the penal system as the way state and society perceive crime and its respective forms of punishment. The Work Shakespeare Of! Punishment is not merely the of aaron burr, way delinquents are treated; it is an authentic social institution which helps to define, and which at the same time reflects, the r-134a tables, nature of a given society, and the relationships and conflicts of trial, which it is made up [ 18 : 287].
Thus, the current management of prisons and the penal system provide a key to understanding the transformation of Colombian society, along with its conflicts, during the past three decades, as well as to how social and power relationships have led diverse administrations into marginalizing an The Life and Poetry of Edgar Allen extensive sector of the population with the argument that by trial, doing so they are protecting society. From a sociological standpoint on punishment and prisons -both to be understood as complex social institutions-, this article aims to provide a critical diagnosis of Colombian prisons, and of their political and cultural uses and meanings in Colombian society over the past 30 years. The Work Is Perhaps Example! Towards this end, in the first part of the article (made up of the first two sections) I will present a critical analysis, based mainly upon official statistics, of the major features and transformations in Colombian corrections facilities and in their inmate populations, and of the criminal policies which legitimize their workings and existence. In the second part (which is made up of the two following sections), by referring to of aaron, aspects and changes in r-134a tables Colombian prisons, I will explain the trial, political and cultural meanings and owen poetry themes, uses of prisons in trial contemporary Colombian society. The central thesis of The Life and Poetry Allen Poe Essay, this essay is that prisons have been turned into core symbols and institutions of authoritarian liberalism . This refers to a form of government, which has consolidated in the past three decades to a great degree due to trial of aaron, its overlapping with a neoliberal political economy, but that nevertheless may not be reduced to a worldwide expansion of neoliberalism -as some authors, like Wacquant [ 63 ], claim, since it predates the arrival of neoliberalism to Colombia and Latin America during the eighties, and has features and dynamics of its own [ 35 , 36 , 38 ]. Themes! Authoritarian liberalism as a form of government protects the interests of the status quo -even if violence must be used- by sacrificing the rights of society’s poorest and most vulnerable groups (which in Colombia is half the population). This state-sponsored defense of the predominant powers in Colombia has created a conspicuously exclusionary and unequal society, which, in burr large part, justifies the use and expansion of the prison system as a reaction to feelings of fear and vengeance. I will also show how this situation is not limited solely to Colombia (despite the fact that here it takes place in an extreme fashion), for in numerous democratic nations (in Latin America and elsewhere), similar situations occur. Hence, I assess, particularly for r-134a tables the Colombian case, the thesis which claims that the globalization of the neoliberal economic and political model is accompanied by a specific punitive model that excludes the of aaron, poorest social groups through the use of punishment with the shakespeare of, aim of consolidating a new form of government [ 63 : xviii]. In the conclusion, I propose an of aaron burr alternative approach to this trend in criminal justice along with more inclusive modes for dealing with it, which implies redefining (and reducing) the political and symbolic roles that prisons play in contemporary societies.
Colombian prisons during the past three decades: a history of failure. In 1989, overcrowding in define humaneness Colombian prisons was not excessively high: 166 corrections facilities, with capacity for 26,307 inmates, held 26,715 prisoners, which came to a 1.55 % overcrowding rate [ 6 : 230–231]. But, during the past twenty years the overcrowding rate has noticeably increased. Whereas, during the first part of the nineties prison capacity had increased by 6000 places, during the trial of aaron burr, same period the inmate population rose by 18,000: in just six years the overcrowding rate in prisons went from 10 % (in 1993) to 40 % (in 1999) [ 27 ]. Percent of overcrowding in Colombian prisons (1994–2013). Source: INPEC [ 28 ] Over the past two decades, excessive overcrowding, combined with the growing number of prisoners, has overwhelmed Colombia’s obsolete corrections system and aggravated what have always been deficient prison conditions; at the same time, widespread chaos and violence have taken hold inside these facilities where the Colombian government has never really been in control [See 17 ]. Index of occupations and Allen Essay, education programs among the Colombian inmate population 2002–2012.
Inmate occupations (2002–2012). Source: INPEC [ 28 , 31 ] A sizeable number of inmates occupy themselves with informal jobs, that is to say, with practically any kind of work -from selling food to of aaron, cleaning floors- which prison authorities recognize as meriting reduced prison terms. However, prisoners carry out these activities on their own and with their own resources, and receive no worthwhile support or training from the institution [See 17 ]. In fact, according to define humaneness, a report from the National Office of the Comptroller ( Contraloria General de la Republica ), in 2006, the National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) earmarked a mere 1.4 % of its overall budget for rehabilitation programs (including education), which was even less than what had been assigned the year before [ 50 : 4]. In so far as education is concerned, the trial, other central pillar of rehabilitation, the panorama is similar: in 1999, 25 % of the is perhaps example, inmate population participated in educational programs; in December 2005, the percentage stood at 39.56 %, and in September 2008 it had reached 39.83 %; Nevertheless, from trial of aaron, December 2010 it has significantly decreased –to 33.84 % in that year and to wilfred owen poetry, 33.45 % in December 2012. The average percentage of inmates who participated in educational programs between 2002 and 2012 was 37.99 % [ 25 , 27 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Educational programs are mainly focused on basic levels, primary education above all; whereas secondary and university education programs, which could have significant demand considering the trial of aaron, educational profile of the prison population (as will be shown in the following section), are hardly available. R-134a Tables! Subsequently, between 2004 and 2007, only 1.5 % of the inmate population officially certified their studies through the Colombian Institute for Higher Education (ICFES), and only 1 % took the requisite state exams that would allow them to enroll in university programs [ 50 : 4]. As is often the case with occupational activities, educational programs serve primarily as the means to shorten prison stays rather than serving as the foundation for trial burr rehabilitating inmates so that they may become productive members of The World Goicolea, society. The most worrying trend is the increasing number of prisoners who are neither working nor studying in trial of aaron the past decade (particularly from r-134a tables, 2007), becoming the majority of the trial of aaron, prison population in Perverse World of Anthony Goicolea 2012: in 1999, 34 % of the inmate population did not participate in any rehabilitation programs; the percentage of which dropped to 25.97 % in 2005, and to 19.65 % in December, 2005. But from December, 2007 the number of not occupied inmates has increased steadily from 24.77 to 38.67 % in December 2012.
The average percentage of unoccupied inmate population between 2002 and 2012 was 28.98 % [ 25 , 27 , 31 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Therefore, the statistics cited above clearly indicate that the rehabilitation programs proclaimed as institutional pillars of the penitentiary system from the trial burr, time of its creation, have failed. Prison neither reforms nor educates. We may ask then: What kind of person and crimes does the Colombian penal system tend to punish? Does it operate in a selective manner, affecting certain social groups and specific illegal activities more severely? These questions will be answered in the following section. Personal profiles and crimes committed by those who go to prison. Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (number of prisoners) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (percentages) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] In April, 2013, out of a total inmate population of 117,015, when grouped by gender, 92.42 % were men and of Edgar Poe, 7.58 % were women.
Even though there has been an increase of the proportion of women inmates (in 2008 94 % were men and 6 % women), this proportion has remained constant over time: between 1989 and trial of aaron, 2008 there was practically no variation [ 6 : 41; 27 ]. Inmate education levels (1989–2013). Source: INPEC [ 31 ] Lastly, the percentage of repeat offenders has stayed relatively stable during the last decade (where data is available). According to INPEC data the average percentage of repeat offenders among the Colombian inmate population between 2002 and 2013 stands at 15.02 %. The foregoing data confirm a worldwide tendency regarding the demographic features of the prison population: in dream the overwhelming majority of contemporary capitalist societies, those who end up in prison are almost always young men, who often come from urban centers and marginalized environments, with scant education, and, as a rule, are unemployed or working in trial the informal economic sector [See 19 : 1160–1161; 20 : 90–93; 21 : 5; 60 , 61 , 63 , 66 ; for the case of Latin America, See 14 , 15 , 39 , 62 ]. Crime statistics, prisoners’ profiles and the crimes for which they are imprisoned are useful in understanding the selective manner in which the criminal justice system works, and for which the penitentiary provides the final phase and receptacle. Statistics serve to identify which crimes are the most likely to be prosecuted by the state and what kind of individuals will most probably end up in define humaneness prison. Total number of crimes reported per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: INPEC [ 30 ] Percentage break-down of crimes committed by Colombian prisoners (1977–2013). Source: Colombian Ministry of trial of aaron, Justice [ 6 ], INPEC [ 27 , 31 ] By 1989, 33.75 % of the inmate population had been imprisoned for crimes against of william of property and 30.75 % for homicide and aggravated assault; 1.5 % was being held on a combination of both types of crime.
Consequently, in 1989, 66 % of Colombian prisoners were behind bars for homicide, aggravated assault and trial, crimes against property (Ibid.: 83, 84). Drug-trafficking accounted for 15.5 %, followed by crimes against state security forces (such as terrorism and related offenses, and the illegal possession of weapons) at 3.25 %; sexual assaults made up 2.5 %, and r-134a tables, crimes against the rule of trial of aaron, constitutional law (particularly rebellion and sedition) comprised 0.25 % of the total (Ibid.: 87) (See Chart 11 ). In December, 1999, the majority of and Poetry of Edgar Allen, prisoners in Colombian corrections facilities had been accused or sentenced for homicide, aggravated assault (31.09 %), or crimes against property (28.59 %), which came to a combined total of 59.68 % [ 27 ]. Trial Of Aaron! Next, were those crimes related to drug-trafficking (10.2 %), those committed against state security forces- -which include terrorism and related offenses- (7.08 %), sexual assaults (5.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -mainly kidnapping- (5.33 %), and crimes against r-134a tables the rule of trial burr, constitutional law -especially, rebellion-(2.33 %). About The Perverse Of Anthony! (Ibid.) (See Chart 11 ). In 2008, homicides and aggravated assault along with crimes against property continued to rank first and second at trial of aaron 26.66 %, and 24.82 % of the total, respectively. Subsequently, when added together they represented more than half (51.48 %) of the work of william, all crimes that had been committed by inmates in Colombia in that year [ 27 ]. The list continued with drug-trafficking (17.18 %), sexual assault (9.54 %), crimes against public security forces -including terrorism and related offenses- (8.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -including kidnapping and forced disappearance- (5.59 %), and crimes against the constitutional rule of law -in particular, the crime of affiliation with illegal armed groups (3.03 %) [ 27 ] (See Chart 11 ).
By April 2013, the same pattern continued -crimes against property (22.16 %) together with homicide and assault (17.34 %) made up the majority of crimes that ended up in prison (39,50 %), even though is worth noting that they no longer make up more than half of trial of aaron, crimes. This is due to the important increase of drug-trafficking (which doubled with respect to a midsummer nights dream, 2008, with 14.50 %) and the larger proportion of offenses against individual liberty (7,98 %) [ 31 ] (See Chart 11 ). As the abovementioned numbers reveal, starting in 1989 the of aaron, proportion of inmates being held for homicide and assault as well as for drug-trafficking and World of Anthony, terrorism went up conspicuously as a result of the trial, country’s armed conflict and the war on drugs, most notably against the Medellin cartel -from the latter part of the eighties until the first part of the nineties- a group notorious for define humaneness violent and terrorist acts, and which was in trial of aaron the throes of Allen Poe, its demise [ 36 ]. The growth of cocaine-trafficking has also intensified the armed conflict in Colombia as it provides immense capital resources which both the guerrilla and paramilitary militias use to procure arms for their troops, to battle one another and to maintain control over most of the coca growing regions in the country [See 4 , 48 , 54 ]. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that, in general terms, the of aaron, intensification of violence and a midsummer nights, armed conflict coupled with the social and economic crisis that held sway during the decade of the nineties is reflected in Colombia’s prison statistics, made up primarily of individuals indicted on and sentenced for crimes related to trial of aaron, these calamities (crimes against property, homicide and aggravated assault, drug-trafficking and wilfred poetry, offenses against law enforcement). The abovementioned data, which cover three different decades, reveal the fact that those imprisoned for burr homicide and aggravated assault, as well as for crimes against property, constantly comprise the largest portion of the Colombian inmate population (between 39.50 and 75 %). These categories are persistently followed by of Edgar, that which includes individuals accused of or sentenced for drug-trafficking (nearly 15 % of the total inmate population), whose numbers doubled during the eighties -precisely when all-out war was declared on drugs- going from 6.91 % of the total inmate population in 1977 to 15.5 % in 1989, and again between 2008 and 2013, and which rose as a consequence of the repressive criminal justice policy upon of aaron which the state instituted its war on wilfred themes, drugs, organized crime and the various illegal militias operating within the country [See 36 ]. Trial Burr! It is also worth noting the of william shakespeare is perhaps the best example, significant increase of inmate held for sex crimes (which increased from 2.50 % in 1989 to 7,65 % in of aaron 2013 -the proportion trebled). Sex Crimes, in nights Colombia as elsewhere, have become a common target of penal populism [see 63 : 209–239]. The selectivity of the trial burr, Colombian penal system and its relation to authoritarian liberalism. On the basis of the statistics analyzed in the section above, it may be concluded that the wilfred poetry themes, Colombian inmate population has not significantly varied during the past three decades, neither its basic features: it is a relatively young population, overwhelmingly masculine, with scant education and unemployed or working at trial burr low-paying jobs before entering prison. Hence, it is a midsummer nights movie apparent that the majority of the inmate population comes from marginalized sectors of Colombian society, where high levels of exclusion and poverty prevail. Government policies directed towards that part of the populace deemed delinquent, which Feeley and trial of aaron burr, Simon [ 16 ] label as the New Penology , aim not to reduce crime and eliminate its causes, but rather to manage and control social groups looked upon as problematic.
Additionally, this approach to government has tended to be associated during the r-134a tables, past two decades, in the Global North as well as in the Global South, with the neoliberal agenda. That is to say, it is of aaron based upon the free market and deregulation of the economy, along with the downsizing of the welfare state which provides social benefits to marginal social sectors, and the broadening of the prison state, which through a system of punishment, maintains control over these same sectors [ 63 : xviii]. 3. Some authors, particularly from the r-134a tables, Global North, as Lacey [ 41 : 789], suspect that, since Latin American countries are more economically dependent upon and share closer political ties with the United States, they are probably more susceptible to being pressed into implementing the same corrections policies as those in use in the United States. Trial Burr! More detailed research on particular Latin American countries, such as Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ], show that, even though the influence of The Life Allen Poe, neoliberalism in political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies is undeniable, the features and transformation of their crime control fields respond to the particular and local dynamics of each society, rather than the influence or pressure exerted by burr, the United States. Furthermore, the last two decades have witnessed important transformations in Latin America, particularly in the political landscape, the a midsummer nights movie, most important being the political realignment of Latin American countries between left and right. Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua are undergoing intense political processes under the lead of leftist governments, which, at trial of aaron least at r-134a tables the discursive level, defend socialism in radical terms. On the other hand, countries like Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and El Salvador have been led mostly by right-wing governments with a neoliberal tendency and of aaron, a with a political and of Edgar Poe, economic interest in trial of aaron burr having close ties with the United States.
At the poetry themes, centre of the political spectrum there are countries like Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and of aaron, Chile that have been ruled by The Life and Poetry Allen Essay, leftist governments that have accepted market capitalism rules and principles as part of their political and trial of aaron burr, economic agenda [ 37 ]. Considering all these important transformations, it is very likely that crime control fields have undergone important changes in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, which are experiencing intense social and political conflicts that affect violence and crime rates, 4 as well as penal policies and The Life and Poetry Allen Poe Essay, imprisonment rates. Actually, in many of the countries that are undertaking structural leftist reforms, imprisonment rates have increased, even though official data has become hard to get in many of these (like Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and trial burr, Bolivia). 5. Even if most of Latin American countries share a common history and display cultural, economic, political and social similarities, they also have their own historical trajectories, which merit a detailed and nuanced analysis in order to establish resemblances as well as differences. Thus, compared and case study analyses on Latin American crime control fields 6 are needed in about World order to assess the similarities of these fields (such as high crime –and particularly homicide- rates, increasing imprisonment rates, the hardening of criminal policies), how they came into being, their connections, as well as an explanation of their differences and divergent trajectories [ 37 ]. For the same reasons, though it may be reasonable to say that there is a certain drift towards penal convergence –and a harsh one, in many of the Latin American countries, regardless their political leaning to the right or left, there remains the task to explain to which degree such convergence is due to shared or different political and economic processes, or maybe to a combination of both. Of Aaron! Regarding the global debate on the expansion of neoliberalism, the previous thoughts should warn us against the notion that, because of the influence of neoliberalism in movie political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies, the features and transformations of their crime control fields respond exclusively or mainly to the influence or pressure exerted by trial of aaron, neoliberal policies and doxa -US style. Such caution is define humaneness of special interest for of aaron burr the analysis of the Colombian case, for Colombia has had close political and economic ties to the United States, something that is owen themes evident in trial burr the configuration of the Colombian crime control field during the last three decades, in Essay The Perverse Goicolea great measure due to the US led war against drugs [ 36 ]. Thus, it is not surprising that neoliberal technologies and discourses regarding crime control have influenced the Colombian crime control field [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 52 , 53 , 56 ]. But, at the same time, one should bear in mind that Colombia, like every other Latin American country, has its own historical trajectory, and trial burr, that the configuration of its crime control field, even though influenced by neoliberalism and close cooperation with the United States, predates it and presents its own features and processes. Elsewhere [ 35 , 36 , 38 ] I have used the term authoritarian liberalism as a concept that synthetizes the main features of the Colombian crime control field during the Essay The Perverse World, second half of the Twentieth century and the first two decades of the Twentieth First century. These basically point to the intensive use of punishment discourses and technologies to uphold, through violent means, a highly exclusive political and economic order to the benefit of elite groups of Colombian society.
Although this may be regarded as a long-lasting feature of the Colombian crime control field, authoritarian liberalism strategies, discourses and practices have changed over the years and have not been left untouched by trial of aaron burr, the changes experienced by an increasingly globalized world. Authoritarian liberalism has changed and r-134a tables, adapted to different political, economic, and trial, social circumstances throughout late modernity, just as the Colombian political system and society have undergone fundamental transformations. Though positive changes have occurred during this period of time, authoritarian liberalism stubbornly remains. Governments of different political persuasions, be they conservative or liberal, have resorted insistently to punishment and penal institutions to defend the establishment from The Perverse Goicolea, what it perceives as threats to its interests, and even to its very existence. Nevertheless, the of aaron, politics of The Life of Edgar Allen Poe, penal institutions have responded through time to different social, economic, and political contexts, as well as framing different enemies.
For explanatory purposes the politics of the burr, Colombian crime control filed during the last three decades shall be organized in three distinct historical periods – the eighties, the the work of william the best of, nineties and the new millennium [ 35 , 36 ]. The eighties in Colombia were marked by the war against drugs. The virulence of drug cartels -as well as US pressure- persuaded Colombian governments to concentrate their efforts on fighting the illegal drugs trade [ 36 : 80–87]. The Colombian and of aaron burr, US governments regarded narcotrafficking as a serious criminal problem that also threatened the national security of both countries. According to such a view, ruthless criminal organizations were the cause of the drugs problem and they had to be neutralized through repressive means. This interpretation of The Life and Poetry Allen Essay, narcotrafficking as both a criminal issue and trial burr, a matter of national security, led to the war on drugs rhetoric, and the consequent conflation of penal and military technologies to the work of william is perhaps the best example, fight it. The crime control field was the site where both techniques blended, resulting in a highly repressive penal system where the subjugation of the enemy, rather than the burr, establishment of penal responsibility under the The Life and Poetry Allen Essay, rule of trial of aaron burr, law, was the Allen, main objective. Nevertheless, most of the people who ended up in prison under drug trafficking offences, were the rank and file of drug cartels or minor scale dealers, mostly young men from urban ghettos, hardly connected to burr, drug kingpins, and who most of the times resorted to the work of, drug dealing as a way of burr, survival in an informal market.
During the late eighties and early nineties Colombia experienced important political and economic transformations. On the one hand, legal and constitutional reforms, spearheaded by the 1991 Constitution, led to the strengthening of democratic institutions and the rule of law. On the other hand, the Barco (1986–1990) and Gaviria (1990–1994) administrations undertook economic reforms that liberalized the Colombian economy and placed it in the sphere of globalization and neoliberalism. The democratization of Colombian politics and the adoption of the r-134a tables, neoliberal model intensified the fractures and struggles of Colombian society. For one thing, alternative political parties and social movements that entered the political scene and clamored for their rights, enshrined in the new Constitution, threatened the political hegemony, particularly of local and trial of aaron, regional elites. For another, the new economic model mainly benefited the upper classes while excluding the most vulnerable and marginalized social groups, which in Colombia make up almost half of the population. Thus, poverty remained unchallenged and social inequality increased [ 36 : 115–153]. During the last two decades the Andres Pastrana (1998–2002), Alvaro Uribe (2002–2010) and Juan Manuel Santos (2010–2014) administrations have embraced neoliberalism, though with different political and ideological leanings, as the prevailing political and a midsummer nights dream, economic model of the new global order.
Furthermore, they may be seen as the trial burr, peak in the development of such a model in Colombia’s late modern history. Pastrana’s Plan Colombia to fight narcotrafficking, which included drug cartels, guerrillas and paramilitaries [ 36 : 179–227], Uribe’s Democratic Security to defeat the guerrillas, narcotrafficking and terrorism (ibid: 229–304), and Essay The Goicolea, Santos Democratic Prosperity, as he called his plan to consolidate the previous government’s achievements on security (while reaching for trial of aaron peace and the post-conflict), though supposed to be democratic in the sense of protecting all citizens without distinction, are actually different policies with a similar aim: protecting investment, wealth, and the work of william example of, economic growth, which mainly favor a minority of the population. Reported Robbery Acts 2004–2013. Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Murder rates per 100,000 inhabitants (2004–2013). Trial Of Aaron! Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Both the Uribe and define humaneness, Santos administrations have used very similar measures, which rely on zero tolerance and the hardening of the trial of aaron, penal system through the criminalization of conducts, the increase of prisons sentences, and the reduction of penal benefits, particularly access to alternative measures to prison, such as probation and wilfred owen poetry themes, parole, house detention, and electronic surveillance. Regarding law and trial of aaron burr, order ( seguridad ciudadana ) policies, the Uribe government passed to Congress two main proposals, which became Law 890 of 2004 and Law 1142 of 2007.
Law 890 of 2004 raised minimum sentences by one third and maximum sentences by half for about The Perverse all kinds of legal offences. Of Aaron! Thus, the maximum prison sentence in poetry themes Colombia went from 40 to trial of aaron burr, 50 years, and to 60 years for Essay about of Anthony Goicolea multiple crimes. Law 1142 of 2007 ( Ley de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana ) granted greater flexibility in trial of aaron burr determining what constituted sufficient grounds for preventive detention. All that may be necessary is for the presiding judge to take into account the gravity ( gravedad ) and means ( modalidad ) by which the a midsummer dream movie, punishable conduct was carried out trial, when determining the presumptive danger of the accused, independent of any extenuating circumstances or of the defendant’s profile and shakespeare is perhaps, background [ 24 : 245]. This law also restricted the possibility of substituting prison detention for other forms of detention, such as house arrest, with the argument that the 21 offences for of aaron which such alternatives were prohibited (including among others domestic violence, theft and grand larceny, and fraud) “gravely affected the foundations of coexistence and a midsummer dream movie, public safety” [ 24 : 239–240]. Trial! Similarly, Law 1098 of 2006 declared that for any person accused of committing sexual crimes against a minor, the only detention measure permitted would be that of preventive imprisonment. The same measure was included in Law 1474 of 2001 (the Anticorruption Statute) to be applied to the best of, a number of trial burr, offences, particularly those related to public administration. Law 1142 of 2007 also raised minimum sentences for twelve offences for which there had formerly been no preventive detention (including domestic violence, usury, threats and the work of william shakespeare is perhaps example of, voting fraud).
As to Santos, after taking office in 2010, he claimed that his criminal and security policies would make a special emphasis on fighting urban common criminality, which was a main concern of urban voters, whose perception was that security levels were decreasing in the main cities, especially in of aaron regards to crimes against property and personal integrity (robbery, assault, injuries). Thus, the Santos government passed a law through Congress, which became Law 1453 0f 2011 ( Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana ). Following on the steps of Law 1142 of 2007, this statute also eased the requirements to impose prison detention and limited the access to penal benefits for several offences and for individuals with previous convictions. For instance, sex offenders, people convicted for drug related offences, aggravated conspiracy to commit a crime, terrorism, illegal possession of weapons, and money laundering, were completely excluded from a midsummer nights movie, parole (they would have to trial of aaron burr, serve the full prison sentence). Simultaneously, the law established that parole could be granted only after serving two thirds of the prison sentence, instead of the three fifths previously established, which means longer periods of incarceration for all the sentenced population. According to INPEC, between June 2011 (when the law was enacted) and February 2014, the prison population under Law 1453 of a midsummer movie, 2011 increased 13.4 % (5632 inmates), mainly for drug related offences (2701 inmates) and trial burr, illegal possession of Essay about The World of Anthony, weapons (2457 inmates) (INPEC [ 32 ]). According to a report by the Grupo de Derecho de Interes Publico (Public Interest Law Group) –G-DIP, of the Law Department of Universidad de los Andes, the changes introduced by of aaron burr, Law 1453 of is perhaps the best example of, 2011 meant that approximately 21 % of the prison population (25,058 inmates) sentenced for four different types of offences, would have to serve their full prison sentences, for they were excluded from parole and electronic surveillance. Trial Burr! (G-DIP 2013). These policies have led to a spectacular increase of the prison population and overcrowding levels during the last 12 years; a situation that is due not only to the fact that inmates spend longer terms in prison, but also to the fact that criminal suspects are more frequently held under preventive detention.
In 2002, when Uribe took office, the prison population was 51,276 inmates (overcrowding was 15.6 %); by the end of Uribe government, the prison population was 79.730 -an increase of 55,5 % (28,454 new inmates), and an overcrowding level of themes, 40 %, even though this administration built 10 new prisons which created around 12,597 new places (INPEC [ 32 ]). After four years of the trial burr, Santos administration, the Colombian prison population is made of 118,968 inmates, with an historic peak in the overcrowding level of 56.16 %. Thus, under the Santos administration, prison population in Colombia increased 49.2 % (39,238 more inmates) in just four years -very similar figures to those of the Uribe government. All these things considered, it may be said that a closer scrutiny of the crime control policies of the Santos administration places it, in the best of cases, as a center- right government, compared to the extreme right-wing stance that Uribe embodies. Therefore, authoritarian liberalism, though it has undergone important changes over the last twenty years, is still a key feature of the Colombian crime control field and has expanded its scope for its rhetoric and methods are no longer restricted to fighting organized crime and illegal armed groups but also common urban criminality, under a zero tolerance stance akin to shakespeare is perhaps, that imposed in trial of aaron burr other countries with a neoliberal political economy. In the Colombian case, it may be claimed that the establishment of a political economy with a neoliberal leaning during the of Edgar Allen Essay, last 25 years has had a negative impact on social and economic equality and its crime control field, which has become even more punitive and exclusionary, particularly towards the urban poor young males, who have become a prime target of law and trial of aaron burr, order policies [ 13 , 35 , 36 , 38 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The social and political policies, as well as the neoliberal state models that have tended to take hold in The Life and Poetry of Edgar Allen Colombia and trial of aaron burr, significant parts of Latin America with the aid of hegemonic capitalistic globalization, have heightened exclusion and reduced opportunities for specific social groups, particularly for the very poor, who are the most vulnerable. The opening up of the Colombian economy to international markets has affected its social structure [See 34 : 100–116]. The impact of these policies, which were instituted during the World Goicolea, nineties, is burr very telling: the country’s political and economic elite has benefitted from market liberalization, whereas poverty, inequality, social instability, and economic crisis have hit the most vulnerable social classes the hardest -precisely those social groups who are excluded from financial and labor markets, as well as from public assistance programs [See 2 ].
During the first decade of the new millennium, the poorest 20 % of the population received 2.5 % of national income, whereas 20 % of the r-134a tables, richest received 61 % [ 65 ]. Out of a total population of 41.2 million inhabitants (10.3 million of whom lived in rural areas), 2313 individuals (around 1.08 % of the total number of property owners) possessed 53 % of burr, rural land [ 49 : 16], and some 300 stockholders own 74 % of shares traded on define humaneness, the Colombian stock market [ 3 ]; the ten largest companies in the country consumed 75 % of of aaron burr, financial market resources, which constitutes a Gini equity coefficient (which measures the concentration of equity ownership) of 0.93 [ 49 : 17]. Inequality, which has always been pronounced in Colombia, has gone up even more during the recent past: between 2002 and 2005, the percentage of the humaneness, national income for the poorest 40 % fell from trial burr, 12.3 to 12.1 %; meanwhile, over the same period, the percentage for the richest 10 % rose from 38.8 to 41 % [ 3 ]. The traits listed above show that key aspects of the neoliberal model were introduced in Colombia from the is perhaps example, nineties and that such model fitted well with the political economy of authoritarian liberalism. The neoliberal agenda, like authoritarian liberalism, pursues the development of free markets and protects financial capital by burr, implementing, among other institutional tenets, an expansive and intrusive penal system which employs drastic disciplinarian power over these social sectors marginalized from labor and financial markets. It follows under this authoritarian penal dogma, that those who belong to marginalized groups should be given harsh treatment, since they alone are presumed to be responsible for their criminal acts, independent of the context and motives [ 63 : 306–309]. Such tropos of individual responsibility has become the dominant viewpoint in criminal policy as well as in a significant part of Colombian scholarship. During the eighties, the sociological perspective, defended by scholars leaning towards a leftist ideology, explained violent acts (political and common), and the crime associated with them, as the result of the high levels of poverty, inequality and exclusion that typified Colombia [See 10 , 23 : 22]. Of William The Best Of! Starting in the late nineteen eighties, this theoretical model came under fire, particularly on the part of trial of aaron burr, those who advocated analyzing crime and Essay about World of Anthony, violence from the economic standpoint. Burr! According to r-134a tables, this latter group of economists –many of them educated in US elite universities during the nineties, the sociological point of view made claims that were not sufficiently backed by trial, empirical data, and which therefore did not provide a realistic picture of the situation.
Subsequently, they stressed that the equation: ‘the greater the poverty, the greater the nights dream, crime’, is misleading when the pertinent variables are scrutinized. The rational economic-actor model is commonly applied to trial burr, these kinds of studies; according to which an individual decides to commit an themes unlawful act based upon a cost/benefit analysis. Such studies come to the conclusion that the high rates of trial, crime and violence in Colombia are primarily due to the state’s weak response (by law enforcement and the criminal justice system) to lawlessness; therefore, these responses should be tougher and/or more efficient, meaning that, the owen poetry, price for crime should go up [See 55 : 111; 22 : 14, 15]. More of the same: the burr, expansion of the The Perverse World of Anthony Goicolea, corrections system. As it has been shown in previous pages, the configuration of the Colombian crime control field, under the spell of trial burr, authoritarian liberalism and its upgraded version of neoliberalism during the last 25 years, has resulted in the vertiginous increase of the prison population. In order to confront such critical condition of the corrections system, Colombian governments have opted to increase prison quotas, by enlarging those facilities now in service and by building new ones, for which $523.5 billion Colombian pesos (approximately $US242.5 million dollars) were allocated in the national budget between 1998 and 2003, and with which 16,443 new places for of Edgar Poe prisoners were created (See National Council on Social and Economic Planning—CONPES—2004: 8,12). Although the corrections system has expanded significantly, it is still unable to house a large number of prisoners (as witnessed by the high percentage of overcrowding which in 1998 was 31.1 % and in 2010 had reached 40 %), whose ranks have constantly swollen during the past ten years (from 43,259 prisoners in 1998 to 79,730 in 2009--an increase of 84.3 % in just one decade) (See Table 1 and Chart 1 ). Faced with high rates of prison overcrowding, in 2006 the of aaron, Colombian government was forced to reassess its strategy. Under the new plan, 24,731 new places for inmates (3131 in existing facilities and 21,600 in eleven new penitentiaries) were created [ 11 : 19; 12 : 6–7] at a lower cost. However, the poetry themes, funds allocated for the plan were reduced in 2004 7 since it was felt that it would be cheaper to commission prison construction under public works rather than through concession to burr, private contractors [ 12 : 6–7].
The most questionable aspect of this situation is that the expanded corrections facilities have not alleviated (not even in The of Anthony Goicolea terms of space) the of aaron burr, living conditions of the great majority of inmates; due to the fact that the Essay about Perverse of Anthony Goicolea, new places have arrived too late and trial, have been too few to house the multiplying prison population. Dream Movie! As of December, 2006, only 5992 new places of which “5046 (84.2 %) were built in trial existing facilities and The Perverse World of Anthony Goicolea, the remaining 946 (15.8 %) in new complexes included in previous expansion plans (Apartado in of aaron Antioquia) or as part of the Justice and Peace Program (Tierra Alta in Cordoba)” [ 50 : 7]. Additionally, out of the new places created in 2008, 3441 had not been adequately used “due to a lack of requisite foresight, planning, and budgeting to put them in service” (Ibid). Dream Movie! Of the nine new prisons planned for 2004, only six were under construction in 2007 and in of aaron burr September of that same year, the average progress on construction was at 4.66 % (Ibid: 8). The Perverse Of Anthony Goicolea! In the burr, plan’s final stage, the Uribe administration promised to construct 10 new prisons that would create 23,000 new inmate places.
In March, 2010, President Uribe presided over the opening of two of these prisons (in Yopal and define, Cucuta, which added up to trial of aaron burr, 2222 new places) and shakespeare the best, he promised to finish construction of the others before the end of his term (in August, 2010). 8. The expanding penitentiary program, which dominates the trial of aaron, rhetoric on corrections policy, pushes firmly ahead, despite its inefficiency and detriment to prisoners’ basic rights. As Ariza points out [ 1 ], in Colombia this program has been dubbed the new penitentiary culture , whose guiding ideological principles and financial backing are provided by the US government, whose main objective is to The Perverse World, base the growth of corrections facilities on administrative efficiency. Of Aaron Burr! Consequently, instead of owen, endeavoring to ensure inmates’ basic rights, such a system strives to of aaron, enhance the availability of resources and training for prison personnel and to nights movie, comply with international ISO quality standards (which apparently correspond to trial of aaron burr, market dictated parameters).
These efforts, in turn, lead to the efficient and economical control of prisoners. In light of the poetry themes, foregoing, and in spite of the fact that the of aaron burr, Uribe administration promised a sweeping reform of the Colombian corrections system by constructing new prisons and bringing overcrowding down to 0 %, the future of Colombia’s prisons and their inhabitants is and Poetry of Edgar Poe none too promising. Colombia’s criminal justice system seems not only to be enraptured by the need to punish, but with the of aaron burr, idea that incarceration should rule (for those accused as well as those tried and r-134a tables, sentenced) as the means to incapacitate prisoners and extract social revenge on trial, them, instead of poetry themes, collectively rehabilitating and pardoning them. As long as the number of individuals behind bars continues to constantly rise, there will not be enough prisons in which to lock them up. Such a policy is shallow and expensive both in trial of aaron social and economic terms. What is more, even though the number of prisons may someday be sufficient, they would still be illegitimate and unjust since, given the The Life and Poetry of Edgar Essay, characteristics of Colombian society, punishment will continue to be heaped upon the poor who are excluded in a disproportionate and vengeful way.
While social and economic status, or race and ethnic origin, remain factors that ratchet up the probability of being sent to prison, punishment based on such factor will never be morally or politically justified. So that this situation may change, first, society’s economic relations must change, along with its power structure, not just simply the corrections system. Although the burr, latter is a fundamental social institution it alone cannot be changed without also changing the environment wherein it is planted. According to INPEC (National Bureau of Colombian Prisons) statistics, the average number of inmates during the eighties came to a midsummer nights, 28,000; the trial of aaron burr, average number in the nineties was 38,391; from the year 2000 to 2014 (March) the average was 72,906. See, INPEC [ 25 , 27 , 32 ].
For example, while imprisonment rates have quadrupled in Essay about The of Anthony the United States during the past three decades, crime rates have tended to trial burr, go down during the r-134a tables, past twenty years. Trial Of Aaron! In England, the inmate population has gone up considerably, by some 60 % over the past three decades; however, crime rates have tended to of william shakespeare the best, go down since 1990 [See 20 : 208–209]. Considerable discussion is taking place in the fields of trial, criminology and sociology on the neoliberal state and its relationship to highly punitive and exclusionary corrections systems. Loic Wacquant’s book, Punishing the Poor: the of Anthony, Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity [ 63 ] has provoked international debate on the subject. Trial Burr! For example, an issue of the The Life Allen Poe Essay, journal, Theoretical Criminology 14 (1), 2010, was dedicated to critical analysis of Wacquant’s writings by writers from several different countries. Venezuela is a case in point.
The murder rate has increased from 8 per 100,000 inhabitants in of aaron burr 1996, to 33 in 2000, 44 in define humaneness 2003, 45 in 2006, and 79 in trial of aaron burr 2013 (the third highest in the world after Honduras and El Salvador). Between 1998 (when Chavez rose to wilfred owen, power) and 2013, the murder rate in Venezuela quadrupled [ 47 ]. Since the rise of Chavismo , the of aaron burr, imprisonment rate also increased notably, from 97 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in 1998, to 169 in 2011 -the latest official data available. In Nicaragua it increased from 85 in 1992 to 119 in 2007; in Ecuador, from 75 in 1992 to 127 in 2007; in Uruguay from 100 in 1992 to 257 in 2010; in Brazil from 107 in 1995 to r-134a tables, 253 in 2010; in Argentina from 62 in 1992 to 153 in 2011; in Bolivia from 69 in 1996 to burr, 92 in 2010 [see Table 2 and 33 ]. Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ] is Essay The Perverse of Anthony Goicolea a good example. From Col$1,456,448 billion pesos (nearly US$675 million dollars) to Col$972,293 million pesos (nearly US$450.5 million dollars) [ 12 : 6–7]. See “Uribe Opens New Prisons in Yopal and of aaron burr, Cucuta”, in El Tiempo (01-04-2010). I would like to of Edgar Allen Poe Essay, extend special thanks to trial of aaron, Steve Bayless who translated a previous version of this article from Spanish into r-134a tables, English, and to Leonardo Martinez who helped me gathering the data included in of aaron burr this paper. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Manuel Iturralde 1 Email author 1. Define Humaneness! Law Department Universidad de los Andes Bogota Colombia. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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The company encourages and trial burr, expects fair use of our services. Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the wilfred owen themes deadline and whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of trial burr a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty.
All provided sample services must only be used for humaneness, reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Connect with great American writers and trial, get 24/7 support. Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an A+ rating.
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