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botany desire essays Flowers. Trees. Plants. We've always thought that we controlled them . But what if, in fact, they have been shaping us ? Using this provocative question as a jumping off point, The Botany of Desire , a two-hour PBS documentary based on the best-selling book by Michael Pollan, takes us on an eye-opening exploration of our relationship with the plant world seen from the White Spiritual Consultant, plants' point of view. Every schoolchild learns about the mutually beneficial dance of honeybees and flowers: to make their honey, the bees collect nectar, and in the process spread pollen, which contains the flowers' genes. The Botany of Desire proposes that people and domesticated plants have formed a similarly reciprocal relationship. Galileo. We don't give nearly enough credit to White Spiritual Essay plants, says Pollan.

They've been working on us they've been using us for their own purposes. The Botany of Desire examines this unique relationship through the stories of four familiar species, telling how each of them evolved to on Music: and Roll satisfy one of our most basic yearnings. Linking our fundamental desires for sweetness, beauty, intoxication and control with the plants that gratify them the House Spiritual Essay, apple, the tulip, marijuana, and the potato The Botany of Desire shows that we humans are intricately woven into the web of nature, not standing outside it. Shot in platinum stunning high definition photography, the program begins with Michael Pollan in a California garden and sets off to roam the world: from the potato fields of Essay, Idaho and Peru to the apple orchards of New England; from a medical marijuana hot house to the tulip mecca of Amsterdam, where in Essay Rock and Roll 1637, one Dutchman, crazed with tulipmania, paid as much for a single tulip bulb as the going price for a town house. How could flowers, with no real practical value to humans, become so desperately desired that they drove many to White House Spiritual Consultant financial ruin? The Botany of Desire argues that the answer lies in the powerful but often overlooked relationship between people and plants. With Pollan as our on-screen guide to this frankly sensuous natural world, The Botany of Desire explores the platinum doubloon, dance of domestication between humans and plants.

Through the history of these four familiar plants, the film seeks to answer the House, question: Who has really been domesticating whom? Michael Pollan is the author of The Botany of Desire, In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto, and The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, which was named one of the 10 best books of in the Effect, 2006 by The New York Times and The Washington Post. It won the California Book Award, the Northern California Book Award, and the James Beard Award for Best Food Writing and was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award. Pollan is also the author of A Place of My Own and Second Nature. White House. A contributing writer to The New York Times Magazine, Pollan is the recipient of Essay on Art in the Middle Renaissance and Its in Society, numerous journalistic awards, including the James Beard Award for Best Magazine Series in 2003 and the Reuters-I.U.C.N. 2000 Global Award for Environmental Journalism. House. His articles have been anthologized in Essay Renaissance Effect Best American Science Writing, Best American Essays and The Norton Book of Nature Writing. White House Consultant Essay. Pollan served for many years as executive editor of Harper's Magazine and is now the pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, Knight Professor of House Essay, Science and Environmental Journalism at UC Berkeley. About Michael Schwarz and Kikim Media. Michael Schwarz founded Kikim Media in 1996 after working for many years in public television, first as an independent producer of such landmark character-driven films as Abortion Clinic and Living Below the tennesse, Line, then as part of the senior management team at KQED, the House Consultant, PBS station in San Francisco. Schwarz's work has been honored with some of the on Music: Rock, most prestigious awards in broadcasting three national Emmy Awards, two George Foster Peabody Awards, the Alfred I. duPontColumbia University Journalism Award for Investigative Journalism, and numerous Ciné Golden Eagles and local Emmys.

Schwarz's recent programs for House Spiritual Essay, public television include My Father, My Brother, and Me (FRONTLINE); Hunting the Hidden Dimension (NOVA); Ending Aids: The Search for a Vaccine; Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet; The Next Big Thing?; Stopwatch; Naked to the Bone; and In Search of Law and tennesse vs garner Order. Kikim Media also produced and directed a series of short videos about social entrepreneurs for the Skoll Foundation and the special features for HBO's DVD release of Deadwood. Edward Gray has produced, written and directed more than two dozen documentaries for television. Among his other collaborations with Michael Schwarz is the film Hunting the Hidden Dimension for White House Consultant, NOVA . For PBS, Gray wrote and produced S ecurity vs. Liberty: The Other War for the America at a Crossroads series and Through Many Lives: The Aging Brain for The Secret Life of the Brain . He made three films for the American Experience series, one of which was The Orphan Trains , which was awarded an Emmy® for Achievement in Writing. For ABC News, Gray was senior producer of and fibula fractures, Peter Jennings Reporting: The Kennedy AssassinationBeyond Conspiracy . And for the Discovery Channel, Gray produced Searching for the Roots of 9/11, with Pulitzer Prizewinning journalist Thomas L. Friedman. Gray's work has been recognized with three Emmy Awards, two Writers Guild of America Awards, two Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Awards and the Edward R. Murrow Award. The Botany of White House Consultant Essay, Desire is produced by Kikim Media and presented by KQED. Tibia And Fibula Fractures. Major funding for this program was provided by the National Science Foundation, where discoveries begin.

Additional funding was provided by: The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, to enhance public understanding of Consultant Essay, science and technology in tennesse the modern world. The Columbia Foundation, which supports the Consultant Essay, transition to galileo galilei contributions sustainable communities. Contributions to your local station by viewers like you. House Consultant Essay. Thank you. This material is tennesse vs garner, based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.

0307967. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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How to Write a Masterpiece of a Resume. This award-winning guide to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay resume writing will teach you to write a resume equal to one done by a top-notch professional writer. It offers examples, format choices, help writing the objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on the planet, recently updated, and viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe. First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments. Own your digital footprint Use social media to galileo contributions your advantage Leverage keywords. Visual appeal, format, and length Consistency Details that matter. Writing a great resume does not necessarily mean you should follow the House Spiritual Essay, rules you hear through the pride quotes elizabeth, grapevine.

It does not have to be one page or follow a specific resume format. Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. White Spiritual Essay? It should be appropriate to Essay on Music: your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. Instead of White House Consultant Essay, a bunch of rules and tips, we are going to cut to the chase in this brief guide and offer you the doubloon, most basic principles of writing a highly effective resume. Who are we to be telling you how to House Consultant Essay write your resume? Our specialty at Rockport Institute is career change coaching, counseling and consulting. We help clients design and change to on Music: Rock a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of their talents, fits their personality, their values, and is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and House, early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and tennesse vs garner, others in nearly every field of White Spiritual Consultant, endeavor. Our staff has been commended for excellence by two U.S. presidents. Tibia? Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success was a top-10 national bestseller. That is our one and only specialty.

If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out our main website. The most difficult resumes to write are those of career changers since they depend on thinking out a clear marketing proposition. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES. A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000. House Spiritual Essay? With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and fractures, the bad The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out as a superior candidate for a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is that your present resume is probably much more inadequate than you now realize.

You will have to White Spiritual Consultant learn how to think and write in a style that may be new to you. If youve been online trying to make sense of all thats out there about resume writing much of it conflicting advice stay right here. We have the final word on those nagging questions (Length? Format? Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on galileo contributions, thousands of House Spiritual, real-life success stories. Heres how to do it yourself, broken down in 10 parts. Our guide is based on quotes, one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document.

Its not the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, history of your past; its an vs garner ad. Youre selling yourself to the employer, and competing against other people who are attempting to do the same thing. A great resume doesnt just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in House Spiritual Essay, the best light. It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. Platinum Doubloon? It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and White Spiritual Essay, ask you to come in. YOURE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Heres a key thing we know based on deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to platinum doubloon your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. House Spiritual Consultant? The reality is that most resumes fail to doubloon stir the interest of prospective employers. Spiritual Consultant Essay? So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesnt only tell the employer what you have done.

It makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. It presents you in the best possible light. It convinces the in the Middle and The Renaissance Effect, employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in House Spiritual, this new position or career. The very best marketing is Essay on Art in the Middle Ages and The Renaissance and Its in Society research-based marketing. So, do your research.

Visit the employers website often and follow the White, organization on social media. (Do this of tennesse vs garner, course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile more on House Spiritual Consultant Essay, that in Section 8 of this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into your resume? What kind of language do they use to describe achievements? If almost everything is significant or breakthrough, how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of your resume? You have to know your customers needs and have a very clear sense of the skills theyre looking for in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at Essay on Music: and Roll, least 70% of a jobs requirements to have a legitimate hope of landing an interview. Do all the Spiritual Essay, research you can, from online searches and social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation or better yet, coffee or lunch. TIP: Avoid HR at this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on and prejudice quotes elizabeth, unsolicited inquiries from people who want jobs.

A sobering fact is that job recruiters spend an average of six seconds on every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. So, focus on the employers needs, not yours . White Spiritual? It is imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume. Pride Elizabeth? There is no shame in adjusting your resume to appeal to your target audience; in fact, the opposite Essay is true. It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume even if slightly for each job application. Imagine that you are the person doing the hiring. This someone with skin in the game. Often, its the person who is galileo galilei responsible for the bottom-line performance of the project or team you hope to join. This is someone who cares deeply how well the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. Doubloon? At the end of the day its an adnothing more, nothing less.

2. White Spiritual? YOUR RESUMES #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. Its critical to always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an interview. If it doesnt, it isnt an effective resume. Galileo Contributions? So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the White House Spiritual Consultant, job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about Essay on Music: what your resume is: Its not about you. Like any strong piece of House Essay, advertising, its not about the fractures, product being sold its about the buyer and what they want. Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the White House Consultant, soft drink; they say a lot about how people who drink the beverage are happy and have a lot of happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of drinking Coke. Galilei Contributions? Your resume is about the benefits of hiring you. Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is it a place to be modest.

Its sole purpose is to generate interest in you. What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in White Essay, a different country? Is there community or volunteer work thats appealing? Are you fluent in multiple languages? Did you go through college in three years or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe theres a fact about you theyll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean?

In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and satisfied working with and pride and prejudice quotes, through other people as members of an House organization, group, or tribe. They are at their best when they are attuned to on Music: Rock the tribe and House Consultant, contributing to pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist e.g., I am a software developer versus I work for Microsoft for White Consultant Essay more, see The Pathfinder.) Back to the tribe: If youre selling yourself to an organization, youre selling yourself to a tribe. Pride And Prejudice Quotes Elizabeth? The tribes members will have to be convinced that youre one of them. Use the White House Essay, research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume. Consider the scenario of two tribes living on opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though youre already one of them.

This will inform everything you put in your resume from the adjectives you use to Essay on Music: and Roll the aspects of your education and House Consultant, work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employers mission statement includes language about customer focus and its website talks about innovation, those words should be reflected in your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the employer is results-driven and cares about sustainable solutions, make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the platinum doubloon, importance of White House Consultant Essay, sustainable progress. You have to learn how to tennesse vs garner write powerful but subtle advertising copy. House Spiritual? An effective way to do this is to think of in the and The Renaissance in Society, it as telling an introductory story. White House Essay? When you meet someone, you want to know their story, right? Its the same for that hiring manager looking at your resume. Its important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and capacities, and the educational and work experiences that have led to on Art Middle Ages and The Renaissance and Its Effect in Society you to where you are today.

While you are selling a product, you shouldnt hard sell or make any claims that are not true. House Consultant Essay? Most employers respond to resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of knowing if youre being overly-modest. Its a balancing act. 3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOURE WRITING. There are three basic types of galilei contributions, resumes: Chronological, Functional, and Combined Chronological Functional. Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach but this decision should be informed by the type of job youre seeking and the type of employer youre seeking to impress. For example, if youre applying for a job in a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay? A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and Essay Rock, if youre in White House Consultant, a creative field, you might make modifications to on Art Ages and Its Effect in Society a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. At the end of the day, its all about generating the best marketing copy to sell yourself.

The chronological resume is the White Consultant, more traditional resume structure. The Experience section is the focus of the resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is and fibula described in some detail, and there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the Spiritual Consultant Essay, resume. This structure is Essay on Art Middle and The primarily used when you are staying in the same profession and in the same type of House Consultant Essay, work. It is also commonly used in certain fields such as law and academia. Pride Elizabeth? We recommend that the White House Spiritual, chronological resume always have an Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and may be best in platinum doubloon, conventional or conservative fields. It makes it easier to understand what you did in what job, and may help the name of the employer stand out (if its impressive).

The disadvantage is that it is much more difficult to highlight what you do best. White House Consultant Essay? This format is rarely appropriate for Essay in the Middle and The Renaissance and Its Effect someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the House Spiritual Consultant, very beginning. Platinum? It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to find out. White? Actual company names and positions are in a subordinate position, with no description under each.

There are many different types of formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is Essay on Art in the Middle and Its very appropriate for generalists, for White House Consultant Essay those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of skills in their given profession, for students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to the job market, and for those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is highly recommended for such purposes. The disadvantage is that it isnt easy for tennesse vs garner the employer to Spiritual Essay quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of galileo contributions, both the chronological and functional formats. Essay? It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short Skills and Accomplishments section or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of qualifications). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of either type.

One disadvantage is that it tends to be a longer resume. Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and skills may have to contributions be repeated in both the functional section and White Spiritual Consultant, the chronological job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET. Target market in advertising refers to people a company aims to turn into customers.

In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of on Music: Rock and Roll, specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to dowhere you want to do it. Start with geographic requirements is the world. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of Essay, organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about them. And Prejudice? What is their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging?

Who are the decision makers? What is their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is it? In addition to White Essay digging around online and in social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. Lets say that you want to go from a marketing position in a pharmaceutical firm to a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit. What are the skills youve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think.

Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to speak to your motivation for a career change. Vs Garner? You can weave a little of this into your Objective, then also be prepared to House Essay write about it briefly in your cover letter, and then of tibia and fibula, course speak to it when you land an interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from House Consultant, one tribe to another.

Within the bounds of integrity, the story you tell has to doubloon explain why the tribe you now want to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay enter is really the right one for you (and not the other one). This is Essay on Music: another instance where research is House Spiritual Essay critical. Go to LinkedIn and pride, similar sites and take a look at House Consultant Essay, a good number of resumes of people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into and prejudice quotes, your circle of colleagues, friends, and family. House Spiritual Consultant? Tune into the axis we call the Middle Ages and The and Its, Quality of Transactions in The Pathfinder. The basic premise of this model is White House that the closer you are to pride and prejudice quotes connections that are hot (e.g., someone high up in the organization is willing to White Spiritual go to and prejudice quotes bat for you) versus cold (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. Even somewhere in the warm range maybe you know someone who knows someone in a position to help is highly preferable to coming in cold. And create partners: Scan the connections of your connections on LinkedIn. Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION.

In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. In the first, you make assertions about your abilities, qualities, and achievements. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay? You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the doubloon, readers attention. (Exceptions to Essay this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the doubloon, evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did. This is where you list and House Spiritual Essay, describe the jobs youve held, your education, etc. And if you have opted to pass on an Assertions section, you have to and prejudice build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the case for you as a candidate with especially compelling skills and accomplishments summarized in the top half of the first page. The real juice in White Spiritual Consultant, your resume is doubloon what you assert about yourself right up front.

This is where you shine. The hard truth based on research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by House Spiritual Essay the average employer. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to and fibula fractures persuade a prospective employer to Spiritual read further. Tibia? The top half of the first page of your resume will either make or break your chances. Ask yourself: What does the employer really want?

How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the job postings you see, and/or from Consultant Essay, people who work in the same company or the same field. You could even call the prospective employer and ask them what they want. Dont make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that youre the right fit for the job and the prospective employer.

You dont have to confine yourself to work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the Essay on Art Middle Ages Renaissance and Its in Society, palette to paint with. White House Consultant? The point is to cover all possible ways of and fibula fractures, thinking about and communicating what you do well. What are the talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to have to be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the raw material from which you craft your resume.

So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. But we dont want the employer to be informed; we want them to Spiritual be interested and Middle and The and Its, curious. White House Essay? In fact, its best to leave your reader with a few questions they would like to on Art Middle Ages and The and Its ask you. In your assertions section, state your Objective your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is debate out there about whether to state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think its a good idea. If youre in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to the point, and keep the White House Consultant Essay, employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. The owner of galilei, a small software company advertises for House Spiritual Consultant an experienced software salesperson.

A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and the employer has no way of galilei, knowing whether any of them are really interested in selling software. Then the White Spiritual Consultant, employer spots a resume that starts with the following: OBJECTIVE a software sales position in an organization seeking an extraordinary record of on Music: and Roll, generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations. This is a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to White Consultant Essay make a real contribution. Job-seekers often make the mistake of saying something like, a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener. Examples follow. In all of these examples, the and fibula, underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and the type of role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by the word Objective. Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of White Consultant Essay, hands-on experience in programming , web development , and IT trouble-shooting , and tennesse, seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and communicator . House Spiritual? Expert storyteller . A decade of deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to executive producer role. In this example, the Essay on Music:, applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget.

If they want their brand to Consultant communicate , I make it sing . In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of Essay and Roll, statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of House, experience in Essay on Art and The, financial services for global organizations. House Spiritual? Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and tennesse, integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by a recent graduate seeking an entry-level role in a conventional job sector.

OBJECTIVE: A starting position in an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and its people. TIP: The point of using an White House Consultant Essay Objective is to create a specific psychological response in the mind of the galilei contributions, reader. If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is more important to Spiritual Essay stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is and fibula fractures sometimes appropriate to include your Objective in White Consultant, your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The Summary or Summary of platinum doubloon, Qualifications consists of House, several concise statements that focus the readers attention on your most important qualities, achievements, and Essay on Music: Rock, abilities. (NOTE: If you are on White Spiritual Essay, LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in what you have in your LinkedIn summary. Essay In The Middle Renaissance Effect? You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they neednt match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of why you should be hired not the other candidates. This is White House Spiritual Consultant your brief window of opportunity to highlight your most impressive qualities the spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing.

The Summary is the one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for Essay on Music: Rock solving complex problems in White House Consultant, a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.). Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of galileo, broad or specialized expertise Followed by two or three additional statements related to any of the White Spiritual Consultant Essay, following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of quotes, environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary. White? Use the ones that highlight you best. The examples below show how to include your objective in Essay on Music: Rock, the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in the past prepares you to do what you seek to do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections:

Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in property acquisition, development and House, construction, as well as the management of Essay in the Middle Ages and The Renaissance in Society, large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff. House Spiritual Consultant Essay? Excellent management, negotiation and on Art in the Middle and The Renaissance Effect, public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of Spiritual Consultant, producing extraordinary results for more than 20 national and pride elizabeth, community based organizations. A commitment to human development and community service. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in banking and international trade, finance, investments and economic policy.

Innovative in White Spiritual Consultant, structuring credit enhancement for platinum corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and House, policy making in the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in emergency medical services. Tibia? A talent for analyzing problems, developing and White House Consultant Essay, simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Contributions? Proven ability to motivate and work effectively with persons from other cultures and all walks of life. House Consultant? Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources.

Commander Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Expertise in platinum doubloon, all areas of management, with a proven record of unprecedented accomplishment. History of the highest naval awards and rapid promotion. Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering.

Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in systems and equipment. Committed to House Spiritual the highest levels of professional and personal excellence. Vs Garner? Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist. Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. Available for commercial recording and live performances. SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

In this final part of the assertions section, go into more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the White Consultant, rest of the best of your story. Let the employer know what results you produced, what happened because of your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at doing. TIP: Dont tell them everything youve ever done. Its okay in fact, advisable to leave to your readers wondering about a thing or two in a positive way.

Sometimes the Skills and Accomplishments section is a separate section. On Music: Rock And Roll? In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the descriptions of the various jobs you have held. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. Consultant Essay? When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on tennesse vs garner, your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. There are options for how to structure your Skills and Accomplishments section. White Spiritual Essay? Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for the desired career goal. If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph might be called Additional Skills.

TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your Skills and Accomplishments section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in doubloon, canvassing and advocacy on environmental, health and consumer issues. Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. House Consultant? Attorneys, for the U.S. Attorneys office Coordinated Board of Directors and Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. Vs Garner? Later commended as the best thing that ever happened to Spiritual Consultant that job. A listing of tibia and fibula, major skill headings with accomplishments under each.

The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in paragraph form. The material under the headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill. National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of Outreach on Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations. Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the U.S. Planned and White House Spiritual Consultant, managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for university vice-presidents and business executives.

Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and on Art in the Middle Ages Renaissance and Its in Society, programs for the Universitys Office of White Spiritual Consultant, Summer Educational Programs, first Director of Dukes Pre-college Program, first editor of Summer at Duke. Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of platinum, creativity at The George Washington University. A list of bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume). Director of Sales and Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. Wilmington, DE. Promoted from Sales Representative within one year of joining company to Director of Consultant, Sales and Marketing. Responsible for international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment.

Oversaw five sales managers. Was in charge of and fibula, direct sales and marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and the Middle East. Recruited, trained and managed sales staff. Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Spiritual? Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on Essay and Roll, behalf of clients. Oversaw all aspects of White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, transactions, including letters of Essay, credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding.

Planned and White House Spiritual Essay, administered sales and marketing budget, and and Roll, maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Within first year, doubled companys revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. While this section is secondary to your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. TIP: Think of it as the foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine. If this section isnt strong enough, the White, resume doesnt hold together and the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in and fibula, reverse chronological order. Dont go into detail on the jobs early in your career; focus on the most recent and/or relevant jobs. (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive your job titles or the names of the White House Consultant, firms you worked for then consistently begin with the more impressive of the two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to describe the and prejudice elizabeth, employer in a phrase in parentheses if this will impress the reader.

Include military service, internships, and White House Spiritual Essay, major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled Experience. It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: Professional History, Professional Experiencenot Employment or Work History, both of which sound more lower-level. A note about dates throughout the tibia and fibula, evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. Generally speaking, put dates in italics at White House Spiritual Essay, the end of the job to de-emphasize them. Dont include months, unless the job was held less than a year. Essay Ages And The Effect? If youre old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might botox in your resume. The year you earned your degree(s) doesnt have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is no need to include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months. Dont put down anything that isnt true its too easy for employers to check information and discover mistruths. But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the overall story youre telling about yourself.

List education in reverse chronological order degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and advanced training. Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Dont include any details about college except your major and Spiritual, distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated. Include grade-point average only if over 3.4.

List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the information, summarizing the information and including only tennesse, what will be impressive for the reader. No degree yet? If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and White Essay, afterwards, in parentheses, the expected date of completion: B.S. (expected 20__). If you didnt finish college, start with a phrase describing the field studied, then the school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Other headings might be Education and Effect in Society, Training, Education and Licenses, Legal Education / Undergraduate Education (for attorneys). If the only awards received were in school, put these under the Education section. Mention what the award was for White House Consultant Essay if you can (or just for outstanding accomplishment or outstanding performance).

If you have received awards, this section is almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from platinum, some very senior source, you could call this section, Awards and Commendations. In that case, go ahead and quote the source. Professional Affiliations. Include only White Spiritual, those that are current, relevant and impressive. Galileo Galilei? Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for House Consultant special consideration by and prejudice quotes employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer. This section can be combined with Civic / Community Leadership as Professional and White Spiritual Essay, Community Memberships. Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is definitely something to include. Civic / Community Leadership.

This is good to include if the Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and House Essay, can show skills acquired, for pride example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of White House Spiritual Consultant, a community organization charged with investing its funds. Contributions? Any Board of Directors membership or chairmanship would be good to include. House Spiritual Consultant? Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an employer or company. Publications. Include only if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is impressive and pride and prejudice, relevant. Summarize if there are many. Comments from White House Consultant, Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite.

Include only Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, if very exceptional. White House Spiritual Essay? Heavily edit for vs garner key phrases. Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. While personal interests tend to feature prominently on Essay, social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for a jobideally on a case-by-case basis. It you include a section like this, keep the following in in the Middle Ages and The and Its in Society, mind. Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is related to the goal, such as photography for someone in House, public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in doubloon, construction management.

This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of Consultant, a subject related to the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. Platinum? Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. For example, if youre highly athletic and the people interviewing you arent physically fit or perhaps eve self-conscious about that the fact that youre super-fit might not play in your favor.If in doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section. House Essay? Your reason for including it is most likely that you want to tell them about you. But, as you know, this is an ad. If this section would move the employer to pride quotes elizabeth understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about it. This section may also be called Interests Outside of Work, or just Interests. References.

You may put References available upon request at the end of your resume, if you wish. This is White Spiritual Consultant Essay a standard close (centered at bottom in italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of references. Galilei? You can bring a separate sheet of references to the interview, to be given to the employer upon request. 7. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES. Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an White asset as you prepare your resume. OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT.

Social media is a primary vehicle for communication. Pride Quotes Elizabeth? You will want to White House Consultant Essay include at doubloon, least one of White Consultant Essay, your social media accounts on your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and social media handles look and sound professional. If not, get new ones. You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers 65% or more use social networks to research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to see if the candidate is likely to be a good fit for their culture in other words, right for their tribe.

It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an applicant. So, it is pride imperative that you review all of your social media postings and White House Spiritual, clean up any content that you wouldnt want a prospective employer to see. Galileo Galilei Contributions? And keep an eye on your accounts so that you can monitor and White House Spiritual Consultant, remove comments from friends that dont serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of on Art Ages and The in Society, drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent. White House? You cant assume that an galileo employer will only White House Essay, check out your LinkedIn page. They may also look for you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is vs garner a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is something that you would be delighted for everyone in House Essay, the world to see.

USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that youre marketing yourself. Essay Rock? Owning your digital footprint is also about taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression. Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an opportunity for White you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator the kinds of things employers are generally seeking. In addition, be active on pride elizabeth, social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Engage on networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. White House Spiritual Consultant? And while youre active on and Roll, social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name.

If youre Robert L. White House? Smith on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in tibia and fibula, your resume and on Spiritual Consultant Essay, your other social media accounts not Rob Smith here and there. Your professional screen name is probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and the like. Think of what you see as an aggregated news feed about the galileo galilei contributions, employer. House Essay? It doesnt take long to tibia fractures begin to get a real sense of the organizations culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the most thoughtful resume possible and can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview. And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is that you can gain access to House Spiritual Consultant people you otherwise might not. Platinum? If you see someone within your connections who is connected to Spiritual a person of interest to you. Contributions? Perhaps they are in the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to Consultant get in to then ask your contact to Essay on Music: introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for people to White Spiritual Consultant post recommendations. Be sure to ask people to provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to your professional name, there are many other keywords to consider.

Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for keywords relevant to pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth their companies and cultures, as well as field of White House Spiritual Essay, work. You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of Middle Ages in Society, position youre seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is White Essay Program Assistant. But when you search online, you dont see that title much. What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is Administrative Assistant. Its not a misstep in galileo contributions, integrity to White House list your current title as Administrative Assistant if thats accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for recruiters and hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments.

When customizing your resume for a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of those words in on Art Middle Ages and The Renaissance and Its Effect, your resume. Spiritual Consultant Essay? If you think of yourself as someone who leads stakeholder communications, but the employer uses the phrase stakeholder engagement thats right, youre now an tennesse vs garner expert in stakeholder engagement. If you have increased website and social media traffic in your current job, but your prospective employers website discusses online presence your resume should note that you elevated online presence. Then use this same approach to Spiritual Consultant find more keywords that will appeal to that hiring manager. After conducting your research on the employers website and galilei, social media pages as well as media articles about the organization comprise a list of words and phrases that appear regularly. Be sure that these words and White Consultant, phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesnt seem forced or like overkill. Doubloon? You have a bit of a fine line to walk these have to be words and phrases you can own in the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of House, your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece!

No matter how closely you follow the guidance weve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what youve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating video resumes. This kind of approach is tibia and fibula highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on what you know about the job and the tribe. For instance, if youre a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if youre applying to Consultant Essay a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission go for it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH. Everyone freely gives advice on resume length.

There is no universal right or wrong. Our rule of Essay on Music:, thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the resume contains all of White Consultant, your most relevant information. If youve been in the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to exceed a page but only if the content warrants it. And whether its one page or more, the tennesse vs garner, same rules apply in House, terms of the Essay on Music:, front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Dont make it to crowded with text; conversely, dont have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse. A good rule of thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and Essay, shorter if possible. Be sure to design elements to Essay on Music: Rock your advantage. Consultant? For example, if there is and The and Its Effect in Society information you want to Spiritual Consultant Essay highlight, consider using boldface.

You can also draw the eye to pride and prejudice something by ensuring there is White Consultant Essay ample white space around it. Order information in a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If youre considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. While one might make you stick out in a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didnt make me work harder to get the information I wanted. Galilei Contributions? Unless you are an infographic designer looking for that kind of work (or something close), I would veer away from this route. Your resume must be error-free. There are no spelling errors, no typos. White House Consultant? No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. There are no errors of fact. Doubloon? Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way.

For instance, every job should list this information in this order: Title, Name of Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently. If you decide to bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay? If you underline one section heading, underline them all. In addition, there is uniformity in pride quotes elizabeth, the use of capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc.

So, if there is a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. If one degree is in bold, all degrees are in bold. If one job is lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 2001 or 1999 to 2000). Whatever you decide about White such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent. There are any number of details that really matter. Consider all of the following.

Font. Pride Quotes? Use a font thats universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). White House Consultant? Whatever font you select, use it consistently. And use a font size thats readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. PDF. Save your resume file as a PDF. You dont want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and more. Galilei Contributions? File name. When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Consultant Essay? Definitively dont give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and pride and prejudice quotes, dont call it NicksResume.pdf.

If Nick is applying for a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). House Spiritual? Keep track. As you customize your resume for each application, keep track of Essay Rock, which resume you send to which employer. If youre called for an interview you will want to show up with nicely printed hard copies of that precise document. Dont mix first-person and third-person. Use either the first person (I) or third person (he, she) point of view, but do so consistently.

Watch your verb tense. If the accomplishment is completed, it should be past tense. If the task is White Spiritual Consultant Essay still underway, it should be present tense. Essay Middle And Its Effect? If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in White House Spiritual Essay, the future, use present tense e.g., conduct presentations on galileo galilei, recruitment to professional and House Consultant Essay, trade association. Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education. This is because your qualifications are more related to your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an tennesse vs garner undergraduate student, or (4) if theres something particularly impressive about House Spiritual your education for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from Harvard. Sell yourself first and foremost. Always bear in mind the needs of your customer the quotes, employer. What do they need to House know to assess that youre right for the job and will deliver for them? Customize your resume for each job application.

Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in mind. Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Tighten up sentences where you can. Space is at a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at platinum, everything youve written in your resume and add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to include all relevant information. Be sure any e-mail addresses and House Consultant Essay, social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Tibia And Fibula Fractures? Use the White, same version of your professional screen name consistently.

Be unduly modest. You are selling yourself, period. Wing it. Real preparation and homework is required no matter how lucky youve been in the past. Galileo? Include information even if youre proud of it that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything youve ever done. White Essay? Its better to leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you. Include salary information. Quotes Elizabeth? It is Consultant appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs.

You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and be sure your references know that an tennesse inquiry is on the way. Try to House Consultant Essay be funny or cute no matter how great your personality, these things dont translate on paper. Include every single piece of information about yourself this is galileo contributions not your resumes job. White House? If the employer wants to know more about tibia and fibula fractures you, theyll ask you for an interview. Get wordy. Dont use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. Dont use more than one power word or adjective in Spiritual Essay, one sentence. Underestimate the elizabeth, power of White House Spiritual, reading the job posting carefully and doing all of and prejudice quotes, your homework.

An astute hiring manager will recognize that youve done your advance work and will respect that about you. 10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isnt about White House Spiritual using fancy or unique words. Its about using words that connect with your customer. Remember: This is customized ad copy.

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10 Interesting Facts About the 95 Theses of Martin Luther. Marin Luther is known today as one of the icons of House Consultant Essay Reformation. This clergyman and avid theologist, born in 1483 in and prejudice quotes elizabeth, Germany, was among the White Spiritual first few ones to see the deception of the Essay on Music: practices held by the Catholic church and White House spoke against it. The matter in question was the sale of indulgences, certificates which were said to have the power of tibia absolution of sins for both the living sinners and their loved ones whose souls were in White House, purgatory. The idea was supported by the Pope himself, and therefore gained legitimacy. Martin Luther, however, wanted to highlight the flawed thinking that money could actually erase peoples sins without repentance. Rock And Roll. This is why he went on to present his 95 Theses, which eventually led to Reformation of the White House Essay Catholic Church. Platinum Doubloon. Here are some facts about this particular event. 1. The Theses were originally meant to be a spark for academic debate. Apparently, contrary to what one might think of it, hammering documents to doors of public buildings was quite an ordinary practice in the times of Martin Luther.

Such events were usually staged to commence an academic debate on a given subject. As a scholar, Martin Luther felt free to express his opinion on the matters of the conduct of the Church and wanted to Consultant Essay, encourage his fellow clergymen to look into the issue. The first few lines of the tennesse vs garner original document, nailed to the door of the Consultant Essay Church of All Saints in Wittenberg, most probably around October 1517, even mentioned the doctors and Essay in the Middle and The scholars to White, whom the Theses were addressed. 2. Martin Luther entered into the clergy at a very young age. His parents, Hans and Margaretta had big plans for Martin since the day he was born. At the age of 5, he already was taking lessons in reading, writing and Latin at a local school and then at 13 he was sent to a school owned by the Brethren of the Common Life in Magdeburg. The schools curriculum combined academic teachings with an introduction into monastery and from then on fractures Luther became interested in joining the Church. White House. But his parents saw him rather becoming a lawyer instead. The turning point was when Martin was nearly struck by lightning, which he read as a sign from God himself. From then on, he convinced his parents of his true calling. 3. The Theses were ordered according to the subject they mentioned.

The Theses order was far from random. They were put together in pride, sections. For example, the first five opening theses discuss the nature of White Spiritual Consultant repentance, which according to Luther is in the and The Renaissance Effect more a spiritual resolution than an external system of confession. The next theses, from 5 to 7 talk about the limited jurisdiction of the Pope over releasing people from sin or guilt. Further on, in the theses 14-24, Luther talks about the nature and function of the purgatory as stated in the Bible, and he finishes his treaty with the theses encouraging Christians to imitate Christ, i.e. not fleeing from suffering, if its the way for their salvation. 4. Martin Luther was not the first one to criticize the Church for White Essay, indulgences. His predecessor was just as strict, though perhaps slightly less audacious. And he went by the name John Wycliffe. John was an English intellectual, who just like Luther participated both in the clerical and academic life. He was a scholastic philosopher and theologian, in addition to being a successful Biblical translator and seminary professor at tibia and fibula, Oxford University.

He took a stand against the Churchs trespassings in the 14th century. Apart from indulgences, his complaints were about the clergys lavish lifestyles and ceremonies. He also spoke against White House Consultant Essay, Papacy. 5. Another of his predecessors was Jan Hus. Jan Hus announced his disappointment with the Church later than John Wycliffe, but still earlier than Martin Luther.

He was a Czech priest, born in 1372 in Husinec, a small town in the Bohemia an Imperial State in on Art in the Middle Ages and The Renaissance, the Holy Roman Empire. Just like Martin Luther, he was fascinated with religion from a very young age. As a child he sang and House Spiritual Consultant served in churches in Rock and Roll, Prague. He attacked the Church teachings on House Consultant On 24 June 1405 from the comfort of on Art Middle Renaissance Effect his own pulpit during sermon. However, news spread quickly and Jan Hus was executed in 1415. However, he did manage to start a religious movement called the Hussites, who rebelled against the Roman Catholic rule.

6. The 95 Theses were also distributed as a paper afterwards. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. On 31 October 1517, Luther sent a letter to Archbishop of Mainz, Albert of quotes elizabeth Brandenburg, the person in Essay, charge of the quotes elizabeth distribution of indulgences. He then placed the Theses on the door of the aforementioned Church. The third step was dispatching a copy of Theses to various interested parties. The text of the White Consultant Essay Thesis, printed in Latin, covered an area of a four-page pamphlet. These were distributed all throughout Basel, and in Leipzig and Nuremberg, placards were published instead. In total, the Theses have reached a number of several hundred copies in Germany alone. Soon they were also available in translation and sent on request. 7. Martin Luther was subsequently called a heretic.

The Roman Curia was not so thrilled about a document undermining the Popes authority. The recipient of the quotes elizabeth 95 Theses, Albert of Brandenburg, soon discussed the controversial matter with experts on theology at the University of Mainz and they soon reached the conclusion, that Luther should be banned from preaching against the indulgences. Johann Tetzel, a fellow clergyman, wanted Luther burnt at the stake, and had a man called Konrad Wimpina publish 106 theses contradicting Luther#8217;s work. On 15 June 1520, Pope Leo X issued a papal bull, Exsurge Domine (#8220;Arise, O Lord#8221;). White Spiritual Essay. The document basically stated that Luther was wrong and that indulgences were fairly legit in the light of the Bible and teachings of the Church.

8. The Wittenberg Theses started the Reformation movement. October 1521 saw the chapel at Wittenberg resigning from private Masses. The whole city of Wittenberg was now more inclined towards conducting Lutheran services instead of Masses. Even with the and Roll threats of excommunication by the Church, Martin Luther was still very popular with the German people, who believed his Theses to Spiritual Essay, be true. His followers set foundation for a new religious movement, called Lutheranism. The Lutherans placed much weight on tibia and fibula reading into ancient Hebrew and Christian Scriptures and declined the White House well-established Roman Catholic doctrines. This concept was known as sola scriptura, which can be translated as Scripture only.

9. Martin Luther was given 60 days to repent. After the Exsurge Domine papal bull was published, a special meeting, called papal consistory, was held. The aim of the meeting was to establish whether Luthers teachings were true or false. Surprisingly enough, a few of the teachings were found to be true, but the vast majority was deemed false. Therefore, on behalf of the doubloon Papal authority, Luther was given 60 days to admit to the error of his ways. Luthers response was straightforward and very unpredictable. He said that the bull was the work of Antichrist, whatever its true origin may be and quickly put together a publication with a telling title: Adversus Execrabile Antichristi Bullam (Against the Execrable Bull of Antichrist). And the feud went on. 10. Martin Luther did not stop with one response to the Papal bull.

In November 1520, Martin Luther issued Assertion of Essay All the Articles Wrongly Condemned in tennesse, the Roman Bull , a work which was an emphasis on his Theses, strengthening the former arguments to new heights. To g ive you the House Spiritual Consultant Essay general idea, phrases like: the pious defrauding of the faithful.#8217; were substituted with shrewd #8216;Indulgences are the most pious frauds and imposters of the most rascally pontiffs, by which they deceive the souls and destroy the and fibula goods of the faithful.#8217; And to further annoy the Church and condemn its doings, Luther published On the Freedom of a Christian the same month . House Spiritual Essay. It earned him just as many foes as friends, asserting his position as the leader of the Reformation movement.

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combat camera resume Militarized, Folding All/Extreme Terrain Mountain and Electrical Bikes (F-ATBs, F-MTBs, eMTBs) COMBAT REPORT: IRAQ. BASRA, IRAQ: A British Soldier on patrol speaks to an Iraqi boy in the southern city of Basra, 500 kms south of Baghdad 06 January 2005. It is House mainly British forces that patrol this city. U.S. ARMY TESTING OPERATIONAL USE IN AFGHANISTAN/IRAQ. MONTAGUE MILITARY BIKE R D. PARATROOPER 2000 on All Terrain Bike (ATB): the future of war is AIRBORNE, not seaborne. All men dream: but not equally. Those who dream by platinum, night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act out their dream with open eyes, to make it possible.

--Lawrence of Arabia, Seven Pillars of Wisdom. THE AIRBORNE LIGHT BICYCLE INFANTRY (LBI) CONCEPT. The world moves by the speed of the air, not a slow boat to China . America is a strategic AIR POWER as England was once the ruling sea power. U.S. Airborne forces must be able to rapidly converge on the enemy's most critical center of gravity by White House Essay, AIR power in tibia order to gain strategic and operational surprise; as proven in Grenada, Panama and Spiritual Essay, Haiti. Air POWER is not to Essay on Music: Rock and Roll be confused with air STRIKES as is White House Essay vogue in the USAF. Our loss of Pristina airport to the Russian Airborne in a permissive motor march in Middle Ages and The and Its Effect Kosovo is a perfect example of the weakness of having to wait for White House Spiritual Essay marine peacekeepers driving long distances overland (from Greece. Essay On Art In The And The Renaissance And Its Effect. ) to House inland areas better reached by air-delivered forces.

This means AIRBORNE forces must move within HOURS not days, weeks, months by ship, and tennesse, arrive with greater mobility than a foot-slog. These forces conduct AIRBORNE WARFARE not just logistics base seizure; they do not have to seize and hold WWII-style. The days of piling supplies on the beach for an enemy to cream a bloated marine force are over; the White House Consultant, Russians know this, we do not--as we insist on wasting BILLIONS on platinum, land-locked, slow-to-deploy, sea-based gyrene units that once ashore foot-slog and truck-hop into enemy land mines. The way to create a fully mobile U.S. Airborne/Air Assault Air-Mech-Strike Force is by creating LTC Richard Liebert's Dragoon units: heavily armed mounted Soldiers who use All-Terrain Vehicles like diesel-powered armed Para-Gators now used by the XVIII Airborne Corps and folding bikes and carts backed by light TRACKED Armored Fighting Vehicles. Dragoon Light Bicycle Infantry (LBI) can use air-droppable folding ATBs and Extreme Terrain Bikes (ETBs) with 10-inch wide tires to traverse over sand/snow. seizing assault objectives and road block mobility corridor security positions immediately after forced-entry. The maneuver of LBI units would be supported by Dragoons in White House Essay ATVs firing heavy-caliber machine guns, grenade launchers, rockets and recoilless rifles.

Expanding the Recon Security zone after an airhead is tibia and fibula taken, Dragoon LBI units can act as the White Spiritual, mobile reserve of the Airborne Task Force commander and be used for reconnaissance and raids far beyond what men on foot can travel. The Airborne's battle space tied in with digital communications means extends beyond enemy artillery and rocket weapons ranges and pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, secures the foothold for offensive operations to collapse the enemy before he can react. Hanebrink Extreme Terrain Bike (ETB) A/ETBs can be jumped over the rear ramp or side jump doors of high-performance aircraft like the Consultant, Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules and Alenia C-27J Spartan and even through the super-large side jump doors of the C-17 Globemaster III . (Images-negatives owned by 1 st TSG (A) donated to the U.S. Essay And Roll. Army; re: Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995) ITSG Begins Military Bicycle Development in 1988. Our early 1992 parachute test of the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, folding bike was not conclusive due to the exposed condition of the bike for the jump, though we found out later this was successfully done by the British Airborne in Ages and The in Society WWII combat (see below). House Consultant Essay. However, it proved the ease which parachute delivery can be used to deliver ATBs. Later RD led to the padded airdrop bag for folded ATBs to be jumped with common Airborne combat equipment attached to ready-for combat individual Paratroopers as lowering line loads as depicted above or Container Delivery System (CDS) bundles to be recovered later (see below) as the 1 st Tactical Studies Group (AIRBORNE) Paratroopers did for the OPERATION DARK CLAW demonstration, February 11, 1993 at Laurinberg-Maxton airfield (Home of the U.S. Galilei. Army Golden Knights ) near Fort Bragg, NC.

Squad Accompanying Loads are means that oversized items like A/ETBs and Javelin ATGMs can be delivered to Paratroopers. a piece of truck bed liner plastic as directional slide aids for door bundles to prevents bundles from getting stuck in the door when being pushed out. OPERATION DARK CLAW! C-212 STOL turbo prop aircraft. Folded ATB in airdrop bag. Non-folding ATB and Montague Folding ATB on ATAC as ramp drop bundle. Dark Claw team members rigged and ready to jump. Team Leader ready to jump combat equipment and ATB in airdrop bag. ATB bag rigged under chest reserve.

Folded ATB in bag with quick release straps. Paratrooper good exit from rear ramp with ATB bag. ATB in Spiritual bag still connected to Paratrooper. ATB lowered on line prior to landing. Bag opened to recover ATB. Unfolding the ATB in under one minute. Paratrooper cycles at 10 - 25 mph across battlefield. The designer of the Essay and Roll, padded ATB airdrop bag, SF MSG Lee Cashwell (Retired) acted as the primary jumpmaster employing U.S. military jump procedures for the C-212. Grenadier/scout LT Jeffrey Schram and Combat Medical Specialist, SF 18D SSG Ernest Hoppe followed their non-folding AT bikes and ATAC on a palletized bundle (Kudos Rigger SGT Ken Potter) on the first pass to demonstrate this technique. On the second C-212 pass, Team Leader, LT Michael Sparks jumped with the folded bike over the rear ramp in White Consultant its airdrop bag as a lowering line load. Galileo. All 1 st TSG (A) members wore complete combat equipment, LBE, and weapons in M1950 cases.

The entire operation captured on video by freefall legend, USAF CCT Dave Lilico (Retired) from the air, and later on the ground. On the ground, Team Leader LT Sparks, though jumping later was able to derig, unfold and cycle back to White Consultant his men who were still de-rigging their Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs). VIDEO: Operation DARK CLAW, Part 1: Insertion. From there, they moved as a unit to rescue a mock hostage from an enemy camp, briefed the SF Command Observers, then took the hostage mannequin on ATAC in tow 35+ miles under their own power back to Fort Bragg, NC. All done in quotes under a few hours time. As way of comparison, according to Spiritual Consultant Gerard Devlin's book Paratrooper! in October 1942, the galileo contributions, 88 th Glider Infantry Regiment foot-marched the Consultant, same distance to galileo start glider training at Laurinberg field and it took them 2 DAYS to get there from Fort Bragg! The HPV-mobile 1 st TSG (A) team got to Fort Bragg later that afternoon after a 2pm departure. What's fascinating is that the Spiritual Essay, 88 th GIR was the Army Airborne's Experimental unit and they had bicycles so they could have went much faster!

History of the 88 th Airborne Battalion. The history of the 88 th Airborne Battalion, from its activation, to and prejudice quotes elizabeth the time it was amalgamated as a regiment with the White Spiritual Consultant, 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in France during World War II, is covered in vs garner an eclectic assortment of Spiritual, conventional official documents. Not recorded in them, or elsewhere, are its contributions and the impact these contributions have made to airborne warfare operations and Essay on Music: and Roll, doctrine, to military and commercial airlift operations, to White House Spiritual Essay military helicopter operations or to the progress of America, especially through the aircraft industry. At its activation as the 88 th Airborne Battalion on 10 October, 1942, it was intended to be an experimental organization that would introduce the air landing aspects of airborne warfare to America's military forces. Such warfare had been applied by platinum, the Germans against the Belgians early during World War II with devastating affect. Germany was able to keep information about these operations from leaking out of Germany. This much the allies were able to glean through intelligence sources - a number of House Spiritual Essay, German Soldiers in tennesse vs garner large gliders had landed on White Spiritual, the surface of Belgian's massive Fort Eben Emael on May 20, 1940. They subdued the fort in less than one hour.

The loss of the fort created a gap in quotes elizabeth the Belgian defenses. Because of the White House Spiritual Consultant, shock of this loss, in Ages and Its in Society only a matter of days, Belgium surrendered. This left France's northern flank defensless to the Wermacht 's panzers . Soon France fell and the debacle at Dunkerque followed. The 88 th battalion was organized as a hybrid tactical and experimental unit. It was lightly manned and equipped and initially was limited to flying in Douglas DC-3's, the White House, only transport airplane immediately available in those early years for carrying its equipment and available to test airborne techniques and doctrine. Motorcycle, bicycles , guns and equipment issued the (airborne) unit were intended to enable it to load in the airplanes, deplane quickly once landed, hit the enemy swiftly and hard and then hold until relieved. The unit was not constituted for sustained combat. This sort of tennesse, activity divined by a War Department, promised great things for the future of airborne operations, but it did not foresee, nor did it have to House cope with the myriad problems in putting such doctrine into reality. It left this to Essay Ages Renaissance the 88 th to translate a concept into workable tactics, techniques, doctrine and Spiritual Consultant Essay, procedures.

There was little, if any, experience available with respect to Essay in the Ages and Its the loading of equipment into House airplanes, and the problems such activities entailed. Nor did the 88 th get guidance from vs garner, any source with such knowledge. What was achieved was achieved through dangerous, difficult, practical experience and the ingenuity and ability of the members of the 88 th to overcome the problems that developed. From the beginning there were problems in Spiritual Consultant Essay securing guns, ammunition and equipment so that turbulence while in flight would not cause it to shift or become free. The 88 th learned to Essay on Music: Rock use ropes to lash the cargo to tie down rings set into White Consultant Essay the floor of the airplanes.

When we encountered turbulence we had the harrowing experience of finding 90mm mortar ammunition floating around the interior of the plane we were riding in. Initially, we could only resecure it or hold it down the as best we could. The 88 th sent some men to Wright Patterson air base to present the tennesse, problem and Spiritual Consultant Essay, try to find solutions. One Mr. Baker offered a trucker's knot, the bowline, later dubbed the Baker bowline by and fibula fractures, his appreciative students. House Spiritual Consultant Essay. The bowline could not be untied quickly, slowing the unloading of equipment, so enterprising 88ers added the slippery half hitch, well known to boy scouts and truckers. Then we found that not just any rope would do for the task of securing equipment. Most of it stretched, permitting the and prejudice, equipment to loosen.

We opted for 5/8ths-inch Manila hemp, which was very durable and Spiritual Consultant Essay, stretched little. Pilots of the day had little interest in passengers or cargo of any kind. Their attention was directed to flying the glider. The 88 th became concerned when pilots were reporting puzzling problems, especially in taking off, and in having to trim the airplanes unduly in flight. What was amiss was that loads were changing the center of gravity of the contributions, airplanes, or were heavier than the load for White Consultant Essay which the aircraft was rated. We had received no cautionary advice from the in the Middle Renaissance in Society, pilots on Spiritual, how to distribute loads. Tennesse Vs Garner. With little help from the Air Corps, the 88 th devised loading plans taking into consideration the Spiritual, center of gravity. It was customary to equip each military airplane and and fibula, glider passenger with a parachute. This was OK for airplanes, but when it came to House Spiritual Consultant gliders Lieutenant Al Leonard, one of the primary contributors to airborne techniques, considered the expendability doctrine inherent in Essay on Music: air transport combat operations and House Spiritual Consultant, questioned the advisability of issuing parachutes to passengers in gliders. Al reasoned that gliders normally were towed at about 300-500 feet altitude, too low to use parachutes if the occasion demanded.

Moreover, weight was always a problem. Essay Rock And Roll. If chutes could be dispensed with, equivalent weight in weapons and ammunition could be substituted. Spiritual. Al's argument carried the day, and glidermen ceased to wear parachutes, a condition that convinced paratroopers they never wanted to go into combat in a glider . The air force later adopted the practice of not issuing parachutes to Essay and Roll passengers in transport aircraft. [EDITOR: WRONG: not true. Only of late has the USAF wimped out and stopped using common sense.] To facilitate unit training for the vital task of loading men and equipment into gliders, the 88 th built the White House Spiritual Consultant, first full-scale glider mockup.

It became the tennesse, prototype for large formations of mockups in training areas that were used for loading and White, lashing training of the 88 th and all airborne divisions. As with the mockup, so it was with many other items of equipment and training. Middle Ages And The Effect. The 88 th made it all first, or made the suggestions and designs that led to the actual items. These ideas led to modifications of Spiritual, gliders and airplanes, and even to the design of new aircraft. A case in point is the successor of the CG-4A glider, the CG-15. The CG-4A was an doubloon, innovation amongst aircraft, and was the first of House, its kind in America. It had little testing, and no combat experience up to that time, and thus fell to Al Leonard and other members of the 88 th to Essay in the and Its Effect in Society suggest improvements that would have be desirable and necessary. These were passed up to the Airborne Command, then in White Spiritual charge of collecting and acting on such information, and they all found their way into the modified CG-4A, the CG-15. Shortly after take off, early production CG-4As dropped their wheels, and Renaissance and Its in Society, landed on skids that ran part of the length of the Consultant, fuselage. For the gliders to take off again, crews had a real chore to raise the quotes, glider and reinstall the wheels.

There were other difficulties that (d)evolved from the skids too numerous to White House Consultant Essay mention here. Al Leonard cited them and suggested that landings be made on wheels. On Art And The Renaissance In Society. The Air Corps adopted his suggestion. Problems evaporated. Gliders suffered less landing damage, and changed from being expendable to recoverable. It should be understood that these gliders were largely designed by House Spiritual Essay, the Air Corps, with little knowledge of airborne unit requirements. This is where the 88 th played an important role. Elements of the 88 th tested the air transport capabilities of the XCG-13, the CG-15A, and pride quotes, the CG-19 as well as other glider and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, transport airplane prototypes and contributions, heavily influenced which modifications were made. The 88 th trained the glider infantry regiments, artillery, medical and other battalions and many of the parachute elements of the 82 nd , 101 st , 11 th , 17 th divisions in air transport operations. White House. After the 88 th was absorbed by tibia and fibula, the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in the 13 th Airborne Division, members of the former 88 th that were then in the 326 th also were selected to train the Consultant Essay, 84 th Infantry division for vs garner air transportably. From the 88 th evolved the information that was to become the basis of airborne operations, training and doctrine manuals.

The aircraft industry incorporated many of the experiences gained in the 88 th into the design of airplanes, especially those that were intended primarily as cargo carriers. White Essay. Perhaps the best example in vs garner this trend was the 66 passenger XCG-20, America's largest glider. House Spiritual. It incorporated the best of the Essay on Art in the Ages and The Effect, technology that the 88 th had devised and Consultant, contributed to cargo airplane and glider construction. It was to become the C-123, which gradually evolved into a jet airplane from which the design of many of America's most advanced airplanes have borrowed many design features. Colonel, USA (Ret.) Colonel Mrazek commanded a battalion in the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in platinum doubloon the 13 th during World War II and towards the end of the war commanded the White Spiritual Consultant, regiment for several months.

He then took command of the 325 th Glider Infantry Regiment of the 82 nd Airborne Division for several months after it had returned to the United States. Galileo Galilei Contributions. PKO. WW2 Mystery: U.S. Army Airborne USMC Paramarines' Pre-War Experiments with Break-Apart Columbia Compax Bicycles. The question is DID U.S. Army Paratroopers and/or Paramarines JUMP disassembled Columbia Compax bicycles? If so, HOW? We know the British jumped BSA folding bicycles uncovered in House Spiritual Consultant Essay their hands which is very dangerous as its a snag risk to your parachute deployment. So far, all we have are these blow-ups from a poster hanging in vs garner a museum where a Columbia Compax is White Consultant displayed. We wrote to the curator for help with better pics but so far this is all we have. As if we need yet more proof that ad hocery results in good ideas that could gain us a tactical advantage falling by the wayside; consider the U.S. military's failure to exploit bicycles for military mobility advantages in fractures WW2--and thereafter.

The U.S. Army lead the world in military bicycle use but then got fat and White, lazy and disastrously road-bound with motorized trucks and forgot how to use them when it really counted in war. While the Germans were moving around entire rifle battalions by bicycle to achieve decisive effects like repelling the galileo, British at White Spiritual Consultant, Arnhem, at best we used bicycles tactically en masse only if they were captured. Essay On Art In The Middle Ages And Its In Society. The point of this is that military bikes must be ORGANIC to White Spiritual Consultant Essay U.S. military units so they are used aggressively in war practice so when the fear of life/death settles in during a war their utility and usefulness to and fibula FAN OUT INFANTRY QUICKLY to get decisive kill/capture positions or to control ground to deny the enemy its use (prevent land mines from being laid) will be established and not be ignored . Johan Willaert from Belgium writes: Although the U.S. Essay. Army had used bicycles for many years before WW2, none were standardized for procurement before 1942. Essay On Art Middle And The Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. The Army's official use for these bicycles was: To provide Transportation for Personnel engaged in Dispatch or Messenger Service . Of course they were used for many other purposes. They proved a fast and economical way to get around Depots, Camps and White Spiritual Consultant, Airfields. The Bicycle, Military, Universal was adopted in October 1942 by pride and prejudice quotes, the Ordnance Department.

It was a military version of the White Spiritual Consultant Essay, Westfield Columbia and was equipped with heavy duty rims and spokes. It came with a D-Cell powered headlight on the front fender and basic tools were carried in in the Middle Renaissance in Society a toolbag attached to the Persons saddle. A tire pump was clamped to the frame. These bikes were manufactured by Essay, both Westfield Columbia and platinum, Huffman with only minor differences in parts. Huffman fenders were rounded as opposed to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay gothic ones on the Columbia, chain guards varied and Huffman front sprockets had a unique whirlwind design. All parts were interchangeable . Early rubber pedal blocks were replaced with wooden ones later in the war. Contributions. Early frames had a curved front tube but these were replaced with straight tubes on later models. Late in WW2 Columbia produced a Women's model. Folding Compax models were tested by [U.S. Army] Airborne Troops and the U.S. Marine Corps but saw no action in Europe in WW2.

Westfield Columbia MG138969 ( Late 1943) The Westfield Serial Number files do not contain any reference to specific Military contracts, so it's become very hard to determine how many bikes were manufactured and when. Huffman frames were dated, but there too there's no reference to Consultant Essay how many were made. I am trying to put together a database with Models and Serial Numbers and tibia and fibula fractures, their location, so I invite you to post that info here with a picture of the bike if possible. For more info and wartime images, feel free to visit the Bicycles pages of my site: www.theliberator.be. Willaert's U.S. Military WW2 Bicycle Research Page. Tactical Bicycle Use in Hawaii shows some Custom Gear for Military Applications. U.S. White Spiritual Essay. Army Signal Corps Photo via Jerry Cleveland.

Members of the Intelligence Platoon, HQ Company, 34 th Infantry Regiment on patrol in Hawaii. Rifles are carried in leather scabbards on the front forks . Note the Willys MA Jeep in pride and prejudice the background. Another WW2 Bicycle Mystery: By Parachute or Glider? One of the few surviving Columbia's in Europe is White House Consultant displayed in the Airborne Museum of Sainte-Mre-Eglise, Normandy, France where it sits under the wings of a C-47 aircraft. MG145375 was left behind during WW2 and ended up with a local farmer who used it well into the 1970's before donating it to the local museum where it underwent complete restoration. WATCH THE CLASSIC MOVIE, The Longest Day based on Cornelius Ryan's Book.

Click on the picture to view the galilei, 2-hour movie. PROOF! U.S. Airborne Glider-Airlanding Bicycle Use in Combat in WW2. Although many have claimed to see a Compax Paratrooper bicycle in the back of the Jeep on the right, the springer type front forks clearly indicate it is White House Consultant not a Columbia Compax. It actually is pride and prejudice quotes a Simplex Servicycle. There seems to be another Servicycle in White House Consultant the Jeep on the left where the passenger seat has been tilted forward to make room for the cycle's rear wheel. All vehicles belong to Service Company, 504 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the galilei, 82 nd Airborne Division and are being loaded into WACO Gliders for the Operation Market-Garden Airborne insertion into Holland in White Consultant Essay September 1944. During WW2, Servicycles were used by tibia and fibula fractures, Medical units of Airborne Divisions. Compare the front forks of the Servicycle above to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay the one shown below.

Father Sampson, Chaplain of the 501 st Parachute Infantry is shown on a Simplex Servicycle during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. Tricycle Resupply in Combat. Al Krochka Photo from Mark Bando's The 101 st AIRBORNE-From Holland to Hitler's Eagle's Nest. This image shows Technical Sergeant 5 Mendoza from B Company 326 th Airborne Engineer Battalion, 101 st Airborne Division using a captured/borrowed Dutch Tricycle to transport equipment to galilei a Supply Dump in White House Essay Veghel, Holland during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. Essay On Art Ages And The And Its In Society. The tricycle is loaded with two A4 Supply Bundles. Note the Parachute First Aid Packet tied to his M1 steel pot helmet. Bicycle Infantry: the Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. White Spiritual. Stringer, U.S. Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994. NOTE: narrow-minded Stringer didn't realize that bikes can FOLD and be ATTACHED to armored personnel carriers for tibia and fibula armored, mechanized maneuver to the area of operations where LBI would fan out for effect. Infantry magazine, November-December, 1994. Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995.

CopterBox, HeliBox, MaxiBox. An Air Force Loadmaster and three Australian Army Riggers deploy a helibox and Consultant, a maxibox load from pride and prejudice elizabeth, a C-130J Hercules as part of Exercise Pacific Airlift Rally in White House Spiritual Consultant Thailand. Use CDS bundles to airdrop oversized items like A/ETBs and ATACs so heavy fire and Essay Rock and Roll, forget missiles like Javelin ATGMs or AGTMs can be delivered to Paratroopers, who are then mobile to use them effectively. So the options are: 1. Jump the folded ATB in airdrop bag attached to the Paratrooper; a. Rear ramp C-130s/C-27Js/CH-47s/CH-53s. b. Side jump doors of C-130s/C-27Js/C-17s. Obviously, jumping the ATB folded/attached to the Paratrooper will require a major gut check of those involved, but the pay-off of 10-25 mph mobility on White, the ground afterwards is definitely worth it. The rear ramp jump provides undisturbed air for a majority of the parachute opening sequence; so this using this exit technique should not be a major mental obstacle to overcome.

SOF routinely jumps TacSATs and loads almost as large routinely over the rear ramp of C-130 type aircraft today. U.S. Army Soldier Randy Policar recently jumped the Montague PARATROOPER folding ATB inside an elizabeth, Airpac airdrop system from the 36 wide SIDE jump door of a C-130 proving its feasible using EXISTING Army airdrop equipment. Jumping With The Paratrooper. October 23rd, 2006 by Randy Policar. Montague Corporation states that their Paratrooper can be air dropped and White House Spiritual Essay, be ready for action. As a Paratrooper myself, I was more than happy to put it to the test. 5 ' 9 Tall Policar and His Airborne Unit. A few days ago, my Unit conducted an galileo, Airborne Operation. It was the perfect opportunity to jump the Paratrooper. But before the jump was to take place I had to rig up the Paratrooper in order for it to be dropped.

I used an Air Pack to White House Spiritual Essay rig up the Paratrooper. It was one of the few containers that I had available to fit the whole bike. Here you could see the Essay on Art and The and Its in Society, front tire being placed inside the bag. A lot of padding was used to protect the White Spiritual Essay, bike. The rest of the bike had to be placed inside a HALO kit bag. This was done so that none of the bike would be exposed decreasing the chance of snagging any part of the on Art Middle Ages Renaissance and Its, aircraft upon exit. The handle bars and pedals were removed in White Essay order to platinum keep a uniform shape of the Drop Bag. White. Montague offers folding pedals as an accessory that could be used to keep from having to and Roll remove the pedals.

Above is what the Paratrooper looks after being completely rigged to be air dropped. House Essay. Every part of the pride quotes elizabeth, Mountain Bike is included so that it could be used on the drop zone. This was taken on the way to the C-130 Hercules just before station time. Inside the C-130 just before the jump. Being in a unique Unit, a grand total of five static line jumpers owned the White House Essay, entire aircraft that day. For those of you who jump and are usually packed inside the Essay on Music:, bird like a can of sardines, stop drooling. Don't worry; I've had my fair share of those jumps as well. This was taken on the drop zone after a spectacular jump. House Spiritual. My landing could use some improvement. But the way I figure is, any jump you could walk away from is a great jump. I didn't get any pictures on the way down because our public affairs person was a no show.

I plan on jumping the Paratrooper once again. Next time I'll just leave my camera on the ground for someone to take pictures from the ground up. The Paratrooper made it through without any serious damages just a few minor scratches. Not bad considering the fact that it was just dropped 1,250 ft above ground level. 2. Drop the and Roll, folded ATB/ATACSs separately as; a. Door bundle A-7A strap or A-21 cargo bag or future CopterBox loads into the personnel drop zone. b. Rear ramp CDS A-22 or CopterBox loads into White House Consultant Essay the equipment drop zone (Paratroopers must run to, identify their bundles and de-rig) In OPERATION PROVE BATTLE MOBILITY , a bicycle assault exercise at Fort Bragg, NC videotaped by a NBC correspondent, Alan Covey the 1 st TSG (A) team composed of Combat Medical Specialist LT David Tran, Grenadier/Scout SGT Paul Latham and Essay Rock, Team Leader LT Mike Sparks moved rapidly from a simulated airdrop in fully ghillie strip camouflaged-ATBs to assault positions through woods where there was no pre-existing trails. White Spiritual Essay. Visual camouflage techniques were proven as enhancements for ATB forces. Essay On Art Ages Renaissance Effect In Society. Photos of Operation Prove Tactical Mobility can be viewed at this hyperlink: tacticalmobility.htm. U.S. ARMY GROUND MOBILITY EXPERIMENTS.

TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES. The first myth that has to be busted is that light infantry has to take a rucksack to House the field at all if you implement all the Combat Light techniques described in detail in our Airborne Equipment Shop web site. The only thing that needs to be carried in the rucksack is bulk water, food (MREs) and doubloon, ammunition. If local water is House Spiritual Consultant Essay nearby, it can be collected and purified, instead of being carried thus, saving weight. These things are generic and thus every Soldier's rucksack should be uniform so they can be collected en masse , taken to the rear, refilled and air-delivered (Cargo chute or CopterBox ) back to the unit as a LOGPACK. All field-living-SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape) equipments need to be and can be on the Combat Light Soldier at all times for tibia and fibula fractures the normal temperature/weather range from White House Consultant Essay, 20 degrees to 90 degrees.

Only in extremely cold weather is Essay on Art in the Middle Ages and The Renaissance a rucksack with survival clothing/tentage required, in extreme hot weather (deserts) bulk water. The British SAS call this living from just the belt kit . When the rucksack is with the Paratrooper it is on the All/Extreme Terrain Bike NOT his back. Even when the A/ETB cannot be ridden, it can be pushed/towed (retractable outrigger wheels and a tow-bar at the front wheels) as a cart with the Soldier hands-free. WHAT IS SO GREAT ABOUT FOOT RUCK MARCHES THAT TAKE ALL DAY? Chart from U.S. Army then Major Stephen Tate's CGSC Master's Thesis Human Powered Vehicles in Support of Light Infantry Operations Accession Number: ADA211795. Title: Human Powered Vehicles in Support of Light Infantry Operations. Descriptive Note: Master's thesis Aug 1988-Jun 1989.

Corporate Author: ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS. Personal Author(s): Tate, Stephen T. Handle / proxy Url: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA211795 Check NTIS Availability. Report Date: 02 JUN 1989. Pagination or Media Count: 188.

Abstract: This study examines the House Spiritual Consultant, suitability of using bicycles to enhance the mobility of U.S. light infantry units. Initially the study defines mobility problems encountered by on Music: Rock, U.S. light infantry units as a result of force design. The study presents historical examples of previous military cycling operations at the turn of the century, during both World Wars, and the Vietnam Conflict. The tactical use, mobility, speed, distance, and load carrying capacity of bicycle troops during each of these periods are discussed. The present use of three bicycle regiments in the Swiss Army is examined.

The impact of House Spiritual Consultant, recent technological improvements in the bicycle industry is examined for possible military application. Keywords: Bicycle; Light infantry; All-terrain bicycle, Mobility; Soldier's load; Vietnam, Swiss army; Strategy; Tactics; Derailleur; World War II; Logistics; Military operations. Descriptors: *MOBILITY, *LOGISTICS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, MILITARY PERSONNEL, WARFARE, GLOBAL, INDUSTRIES, ARMY PERSONNEL, CAPACITY(QUANTITY), INFANTRY, TERRAIN, CYCLES, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, LIGHTING EQUIPMENT, ARMY, VIETNAM, SWITZERLAND. Subject Categories: MILITARY OPERATIONS, STRATEGY AND TACTICS. Distribution Statement: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. Get to point B-from-A in in the and The and Its Effect in Society a bike in an hour, get off the bikes and into attack position. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay. Walking at a turtle's pace for hours exposes the infantry force to all kinds of air/ground observation, artillery, mortar, small arms fires. Troops tired from long foot marches have lost battles and wars since the Battle of doubloon, Hastings in 1066 A.D. What is House Spiritual Essay so great about that?

Being able to move through terrain several 1,000 meter grid squares at a time is galileo a form of protection called SPEED. When the LBI force moves it has security front, rear and White Spiritual Essay, flank to tennesse contact any enemies before they can reach the main body. When contact is expected, LBI teams move by bounding overwatch, one team aimed in on likely enemy ambush points as the other moves ahead--just like armored vehicles do. When it is certain the White, enemy is ahead, they dismount their A/ETBs and begin fire/maneuver on the enemy. This is elizabeth more tactical then riding in back of a noisy, unarmed or armored truck.

With a Weapons Gun Shield (WGS) on the end of their shoulder weapons, Paratroopers move forward from cover to cover behind the White Spiritual Consultant, WGS in the prone, so even if the enemy returns fire, they can survive it to complete the mission----and regain fire superiority with their own weapons. Tennesse. Details of how the bullet-sponge paradigm can be defeated is enclosed in the future infantry squad web page link here; squad.htm The WGS is attached at the front handlebars of the A/ETB during cycling for frontal protection-windscreen in event of enemy contact from the front. It appears that the Spiritual Consultant, powers-that-be are starting to listen. Ref: Prior message on Shields used in MOUT. Thank you for your input regarding ballistic shields for and prejudice quotes elizabeth Soldiers in a MOUT environment.

You are correct that some sort of shield is needed. In fact, we are currently pursuing a variety of shields for evaluation within this program. Thank you again for your message. MOUT ACTD Force. U.S.

Army Soldier Systems Command Hotline. for Food, Clothing, Shelters and Airdrop Systems. Comm: (508) 233-5341. If terrain is not passable by either cycling or towing, the A/ETB can be folded and carried attached to the rucksack for interface with motorized ground/air/sea vehicle transport. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay. This can be Fast Rope Insertion/Extraction (FRIES), Special Patrol Insertion-Extraction System (SPIES) or rappel from a hovering helicopter, airland or with the platinum, padded airdrop bag, parachuting.

U.S. Army ARMOR Magazine: Bikes Tanks = Effective Cavalry. Singapore Army Bicycle-Snipers! Modern Polish Light Bicycle Infantry. The German Army in White House Spiritual Consultant WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. The reason was to have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING.

The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to work together just like the galilei contributions, M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Spiritual Consultant. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave) Infanteriedivision (1. Platinum Doubloon. Welle) (Commander on 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. Frhr. Consultant Essay. v. Gablenz. Gen.Maj. Frhr. v. Schleinitz.

Gen.Maj. Essay. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. Graf v. Spiritual Consultant. Sponek. Airlanding equipment was in tibia and fibula depots back in White House Spiritual Essay Germany. Gen.Maj. v. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon.

recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon. German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle) 4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol)

1 NCO for Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)

1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. Essay In The Middle And The Renaissance Effect. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in charge of baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for baggage and equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun.

Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols) 6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars;

7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. From Steve Olderr's superb web site, the Bicyclopedia link above, lists an amazing history of the bicycle, military bike history excerpts taken here: The forerunners of today's A/ETBs have been proven by years of White Spiritual Consultant, successful military use in war by the Germans, British Commandos, Vietnamese, Swiss and tibia and fibula, can give AIRBORNE forces 10-25 mph mobility without logistical tail that is inherently stealthy. In its 1937 invasion of China, Japan employed some 50,000 bicycle troops. Then the Japanese Army of House Spiritual Consultant, just 3 divisions defeated the entire British Army in Malaya and Singapore. Their secret weapon: bicycle jungle infiltration tactics created by contributions, a Studies Group Early in 1941 Colonel Masanobu Tsuji, (scroll down after clicking link) a veteran of the China campaign. was allocated a shoe-string budget and put in charge of a small Southern Military Studies Research Group in Taiwan to investigate problems of jungle warfare. Tsuji was given a report drawn up by two senior Japanese army officers, who had visited Malaya in September 1940. Consultant. They advised that any attack on Singapore would have to come from the north and reported that the British Air force in Malaya was understrength and its planes obsolete. Tsuji appreciated, as Percival and Dobbie had pointed out, that a frontal attack on Singapore was scarcely feasible but her back door stood open, and galilei contributions, he realized that British propaganda was deluding only her own people.

Tsuji embarked on his task with enthusiasm and verve. The challenge was enormous, for the Japanese Army had no experience of fighting jungle warfare. Soldiers accustomed to cold weather fighting had to be trained to face tropical conditions, and cavalry, which was used in China, had to be abandoned in favour of White Spiritual Essay, bicycles . Galilei Contributions. The 25th Japanese Army, which was hurriedly assembled for the invasion of Malaya, was put under the command of House Consultant, Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, probably Japan's most able general . The son of on Music: Rock, a humble village doctor, Yamashita was then fifty-six years old and White House Consultant Essay, was Tojo 's contemporary and tennesse, rival. He had headed the Japanese military mission to Germany and Italy in 1940 and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, served in Korea and North China, until November 1941 when he was summoned from Manchuria to command the attack on Singapore. Yamashita was offered five divisions but decided to galileo employ only three, knowing that this was the maximum force which could be fed and House Consultant, maintained as his supply lines became extended south.

The 25th Army comprised the on Art and The Renaissance Effect in Society, Imperial Guards, the seasoned 18th Division and the highly experienced crack 25th Division, which was one of the best in the Japanese Army. The Japanese secret weapon was the White, bicycle and it gave them speed and mobility in the advance down the Malay peninsula. The Japanese swept down the Malay peninsula, carried forward by audacious planning, good fortune and the exhilaration bred by success. The main body of the force were disciplined, hardy and on Art and The Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, vigorous Soldiers, who had fought together in the China campaign. Yamashita used his mastery of the air and the coastal waters to House Consultant conduct a dynamic technique of infiltration, enveloping and outflanking which bewildered the defenders and compelled them to withdraw to avoid being cut off from the rear. Confined by the communications system of one trunk road and railway line, the British defence lacked mobility and the Japanese could defeat them in pride and prejudice detail. Without tanks and White Consultant, anti-tank guns or prepared lines of defences, the Commonwealth retreat was inevitable, and the Japanese drove relentlessly south. Ironically, when he was almost out of ammunition, Yamashita attacked and General Percival surrendered to his bluff. Victory brought a thrill of exhilaration to Japan and her allies. The previous year German military leaders had told Yamashita it would probably take five divisions eighteen months to conquer Singapore.

In fact, the mission had been accomplished by fractures, three divisions in just over two months. For the British, the loss of Singapore was the blackest moment of the House Consultant, Second World War and, in platinum doubloon the words of Winston Churchill, 'the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history'. VIDEOS: The Fall of Malaya and White Spiritual Consultant, Singapore. Jap bicyclists take Malaya/Singapore. PART 1: Percival had plan to tennesse block landing up north but didn't do it, Japs sink air coverless Repulse and Prince of Wales , use bicycle-infantry to infiltrate through British lines, Light tanks prevail because stupid British ASS U ME NO tanks can operate in the jungle; don't fathom LIGHT tanks that are closed-terrain mobile. PART 2: non-linear Japs outflank linear Brits repeatedly, IV and pole carry of casualty, planes in crates not helping; if they were folded in BATTLEBOXes they'd be ready to House Consultant Essay fly, interesting small boat with a cannon on it, Japs encircle Singapore with light tanks and tibia, artillery, launch observation balloon to direct fires; British have no planes to knock it down! Cuts off water supply, can't win a fight if forced to dislodge the British so he tries leaflets to get a surrender, Yamashita bluffs Percival to surrender.

PART 3: 130, 000 POWs horror made into slave laborers. The Brits Get Bikes: Defeat the White House Consultant, Japs Jerry. Later in the same year, British Airborne Cycle Commandos struck at Bruneval Radar station using folding mountain bikes. On Art And The Renaissance And Its. Flying in Stirling bombers which also dropped bombs to House Spiritual confuse the Germans, the Cycle-Commandos were paradropped 8 miles away from their objective for secrecy. Using their bikes for ground mobility, the Paratroopers closed on their target silently and captured the necessary radar components and tennesse, prisoners to White House Essay bring vital intelligence back to England by sea landing craft.

Type G Apparatus - Folding Bicycle. In WW2 bicycles were a cheap and lightweight method of giving mobility to infantry. This was particularly true for Airborne troops, who were obviously much more limited in the size and platinum doubloon, number of vehicles that could accompany them. The British Airborne forces had a unique bicycle designed to be folded in Spiritual Consultant half and parachuted down. While somewhat bulky by today's standards, the galileo contributions, bike is White Spiritual Consultant remarkably light. The bike could either be dropped separately or strapped to the parachutist. A member of the [6 th Airborne re-enactors] unit has acquired and restored one of vs garner, these interesting pieces. BSA Folding Airborne Bike rigged to be dropped separately.

Following are several more photos of this particular bike along with several wartime photos. All of the following text is taken from the war-time military manual for the Type G Apparatus, the folding bicycle. Stores Ref. Consultant. Number: The Stores Ref. Number of the parachute is 15C/84 Weight of folding bicycle: The weight of the platinum, folding bicycle and parachute is 32 1/2 lb. It is White Consultant Essay necessary to throw the bicycle vertically downwards through the door of the aircraft to vs garner prevent the parachute fouling the tail. Tests were made by A.F.E.E. from a C-47 with satisfactory results. Airborne Bicycle General.

The frame of the bicycle is elliptical and is hinged at two points. The slackening of two wing-nuts enables the frame to be folded so that the two wheels lie side by side. Consultant Essay. The wheels are lashed to the frame to prevent their turning and a type Q parachute with 12 ft. Canopy, as described in A.P. 1180A, Vol. On Art Middle Ages Renaissance And Its. I, Part 2, Sect. 2 Chap. 4, is attached to their circumference. Any partial bending of the handlebars on landing can usually be corrected by hand.

Parachuting with the Airborne bicycle from either Dakota or Stirling Aircraft is simple and White House, requires little equipment. The bicycle is suspended from the parachutists body by a quick-release strap when jumping and pride and prejudice elizabeth, is always released and lowered to the full extent of a 20 ft suspension line during descent. Preparation of Bicycle. Fold the bicycle and push the pedals through into the stowed position. House. Lower the handlebars and raise the saddle so that the latter will receive most of the doubloon, landing shock. Strap both wheels together, securing them to House Consultant Essay the rear chain stays to prevent them from rotating (An Army-issue valise strap is galilei most suitable for Spiritual Consultant Essay this.). Tie one end of the 20 ft. suspension line to both the wheels in Essay Middle Ages and The Effect such a position that when the cycle is House Spiritual Consultant Essay suspended by Ages and The Renaissance and Its in Society, the line the saddle is Spiritual lowermost. This is important to prevent damage to the handlebars.

Method of Attaching Bicycle to Parachutist. Commencing from the free end, plait the suspension line to ensure that it will pay out quickly and vs garner, easily without forming loose coils likely to Consultant Essay foul the cycle. Take the free end and tie it to the lower left leg strap of the parachute harness. Finally, suspend the bicycle from a quick-release strap passing round the back of the parachutists neck. Method of Jumping with Airborne Bicycle. When making an exit from [C-47] Dakota aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to and prejudice elizabeth the right-hand side, as shown in fig. 2. Consultant Essay. Take care to avoid fouling the forward edge of the door and catching the brake cable of the platinum, bicycle on the door jettison handle.

Step well out to avoid being brushed along the side of the aircraft. As soon as the canopy has developed, release the bicycle by pulling the loose end of the quick-release strap. When jumping from Stirling aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to the right-hand side, as shown in fig. 3. It is important to stand slightly to the starboard side of the aircraft centre-line to White Consultant Essay prevent the cycle from fouling the exit. As soon as the canopy has developed, release the galileo galilei, bicycle by pulling the loose end of the quick-release strap.

No anti-sear sleeve is required. BICYCLES AT WAR PHOTO GALLERY. Vietnamese Bicycle Use. Bike decisive Logistical means at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Some of the best references are Bicycles at War by Martin Caidin and Jay Barbree, 1974 (see bottom of this web page) and the 1989 U.S. Army Command General Staff College Master's Thesis of then Major Stephen Tate: Human Powered Vehicles in support of Light Infantry Operations, Defense Technical Information Center, AD A211 795, and Infantry magazine, September-October 1994, Bicycle Infantry: The Swiss Experience by CPT Kevin Stringer who was a liaison officer with the Swiss Bike troops, January-February 1995, Airdrop of All-Terrain Bicycles by Michael Sparks, Pages 4-5. LTC Edwin L. Kennedy Jr., of the Combat Studies Institute at USACGSC wrote in the same issue of Infantry magazine a quote from German General Herman Balck:

From the early '30s, I advocated equipping infantry with bicycles in White preference to motorcycles for the reasons that bicycles would be very quiet, would be able to Essay Ages and The Effect in Society go off roads onto trails, and would be almost as fast as motorcycles. White House Consultant. However I didn't have the tennesse vs garner, time or the position to fight for this position. White Spiritual Consultant. I had some actual experience with bicycle infantry because right after the First World War, I commanded a bicycle infantry battalion in tibia fractures Germany. the mobility of the White House Essay, bicycle troops was quite good. It was absolutely no problem to make a hundred kilometers in a day. The U.S. Army has also tested bicycles--both in and Roll the late 1800s and in this century. In a 1988 REFORGER Exercise, we used bicycles in a company that was designated one of our division's Air Assault elements proposed by Captain Kevin Stringer CURRENT SWISS ARMY 7-SPEED MOUNTAIN BIKE EQUIPPED LIGHT TROOPS.

This MO-05 ( militaer ordinanz 1905) example is from 1979 . There were numerous chainwheel designs and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, two head badge decals over the 83-year production run at Condor of Switzerland. 1993 saw the introduction of the MO-93, a seven-speed fahrrad (six more than the MO-05) in mountain bike style. Swiss Bicycle Trailer/Sled for M1905 or M1993 Bicycle (?) The anhanger , or trailer is used to transport a stretcher with four clamp points for the two poles. The trailer weighs 62 pounds of steel, wood and rubber . The carrying capacity seams to be unlimited, or at doubloon, least the rider will know their limits long before the trailer's limits are known. On the way home this day, I passed a VW waiting first at the red light. Just as I passed with the White House Consultant, bicycle, the passenger door flung outwards just as the trailer's wheel was passing.

The first sign of trouble was the loud crunch. That poor VW now has a horrible dent to the door corner and I have yet to pride quotes elizabeth find even scratched paint on White House Spiritual Essay, the anhanger . I felt bad for the auto owner, but am glad the trailer was there rather than myself a split second earlier. The VW passenger sure was civil and apologized for the scare. Elizabeth. We shook hands and White Spiritual Essay, departed. This is an original Swiss bike trailer for the MO-05. Essay On Music: Rock And Roll. The trailer is basically meant to carry a person on White Consultant, a stretcher . Those stretcher with four terminals can be securely fastened. Essay Middle Ages Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. The folding cart is not so much space. The wheels can be removed with a quick and simple operation.

The wooden baseboard can be quickly removed and you can of course do everything themselves. He is very stable behind the bicycle. WITH ALL-TERRAIN CART/SLED. He seems quite sturdy and that is Spiritual Consultant Essay true. You notice there are not many of Essay on Art in the Middle Ages and The and Its Effect in Society, them as you bike and you can so that on vacation. The cart and the bicycle are a wonderful combination. BIKE + CART/SLED INTERFACE. Here is the trailer attached to the hook that comes. WITH STRETCHER TO MEDEVAC A CASUALTY. Kar stretcher and Spiritual, with the platinum, towing

CART/SLED ON ITS OWN (TOWED BY HAND) an option. A wheel as you get there from. The retracted bracket. In the folded position he does not take much space. Solid and very solidly made. White House Consultant Essay. If you get the wheels off, you get a kind of trolley because there's a couple places thick metal reinforcements have been ordered. Bicycle Infantry: the Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. Stringer, U.S. Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994.

Combat effectiveness and speed: mechanized and light troops. Tanks, armoured personnel carriers, anti-tank guided weapons and armoured mortar carriers belong to the instruments of the mechanized troops. The light troops have mortars, anti-tank guided weapons, reconnaissance instruments and bicycles . Here, the combat effectiveness of modern tanks is combined with high speed. This allows the defenders to contributions strike well-aimed blows against an opponent who has broken into White Consultant the country, and to maintain control of the on Art in the and The Renaissance Effect, terrain. Fighting takes place as combined arms combat - jointly with infantry, artillery and air defence. Jane's Defense Review elaborates: A unique Swiss Army formation is the bicycle regiment; it can be deployed to counter threats to the corps' rear or used to secure lines of communication for the deployment of armoured brigades or other formations. It is organized into two bicycle battalions and White House Consultant Essay, a headquarters battalion, including a Piranha TOW company with nine vehicles. Companies have received the tennesse, new Bicycle 93, a mountain bike design which allows Soldiers quick access on road or cross-country. Each battalion has an 81mm mortar company equipped with the Consultant, Dragon medium-range anti-tank guide missile. The Legendary British BSA Folding Bicycle.

Headquarters 5 Airborne Brigade. Aldershot, Hants GU11 2AU. Thank you for your letter of the 2 Nov 93 outlining the low cost solution to our lack of mobility. We appreciate your comments and have in fact trialled ATBs within the Brigade. We have a limited number which are used on the airhead to enhance communications. The articles you enclosed make interesting reading and will be evaluated in due course. Once again many thanks for platinum doubloon your interest. British Gurkhas Bicycle Security Fence Patrols in White Spiritual Hong Kong. We have just received evidence that the Swedish Army once used bicycle-infantry.

One of the armored infantry battalions became bicykle mounted. This meant that the mobility of the on Art Middle Ages Renaissance and Its, battalion was totally warped. Three different speeds of advance. To command this battalion effectively was not possible. In practice one half of the battalion fought together, the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, tank company and the KP-car mounted armored infantry company, while the tractor towed bicykle company fought with other units of the battalion.

Condor Club of Essay on Music: Rock, Holland found the following on Wikipedia: The Swedish military bicycle (Swedish: militrcykel ), or Swedish army bicycle, has been used in the Swedish military for over a century. In typical military humour, these were nicknamed LTGAC (Swedish: Ltt terrnggende attackcykel or Light All-Terrain Attack Bike) by the conscript soldiers using them. The first bicycles in the Swedish military were privately owned or bought for testing purposes. Bicycle infantry were first introduced in 1901, when a Gotlandic infantry regiment, I 27 in White House Spiritual Essay Visby, replaced its cavalry complement with bicycle-mounted troops. By 1942, there were six bicycle infantry regiments in the Swedish army, operating mainly m/30s and m/42s. However, there were also examples of undesignated tandem bicycles for use by platinum, field radio operators and specially fitted pairs of bicycles designed for mounting a stretcher between lead's rack and Consultant, the rear's steer tube. Following World War II, in 1947, the decision was made to decommission the bicycle infantry regiments.

They were gradually removed from the Army between 1948 and 1952. Following this decision, the role of the bicycle shifted away from a combat one to a more utilitarian one, with special bicycle transport groups being formed. However, bicycle rifle battalions (Swedish: cykelskyttebataljon ) continued to exist into the late 1980s. m/1901: A safety bicycle, it was the first officially designated bicycle in the Swedish army. m/30: A spoon brake equipped, balloon-tired roadster. It was based around an agreement with several large Swedish manufacturers regarding the interchangeability of parts.

Weight: ca. 23.5 kg (52 lb.) m/finsk: A Nymans-manufactured bicycle without chainguard. The label finsk is the Swedish word for Finnish. m/42: The most well-known Swedish military bicycle. It was produced by Essay on Art in the Ages and The Renaissance and Its Effect, several large Swedish bicycle manufacturers (Rex, Husqvarna, Monark, Nymans) from the 1940s to the 1950s with a maximum of interchangeable parts. It uses a rear, one-speed Novo coaster brake hub and, on White Spiritual, Husqvarna-produced examples, a front drum brake (chain-operated by an integrated right-hand lever). In addition, it has a large, sturdy rack with a tool box and storage tube for a short frame pump.

Weight: up to 26 kg (57 lb.) m/104, m/104A: 26 11/2 inch (584 mm) wheels with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. m/105, m/105A: Post-1971. 28 inch wheel with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. Paratroopers wearing thellie infared resistant, Multi-Cam type camouflage clothing are invisible to visual, audio and FLIR detection. Couple this invisibility with A/ETB mobility and and prejudice, you have a battle-winning combination that can be taken along with Paratroopers during their jump into the drop zone. Thanks to the efforts of the 1 st TSG (A) which contacted the U.S. Army's Ground Mobility Program they are exploring off body load bearing devices like A/ETBs and ATACs as reported in their Soldier Systems Command April 1996 Warrior magazine. The SSCOM GMP has also held industry days to gain more input and ideas on these devices. BIKES AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS.

Anyone who has seen the film, Blackhawk Down! will note that in 1993, shortly after the 1 st TSG (A) test jumps that U.S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachment Delta (Delta Force) used a mountain bike to infiltrate and exfiltrate an operator into and out of downtown Mogadishu, Somalia to gain intel on the whereabouts of warlord Muhammad Farrar Aideed. The film shows the Delta operator with All-Terrain Bike in Spiritual Consultant civilian clothes being picked up at a beach landing site by and prejudice, a MH-60K helicopter. Retired Command Sergeant Major Eric Haney in his superb book, Inside Delta Force on page 210 notes: For our part, we shot targets, blew things up, and executed building assaults.

We also made free-fall parachute jumps with motorcycles and, upon landing, roared past the Spiritual, VIP stands firing our submachine guns. Therefore, if Delta Force can put out heavy motorcycles under a parachute canopy and follow them in under their own parachutes, land together and ride motorcycles, certainly smaller A/ETBs can be airdropped and utilized in a similar manner where more stealth is required. Its also common knowledge the multi-billion-dollar Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft is too small to carry even a HMMWV inside and this is a major handicap, forcing SF units to fight at a foot-slog. A/ETBs can be cycled and rolled right off the tibia fractures, rear ramp of helicopters/tilt-rotor aircraft so SF units can perform special operations with 10-25 mph mobility----not getting surrounded and decisively engaged as famed SAS patrol Bravo Two-Zero was in Iraq. In Vietnam, U.S. Army Light infantry Divisions like the White Spiritual Consultant Essay, 25 th Tropic Lightnings had M113 Gavin Armored Fighting Vehicles and light/medium tanks. Today, out of spite and jealousy, senior Army officers have blocked repeatedly our light units from getting tracked light tanks like the M8 Armored Gun System to replace the on Art in the Ages Renaissance Effect in Society, retired M551 Sheridan or even modernized M113A3s out of White Essay, fear that these units will get all the tennesse vs garner, action and have nothing left for the heavy units to do to Spiritual Consultant put on career resumes. Thus, we are stuck with trying to airland heavy 70-ton Abrams tanks and 33-ton Bradley Fighting Vehicles 4 hours after Paratroopers have jumped/died to seize a concrete runway for in the Middle Ages and The Renaissance and Its Effect in Society them to airland. This heavy force structure is too slow to deploy by air to take down a Kosovo so we ended up bombing 2 million people into White Consultant Essay refugee status before the enemy gave up after we decided to doubloon mass for a ground invasion. The current misguided Army transformation initiative seeks to instead of using sound light tracked AFVs like M113A3/4 Gavins -M8 AGS Bufords wants to use road-bound LAV-III type heavy armored cars that will be easily ambushed as this Russian 8x8 BTR armored car was recently blown up in Chechnya.

To add insult to injury, only 2 x LAV-IIIs can be flown per Spiritual Consultant C-17--the same number as M2 BFVs that can fly in a single C-17 sortie, and neither can fly by C-130 because the Ages and The and Its Effect in Society, LAV-III is too wide, and at 16.5 tons EMPTY exceeds the USAF's 16-ton forward landing strip limit! The LAV-III is too tall (105 inches) to parachute airdrop from the rear ramp of a C-130 even if it were lighter and narrower. What we need are mobile Airborne/Light Divisions coupled with light Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) like the 10.5-ton air-droppable, swimming M113A3 Gavin with RPG, auto-cannon resistant applique' armor instead of road-bound, ambush vulnerable, 22,000 pound, 5-ton trucks or trucks pretending to Spiritual Consultant be tanks (LAV-III/ Strikers ) now in use, so we can take down a Kosovo quickly, senior officer jealousies be damned. With light AFVs like the M113A3, the and prejudice, U.S. Airborne can apply bunker/building busting shock action from the drop zone using in-stock M40A2 106mm Recoilless Rifles, Mk-19 40mm grenade cannon from the TC's hatch, and Javelin fire forget ATGMs fired out the rear troop hatch to House overwhelm the enemy while we have the initiative. The Airborne Assault Echelon with light tracked AFVs can overcome enemy fires to tibia and fibula fractures secure the drop zone to enable it to be an assault landing zone for follow-on forces to airland.

ATB-equipped LBI forces would drop away from enemy defenses and fan out to set-up blocking positions and establish the recon security zone to act as a covering force to keep the enemy at bay and out of House Essay, mortar/artillery range as the airhead builds up. The flight of the 82 nd Airborne Division non-stop across the world by C-17A Globemaster IIIs to central Russia where they parachuted into simulated battle conditions proves the power of the U.S. Essay On Music:. Airborne. See photo below. what we need to do now is fully exploit it by giving it the secondary mobility means once they are on the ground. Beginning with LBI and Dragoons in ATVs, and M113A3 AFVs is a very low-cost way to create these capabilities NOW, before there is another Kosovo-type crisis. 100% of the air is covered by AIR and vulnerable to AIRBORNE attack. while a tiny fraction borders on watery edges. If that is a Desert Shield type deployment, A/ETBs can enable Light/Airborne units to White House Essay conduct a mobile, area defense instead of a static, line-in-the-sand. We have been to NTC as OPFOR and we won. In one battle we were without our M113 Gavins and stuck on foot defending.

ETBs would have worked great so we could have shifted forces to where the and fibula, attack really ended up instead of being spread all over. We could have been on the reverse slope and used them to rapidly move to White Spiritual Essay firing positions on signal. Essay Middle And The. And we could have had a withdraw capability instead of fighting/dying in place. If I were BlueFor I'd have my men in Bradleys /M113 Gavins close to a position out of sight of the OPFOR defending the House, high ground. Then, at platinum doubloon, night close rapidly through a smoke screen (made by M58s--M113s with smoke generators--or artillery barrage in actual war) by ETBs to White Essay the defenders position and take the key terrain BEFORE trying to stampede AFVs which only gets everyone killed as the pass gets clogged with dead vehicles. Pride. These are exactly the kind of Consultant, terrain feature-to-terrain feature crossing mobility the Afghanistan Northern Alliance does while mounted on horses. UPDATE 2002: Afghanistan: where all-terrain mobility is galileo galilei contributions a MUST.

Easily ambushed roads must be avoided. 1. Mules to transport long-range rockets/mortars for infantry raids. Special Forces Mounted Operations. FM 31-27, PACK ANIMALS IN SUPPORT OF ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES, 15 FEB 2000. 2. Video footage of bikes/carts. National Geographic TV special on Northern Alliance legendary rebel leader, Mossoud and most news media reports if you keep a keen eye open. 3. Horse Cavalry that attacks from terrain feature to White House Essay terrain feature. Ah, that we would open our minds to off-road mobility, including forces using armored TRACKED vehicles flown in by aircraft to then maneuver to compliment the lighter forces on foot, bike, cart, mules, horses, ATVs etc. Whatever infantrymen can do on foot, it can be done better and faster on A/ETBs and ATACs. UPDATE 2004: PROGRESS. Amphibious Light Bicycle Infantry.

The LBImen themselves can swim across lakes/rivers with a military color brown or tan version of ShuttleBike pontoon floats. When you consider that the LBIman has an ability to Rock parachute insert and helicopter insert/extract, being able to White House Consultant Essay swim adds an extra dimension for scouts fanning out from platinum, their mother M113 Gavin . RIDE YOUR BIKE ON THE WATER WITH THE INFLATABLE BICYCLE BOAT IN A BACKPACK It's easy and fun. set up in 10-15 minutes. House. up to platinum doubloon 6 miles per hour. Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach to Spiritual Consultant Essay your bicycle The entire Shuttle-Bike Kit in a backpack! Propeller and rudder Easy and quick float inflation with pedal power. SHUTTLE-BIKING IS THE ULTIMATE PEDAL-POWERED EXPERIENCE! Shuttle-Bike Kit Features and Technical Information: Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach as a permanent accessory to your bike. Stainless steel snap-together bike support frame. Brushed aluminum alloy propeller gear housing.

Propeller/rudder combination attaches to front wheel - steer with your handlebars. Clutch pivot retracts propeller in Essay on Art and The Renaissance and Its Effect shallow water. Swivel roller contacts back wheel to tranfer power through a flexible drive shaft to the pump/propeller. 275 pound maximum safe load (450 lb. emergency rescue). 4 miles per hour cruising, 6 miles per House Consultant Essay hour maximum speed.

Pedal powered rapid inflation pump with pressure relief valve. Dual floats make the tibia, Shuttle-Bike(r) more stable than canoes, kayaks and Spiritual Consultant, other monohulls. Highly maneuverable - can turn 360 degrees in place. Compact - everything fits in and prejudice elizabeth a 25 lb. Spiritual Consultant Essay. packpack. No tools required for quick setup on the shore. Economical - lowest priced pedal powered watercraft available. Precision machined mechanical components - fine craftsmanship. The Shuttle-Bike Kit is made in Italy by tennesse vs garner, SBK Engineering.

SHUTTLE-BIKE USA, Inc. is the authorized distributor and exclusive importer for the Shuttle-Bike Kit in White House the USA. Toll Free USA Order Line: 1-877-725-2329. Information Line: 1-425-823-7763. Most major credit cards accepted. Dealer inquiries welcome. Email address: shuttlebikeusa@aol.com. Mailing address: 9805 NE 116th St. #7139, Kirkland, WA 98034. Stability and Support Operations (SASO) in Iraq. 2. American squad arrives at city/town/village area at on Music: and Roll, unpredictable, different location each day. Infantry dismounts from M113A3 Gavin and re-mount onto all Terrain MounTain Bikes (MTB)s taken off the Gavin 's sides where they were snap-linked.

Squad fans out into two fireteams, left and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, right of road with M113A3 Gavin and at least one if not 3 machine gunners riding shotgun with overwatching fires if enemy should ambush. 3. Cycle troops are wearing FULL Interceptor Hard Body Armor and Essay Rock and Roll, kevlar helmets with clear ballistic face shields to protect in House Consultant event of grenade/small arms/bomb attack. Because they are pedaling instead of WALKING they can cover patrol area distances with less exertion and water loss. MTBs could also be human pedal or electric-powered eMTBs previously-charged by power inverters from the Gavin 's batteries. Tennesse Vs Garner. Yet, the troops are still at ground level to House Spiritual Consultant Essay stop and talk to Iraqis and collect intel on their beat.

The question is in a situation of quasi-peace how much more vulnerable are the troops riding and stopping on ATBs with weapons slung at doubloon, the ready in the same way as they are on foot movement if they can cover larger areas and gain more preventative intel? If the troops can cover larger areas wouldn't this contribute more to their safety than the slight advantage having one hand on the M4/M16/M249 weapon's pistol grip instead of on a handlebar. The point is that troops wearing IBA are due to weight not patrolling as aggressively on foot and covering as large areas as the British are in House Essay the south without hard body armor to quotes control and influence their beat. MTB or eMTBs. 4. Patrol complete, the troops rally onto their mother M113A3 Gavin and snap-link their MTBs to the vehicle's sides, remount inside the Gavin weapons facing out through the House Consultant, top troop hatch. Gavin and squad returns to fortified base camp along different route than it came by. 5. Squad returns to fortified base camp; provides info to S2 intelligence officer during debrief then cleans weapons, eats chow, rests. 6. Tennesse. And a MTB or eMTB bike can go cross country-tough to predict route, negating IEDs by avoidance.

A British Army officer writes: Interesting. The UK issued bikes for boarder road patrols in White House Consultant Hong Kong. - Never spoke to anyone who did it, but it seemed to work chasing 14 year old Chinese kids! As I see it, the doubloon, concept has three prime equipment components. The plan as you present it makes sense in the context you stated, but I would add the following observations. 1.. Essay. Would bike borne troops be more or less vulnerable to small arms fire and and prejudice, blast from IED?

2.. How would they cope, in heavy traffic, both with civilian vehicles and those on White House, foot? 3.. To patrol in the IS environment, you are constantly stopping and Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, talking to people, going into shops, stopping vehicles and just holding firm, to await the start of your next phase. 4.. White. No Squad/Section EVER patrols alone. All IS patrols are at least Platoon (+/-) strength, and maybe even Coy operations. Movement is in the Ages Renaissance and Its Effect in Society always on multiple routes, aimed at the manoeuvre defeat of the bomber or shooter, PRIOR to his engagement. - In very simple terms, this is why the IRA gave up sniping in city centres.

It was just too dangerous for them. 5.. Imagine conducting a patrol in down town LA, with traffic and pedestrians. The safest method is to have your multiple of 4-man teams, on the sidewalk amongst the crowds. - watch how the Israelis do it. The enemy have to try and track lots of teams snaking around the area. BUT: - I might want to use bikes to quickly and House Essay, silently exploit manoeuvre opportunities, or infiltrate/saturate areas at night or during silent hours sweep operations. Galileo Galilei. - I'd have 3 x 4 man teams on foot, and 2 x 4 man teams on bikes. Bikes are very quiet and fast, so you'd trade security for activity on a phase/event basis. The bike men would be dismounted most of the White House Consultant Essay, time, and only mount and dash, to leap frog forward, when required. Like wise, you could foot patrol a small amount of pride quotes elizabeth, teams into an area, that once they had secured it, could be rapidly flooded by a Coy on bikes, to conduct sweeps or searches. - no warning sounds of White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, Hummvees of AFV's in tibia and fibula the night.

End of OP, M-113's come in to extract everyone, plus the bikes. Good points! We add that LBI troops should carry a very large padlock to clip to a light pole to secure their bikes if they decide to Spiritual Consultant Essay apprehend someone on foot. BICYCLE-INFANTRY AS THE CENTERPIECE OF A FUTURE FORCE DESIGN. The basic unit of the Islandian marine corps is the infantry battalion. All infantry battalions are light infantry, designed to be foot or bicycle mobile ; they have no organic motor vehicles. Careful attention to the marine's load means no man carries more than 50 pounds. As a result, march rates are routinely 40 kilometers per day, sustained; where the terrain permits use of bicycles (mountain bikes), that rate can be as much as tripled.

An Army Captain writes: I'd rather we start placing static patrols into OPs at tennesse vs garner, really good spots for reconnaissance and ambush to catch the bad guys with their hands in White Consultant the cookie jar. Use the a fire team hide position similar to galileo what the Brits devised in N. Ireland. Equip with thermals, digital cameras, etc. Dig them in at night for White House Spiritual Consultant maximum concealment and tennesse, go silent for about a week. Track the comings and goings. Then move when they have a juicy target.

A former USAF Combat Control Team (CCT) member and professional bicyclist writes: It sounds feasible. Is all of Spiritual, that body armor required equipment for these troops? My thoughts tend to lean more towards the platinum, travel light, freeze at night SUT mode because of White Spiritual Consultant, my CCT background. Bicycle handling is effected greatly by weight and it would seem that tight manuevering to in the Middle Ages and Its in Society get either into, or out of House Consultant Essay, a situation (especially urban) would be paramount in reference to galileo contributions individual, or squad mobility. The only way I could make a truly informed decision would be to White House Essay gear-up and get on the bicycle(s) to be used and ride. Of course, it would have to include live fire exercises. Our efforts over the years have finally paid off, jumping the Montague and Dahon type folding bikes! Montague has finally simplified its frame into a bottom tube-less design aptly titled, The Paratrooper and DaHon has a similar simple single-tube frame that folds, one even with disc brakes---called the Zero-G . The question is at what point will the U.S. military see the light, put some minor RD funds into the effort to widen the ATB tires akin to Dan Hanebrink's ETB to gain all-terrain travel capabilities for its light infantry? There are also electric motors to compliment the speed/power of ATBs for recon work. WaveCrest Labs: hybrid-electric eBikes for combat.

Mountain Bike Rifle Rack. This Pack Rack design holds large and small items securely and with no damage to your gear. The plus is the V-shaped wedge and soft rubber fins. The Single Pack Rack Plus incorporates all of the same features as the Pack Rack Original, and mounts to anything with a tubular or square rail. Includes mounting hardware and Rubber Snubbers. Tibia Fractures. Mounts beautifully to Jack's Rack. Tires that are airless and White Essay, cannot go flat : 705 Yucca Street.

Boulder City, Nevada, 89005. FAX : (702) 294-3873. Greentyre USA, Inc. Shelter Island, NY 11964. Bike Details below: Finish: Camo Green. Frame: 7005 Aluminum (Alloy Front Section) Chromoly/ Hi-Tensile Steel Rear Triangle. Fork: RST 281 Suspension. Gearing: 24 Speed Shimano Alivio. Shifters: Shimano Gripshift.

Brakes: Alloy V-Brake. Tires: 1.95 Front/Rear Specific Knobbies. Spokes/Rims: Stainless Steel/Alloy. Bar Ends: Kalloy Short Alloy Bar Ends. Saddle: Velo Mountain Bike. Seatpost: Alloy Micro Adjust. Frame Size: 18 and 20 Standover: 29+ and 31+ Folded Size: 36 x 28 x 12 Foldable to 36 x 30 x 12

Portable (folds to a small size for transport) Stealth/Minimal Signature (second only to on Art in the and Its a walking Soldier) Off Body Load Bearing. Deployable on almost all terrains. Low Initial Cost. Low/No Logistic Support. Up to 75 miles daily range. Folds without the use of tools. Folds in less than 30 seconds.

Increased Loads (lesser reliance on resupply) Patented Technology: Out patented seat tube folding system preserves the structural integrity and inherent strength of House Consultant, traditional bicycle geometry. Unlike all other folding bikes, there are no wobbly hinges and Essay on Music: and Roll, no structural tubes cut in half. Quick Releases: No tools are needed to fold and unfold the Paratrooper. Just open one quick release lever on the top tube and remove the front wheel. Folds in Essay under thirty seconds without tools. Safety Lock: Recessed drop out for quick release prevents frame from folding even with quick release not tightened.

Frame Size: 18-inch 20-inch 26 24 Speed Zero G The sweetest portable MTB on the planet. Period. We built the Zero G for pride and prejudice serious riders who need a bike for Spiritual Essay real off-road riding. Its our steed of choice on our own weekends off. Take a look at the parts list and pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, you'll see what we mean. For blasting down Mt. House. Tam, touring by rail and trail across Europe, or an epic journey in Vietnam, this is the bike you'll want. So what are you waiting for?

SuperLite 7005 aluminum frame. ProMax Pro front disc brake. Highly portable folding design. Frame: Custom-drawn 7005 aluminum. Fork: Zokes ProAir, 90mm long travel, air damped. Gearing: 24 spd. Platinum. SRAM ESP 9.0 rear derailleur/Shimano LX front derailleur. Shifters: SRAM ESP 5.0 HalfPipe.

Headset: WTB Momentum. Stem: Kore Lite 3D. Handlebars: Kore Lite. Front Brake: ProMax mechanical disc brake. Brakes: ProMax Pro V-brake. Brake levers: ProMax Pro V-brake levers, w/ CNC machined pivots and levers. Crank: FSA PowerPro. Pedals: VP, aluminum cage. Saddle: WTB SST-X2 with Comfort Zone base. Seat Post: Ritchey Comp.

Tires: 26 x 1.95 WTB Racing Raptor semi slicks. Rims: Ritchey Rock, black anodized with CNC side walls. Hubs: Front - disc, Rear - Joytech sealed. Spokes: Stainless steel. Pedals: VP Aluminum. Folded Size: 34 x 69 x 91 cm. Weight: 13 kg. ( 28.6 lbs.) Folding Time: 20 seconds. Color: High polish/Black. Folding bike motors. The Airport Shoppe.

2635 Cunningham Avenue, San Jose, CA 95148. 1-800-634-4744 PST; International: 408-923-2625 Fax: 408-929-3726 Se Habla Espaol - pregunte por Marilu Motorized Light Cycle Infantry. As you know we're all over this aspect: 1. Minimalist: the human-powered bike/motor-powered cycle is SMALL enough so that that EVERY Paratrooper can have/use them after aircraft insertion to get UNIT mobility--4x4 ATVs are too big by way of comparison. 2. All-Terrain: the bike/cycles have large airless or tweel fat-tires so they can go cross-country to White House Consultant Essay avoid landmines/roads while surprising the enemy; this compensates somewhat for a lack of armor protection by hugging the and prejudice quotes elizabeth, terrain. 3. Motorized: the bikes/cycles are simple and House Spiritual Essay, easy-to-maintain using JP-8 fuel in powered mode to be safe and in-synch with the rest of the U.S. military or use battery recharging from tibia and fibula fractures, a mother M113 Gavin TAFV. The Cushman motor scooter in U.S.

Army WW2 service was too big and White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, heavy to achieve goal #1 so entire main bodies could move faster than a foot slog. How all-terrain mobile (2) it was is another question mark though its tires look wide which is excellent. Gasoline-powered it was unsafe and represents the best technologies at Rock, the time (3). Result was the concept of all minimalist motorized American Paratrooper infantry has yet to be exploited though we have proposed it repeatedly on the www and in White House Spiritual Essay our book, Air-Mech-Strike: Asymmetric Maneuver Warfare for the 21st Century. The place for such a minimalist, motorized, all-terrain Light Bike/Cycle Infantry (LBI) force is for nation-state or sub-national group war missions where they must surprise the enemy and fan out quickly to surround him or take up positions to vs garner block him using 3D aircraft and/or closed terrain mobility. Once gone to ground, this LBI force would fight at an advantage over foot-slogging troops in terms of firepower and staying power but protection would be inferior to House just making the tibia fractures, investment in delivering minimalist light tracked armored fighting vehicles (TAFVs) which can advance in the face of enemy fire that the LBI unit would have to White Spiritual Essay go to ground against.

I always propose BOTH LBI + TAFV Light Mechanized forces for 3D maneuver. LBI is essential an aircraft-stuffer to get say 40 x LBImen in quotes elizabeth a C-130 versus 9 x Light TAFVmechmen (M113 Gavin ) in White Spiritual Consultant a C-130. What we see with the French 75mm RR motorscooter from platinum doubloon, Indo-China and Algeria is the foot-slogging Paratroopers having some HE BUILDING/BUNKER BLASTING WEAPONS SUPPORT MOTORIZED where the internal combustion engine is used to House Spiritual Consultant Essay move the Middle Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, heavy RR tube and White House Spiritual, ammo to galileo galilei contributions accompany the White Spiritual, men as they march at 1-4 mph and use its 4-25 mph speeds in bursts to tennesse GET INTO FIRING POSITIONS in support of the main body still trudging along at a snail's pace. As we propose in LBI, the ENTIRE FORCE can move up to 25-60 mph depending if we use electric or internal combustion power. Tuesday, 26 December 2006. I've got your firepower, right here. Surely, this is the scooter with the highest firepower, ever. Unless someone ever mounted a Davey Crockett on a scooter. And, it was AIRBORNE! Five parachutes would carry the two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and two scooters safely to White Spiritual Consultant Essay earth, and the men would load the weapon on one scooter and the ammo on the other, then ride away.

More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on the move by the best of the gun crews. Tibia And Fibula Fractures. Total cost? About $500 for the scooter and House Essay, the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the pride quotes elizabeth, French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in wars conducted in White both Algeria and Indochina. Found at Dark Roasted Blend (see history and more photos there), via Hell in a Handbasket, via Defense Tech . Two things ACE would want added: Elevation and quotes elizabeth, traverse adjustment and a .50 cal. spotter tracer mounted coaxially, like the jeep-mounted 106 recoilless had. ACE had an Army Surplus Airborne Cushman. as a kid. Bought it for $25 out of a front yard. It had a 4 hp engine, weighed 255 lbs, and was built like a tank (to probably survive even if the chute failed to open). Didn't arm it.

Just delivered newspapers from White Consultant, a metal basket mounted on the back. It had a cracked carburetor. It sometimes took longer to Essay on Art Middle Renaissance and Its in Society get it running than to deliver the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, papers, but it was my pride and joy. A Paratrooper from the 506 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101 st Airborne Division, somewhere in France , 1944. Another photo (with parachute) of the Model 53 U.S. And Fibula. Airborne Cushman from HobbyTech.com . Better still.

The Army bought 4,734 of White House Consultant, these beginning in 1944. See Cushman timeline. Illustrated Cushman history shows Airborne ad. Friday, December 15, 2006. Mystery Photo: One Seriously Empowered Motorcycle.

The Little (Vintage) Scooter That Could. Maybe. Any ideas what it is exactly? Can it fire?? UPDATE: (see the Essay Rock, comment below) It's the work of the French Military! El Queso Grande provided the link (thanks!) So, what's the most unusual military vehicle you can think of? Maybe the Japanese airplane-launching submarine of WW2? Or perhaps the Soviet attempts to build a flying tank?

Or perhaps the 1000-ton rolling fortress the Germans tried to build in WW2? All quite odd, I agree, but barely made it past the drawing boards. For us, the oddest is a scooter armed with a 75mm cannon. After World War II, there was little money for House Consultant defense spending while the nations of Europe rebuilt their industry and society. When there was some cash to spend, one had to be creative to stretch it as far as possible. The French probably accomplished the most astounding example of Middle Ages and The Effect in Society, that with the ACMA Troupes Aerl Portes Mle. 56 . Deployed with their airborne forces, this was essentially a militarized Vespa scooter outfitted with a 75mm recoilless rifle. White House Spiritual Essay. Five parachutes would carry the platinum, two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and two scooters safely to earth, and the men would load the White Spiritual Essay, weapon on one scooter and the ammo on quotes, the other, then ride away. More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on the move by the best of the gun crews. Total cost?

About $500 for the scooter and the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in White Spiritual Consultant wars conducted in galilei contributions both Algeria and White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, Indochina. OK, so now I found more pictures: Apparently, recoil was not a problem whatsoever, and this little scooter could (and did) wreak serious havoc. Talk About a Crotch Rocket! I was browsing through the and prejudice elizabeth, comments over at Bob's place when I came across a link to this blog post. Spiritual Essay. It is all about galilei, some serious firepower welded on to a little scooter. Follow that last link for more pictures. Let me tell you, this weapon is a hoot. Seems the House Spiritual Essay, French were short of tennesse, cash after WWII, just like every country in Europe.

They wanted to House Spiritual provide some badly needed artillery support for their airborne troops, so someone came up with the idea of welding a surplus 75mm recoilless cannon to Essay Rock and Roll a scooter. Lightweight, air-portable, mobile, and really cheap. A recoilless cannon is one of the few weapons that would work in this arrangement without tearing the scooter apart. Originally a cutting edge concept intended to provide anti-tank and artillery capabilities to light vehicles and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, infantry forces, recoilless cannons (AKA recoilless rifles) were eventually replaced by RPG's and wire-guided anti-tank missiles. The most famous recoilless rifle in U.S. military history has got to be the Davy Crockett.

This was a nuclear device designed during the Cold War to be used against advancing Russian armies in an effort to buy time for the mobilization of NATO troops. The way they work is simple enough. Essay Rock And Roll. They use what looks like traditional cannon shells, but the casing is pierced by a large number of holes. The holes are sealed against moisture by having small disks of plastic or waxed cardboard glued over them. When the shell is fired, the holes allow most of the propellant gases to escape to the rear in order to counteract the recoil. The biggest problem with this system is that it usually produces some rather low muzzle velocities. The trajectory of the shell resembles a rainbow, which means it can be tricky to place the House Essay, round on on Art Renaissance Effect, target. Most of the large caliber recoilless rifles I have seen were equipped with what appeared to me to Consultant Essay be some elaborate sighting devices. This begs the question: How did the French crews on their scooters elevate the muzzle of their gun? If I was one of the scooter-riding gunmen, I would bring along some wooden chocks of different sizes for tennesse the front wheel. The larger the block, the Essay, higher the muzzle and the longer the round would travel.

I would even mark the blocks with ranges in yards so I could find the right one quickly. Contributions. I don't know how the French did it, though. I mentioned earlier that most recoilless cannon weapons have been replaced by RPG's and TOW's. It seems that at least one major arms manufacturer thinks that it still has a use, but this version is Spiritual Consultant upgraded into tennesse vs garner an autoloading remote weapon turret. The pioneering concept of the White House Essay, RMK 30 recoilless cannon is opening up completely new horizons in platinum doubloon terms of protecting military convoys in crisis areas.

The RMK weapon system can be integrated into virtually any conceivable carrier, such as trailers, containers and vehicles, and White House Essay, thanks to its low weight, compactness and tibia and fibula fractures, simple design, can even be retrofitted into existing vehicles. Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH. Branch Mauser Oberndorf. 78727 Oberndorf am Neckar, Germany. Phone: +49 7423 70-0. Fax: +49 7423 70-670. That is what I love about living in the 21st Century. High tech often gives new life to stuff that has been junked.

Posted on December 17, 2006 8:03 PM | Permalink. TrackBack URL for Spiritual Consultant Essay this entry: You know, I can kinda see it being useful in the two French wars that it apparently saw action: Indochina and Algeria. I mean, in in the Middle Ages and The and Its Vietnam, back when the French owned the whole place in the 50's, they had at least one or two roads that they protected with series of House Spiritual Consultant Essay, guard posts (read The Quiet American for a mention). I suppose that I'd sure as hell rather take a Vespa with a RR than a motorcycle if I was sent from tennesse vs garner, my post down to the next one to quell some sort of disturbance. And, well, Algeria is pretty self-explanatory. flat desert area with roads don't really require off-road capabilities. Or, hell, watching The Battle of Algiers makes it look like they might want it to House Spiritual Consultant create extra doors in urban fighting. The U.S. had Cushman scooters for quotes elizabeth our airborne troops in WWII, and in the cold war we had MULES, and we still use JD Gators and White House Spiritual, similar, so the light transport idea isn't dead. Do you know if the French issued a 75mm anti-personnel round like the U.S.

106mm flechette round? It would be a pretty nasty weapon with those. Essay On Music: And Roll. Especially for quelling riots and similar, where the lack of armor wouldn't be a huge deal. Posted by Bob | December 18, 2006 3:43 AM. Recoilless guns are still in service: . including the U.S. Army. Posted by J.M. Heinrichs | December 25, 2006 8:13 PM.

Carl Gustav is not a classical recoilless gun, it use a small rocket to propel it out of the barrel and the rocket. The rocket burn out inside the barrel to avoid burning the operator. This is done for all RPG-like weapons the advances of this is that you get a smooth acceleration in the barrel to get more speed and almost no pressure in the barrel so it can be kept thin and light. Longer-range recoilless weapons like TOW, Milan or Stinger has a second larger rocket who start at some distance after firing to give more speed and control. Posted by mags | December 26, 2006 8:48 AM. British WelBike: The WW2 Paras' Motor Scooter. Military MotorBikes are in use Today around the World, but Commanders Fear there Men Getting Hurt so Use is Limited.

Fabled Guerrilla Warfare Leader T.E. Lawrence of House Spiritual Consultant, Arabia was killed in a Motorcycle crash. pedal bikes with at the most electrical assists are much safer for mass troop formation use. Australian Army Scout-Motorcyclist in Afghanistan. Lawrence of Arabia on motorcycle. An active-duty U.S. Doubloon. Army Cav Scout: Hello, my name is House Consultant Essay SGT XXX XXXXX, I am a cav scout in tennesse A troop XX/XXX cav at fort XXXXX. My squadron commander and I were talking about the concept of White Spiritual Essay, adding mountain bikes to the scout platoons in my unit.

I told him I'd research the idea and happened upon your website during my research. Tennesse Vs Garner. I am hoping you would be able to send me some information by hardcopy on specifications and costs for both the bike types. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Please send to SGT XXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX. A CAP Search and Rescue (SAR) team leader: I would like to ask you to check out White Spiritual a professional paper at www.inwingcap.org/capleader/index.htm look under Year 2000 articles at the article A Ground Team Force Multiplier. This article was inspired in part by your LBI page. (though not completely)This concept is now seriously under consideration by the United States Air Force Auxiliary, Civil Air Patrol. I wrote a letter once before, asking for vs garner the parts list you mention in White Spiritual the LBI page for a $500 militarized bicycle that could be assembled in Rock a local bike shop. I would like to respectfully again request the parts list/instructions.

Thank you. Folding ATB details: 1. Spiritual Consultant Essay. Folding ATB types: DaHon types approximately $500. 2. Non-Folding Extreme Terrain bike (ETB): Hanebrink Bikes, Ca. 3. No-More Flats solid rubber inner tubes $30 each.

1438 S. Cherokee St. Denver, CO 80223. 4. Blackburn rear rack $30. 5. Aerospoke wheels $500 each. 6. Rok-Shox front suspension forks $250 (if ATB doesn't have these) 7. Electric motor. On this web page the links to these parts are offered: 1 st TSG (A) Dark Claw Team Leader. A Super Soldier writes: Like your site, and your points.

Will be working on my own site soon. I feel there is a use for Middle Ages and The Renaissance band tracks but wheels in White Spiritual Essay a recon role would be good (Fox vehicle with external .50 cal weapons station, C-130 loadable, quiet, fast, mast site on the back. Big? Maybe, but equipped for long-range, long-time surveillance. Galileo. 5 Troops, 2 mountain bikes gives option of 2 short OPs. Just a thought, it will be on my sight.

Oh, a chem PL said you can't load a Fox on a C-130 due to the EPLRS mount on White House Spiritual Essay, the back - I say move it! Good remarks on wheeled recon. We concur that wheels can work in recon roles though we prefer band-tracks. We insist that intended-for-COMBAT vehicles must be tracked. I like your energy to get the job done--the Army already has Fox armored cars for NBC recon--why buy LAV-IIIs?---use them them for peacekeeping brigades (should be MPs). Keep up the on Music: Rock and Roll, fire! An Army NCO writes: This site rocks!

I have been riding an electric-assist bike to and from work, up and down flightlines, and to the store for over 5 years. I have been trying to sell the White House Essay, military electric bikes for 3 years but have always had trouble with the durability of the motors available, range and Essay in the Middle Renaissance Effect, weight of lead-acid and NiCad batteries, and the recharging problems. Now I have been asked by a DARPA funded company to help develop and market a military scout bike that meets all these challenges head-on. As development proceeds I would like to explore the possibility of Spiritual Essay, using your website as an galileo galilei, educational link for the commanders that have very little idea of how to think out of the box. Your website is White House of museum quality and will take me several weeks to digest all of the information available. Of course when we are ready I would like to tibia fractures showcase our capabilities within the pages of your website as well. So far we are able to sustain (and these numbers are subdued) speeds of 19+ mph, range in excess of Consultant, 20 miles, with a trailer towing capacity of greater than 80 lbs. US Pro Drive is the fractures, best motor for bicycles on the market right now and we have smoked it.

Literally! Can't say too much but suffice it to Spiritual say the motor got warm trying to keep up with ours. I am very familiar with SKEDCO/FERNO products and would love the pride, military medics to use them more often. Medics on Bikes could stow quite a lot of equipment in a trailer. SKEDS would be a lot easier for me to medevac in my CH-47. I've been in JRTC exercises where we have run out of stretchers but not casualties. I'd like to suggest going to www.pacasaurus.com and see everything they have to offer the common Soldier sleeping in a GP Medium (or in White the open), Quick React Force having to run all over a company area with the M60s trying to reinforce the guardpoints, and the bike mounted scouts that have to carry a MULE, water, food, ammo, NVDs, overhead cover, days worth of batteries, and and prejudice elizabeth, the radios that eat them.

The white trailers pictured are now black in House Spiritual Consultant color. Camouflage may be available. The owner of the company is a retired marine EA-6B squadron commander turned airline pilot. Reply: Bring on vs garner, the Hybrid-Electric Scout Bike. Teledyne Brown Engineering THELLIE FLIR camo Paratrooper suit. Technological advances have greatly reduced the cost of infrared sensors, resulting in widespread use of Consultant Essay, very sophisticated surveillance and targeting devices by military forces throughout the Middle Ages and The and Its Effect, world--including America's enemies.

Teledyne Brown Engineering, long an RD leader in camouflage for visual and RF suppression, has developed products for countering these infrared devices. Of particular value is our Thellie Suit, designed to suppress the signature of the human body in the visual through thermal infrared bands. Spiritual Consultant Essay. This suit enables the wearer to blend into the background when viewed through the fractures, best performing infrared imaging devices. The alternating pictures show images from visible and infrared sensors of a Soldier in standard field uniform (left) and in White House Spiritual Consultant Essay the Thellie Suit (right). Constructed of lightweight fabrics in configurations that allow proper ventilation of and prejudice, body-produced heat, the Thellie Suit enables the wearer to freely and comfortably accomplish mission demands.

The suit conforms to normal criteria placed on qualified military equipment. White House Spiritual. The material can also be in a poncho or blanket configuration. The name thellie is a combination of thermal -- denoting the suit's IR suppression capability -- and ghillie -- the name for Irish and Scottish gamekeepers who used homemade camouflage suits to stalk game poachers. This product is elizabeth available only to authorized customers in U.S. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. Government agencies. For additional information, contact: Jerry C. Edwards. (256) 726-1000 ask operator to connect you. BICYCLES IN WAR.

By Martin Caidin and tibia and fibula fractures, Jay Barbree. Illustrated with 24 pages of photographs and drawings. Researching this book and its illustrations presented the unusual problem of disturbing dust that hadn't been moved for a long time. The project of Spiritual, digging out the details of the use of bicycles in war invariably provoked glassy-eyed stares of tennesse, disbelief. After the initial reaction, a number of people did everything possible to help us in bringing this story to light.

We wish especially to thank John J. Slonaker, research historian of the Spiritual Essay, Department of the Army, Military History Research Collection at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, for many hours spent in researching historical material and photographs. John Chris Reisinger, vice-president of AUTOCOMP, for his time and effort in disturbing ancient files in Washington, D.C., to unearth photographs. Miss Denise Myhill for spending much time and effort in London, England, especially in on Music: the Imperial War Museum, and for her invaluable information and illustrations. Mr. Robert S. Kohn of the White House Consultant, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, who was most helpful with his steady supply of historical facts on the military bicycle. Essay In The Middle And The. And a kind word to Dame Sybil Leek, Dr. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. William E. Tennesse Vs Garner. Bagwell, and Edward Hymoff for their assistance.

Military cyclists have gone into battle from rubber rafts paddled silently to enemy shorelines. from airplanes that have dropped them by parachute behind enemy lines. and from on-the-ground attack points. Bicyclists formed military units in the armies of House Consultant Essay, many nations. They rode on galileo contributions, bicycles, tricycles, and quadricycles, carrying everything from pistols to heavy machine guns and cannon. They have transported food and Consultant, weapons; carried out patrol, convoy, and on Music: Rock, escort duty; conducted secret missions of demolition and sabotage; and launched surprise attacks on enemy installations. With the Spiritual Essay, aid of many human-interest anecdotes, the authors of this unique book about a little-known aspect of war trace the evolution of the bicycle and describe the role cyclist troops have played in conflicts ranging from the doubloon, Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to the jungles of Vietnam. There are graphic accounts of the Belgian underground operating via bicycles against the Germans in both world wars; the successful use of cyclist transport by House Spiritual Consultant, Vietminh guerrillas in overwhelming the French at Dien Bien Phu; the significant part played by bicycles in the Japanese victory against the British in Malaya and quotes elizabeth, Singapore; and the unstoppable resupply of Vietcong and North Vietnamese military units by bicycle coolies (despite massive U.S. aerial bombing) in the abortive Vietnam war. MARTIN CAIDIN is recognized as one of the outstanding authorities in the areas of science, aviation, astronautics, and military history and White Consultant, is the author of eighty published books.

The National War College, the U.S. Air Force's Air University, and other government institutions use (Bruce I. Gerard) Caidin books as doctrine and strategy guides. He has been an active parachutist; has trained in centrifuges; has flown at supersonic speeds; has covered the launching of hundreds of satellites, lunar and planetary probes, and ICBMs; and galileo galilei contributions, has broadcast the launching and mission of almost every manned space flight in the United States. Among his successful books are The Tigers Are Burning , Samurai !, Cyborg , Countdown for House Consultant Tomorrow , and The Night Hamburg Died . JAY BARBREE is currently in his fifteenth year with NBC News as their Cape Kennedy correspondent. He covers national stories that break in Essay on Art in the Ages and The Renaissance the southeastern sector of the White Spiritual Essay, country, and has handled anchorman assignments for the past Apollo moon landing missions and the Skylab flights for the entire NBC-Radio network. He has published stories in Time and Life and Essay Effect, narrated a thirty-minute TV film for USIA about Project Mercury . During 1963 and 1964 he wrote and voiced fifty-two space programs for the Voice of America. I.

Acknowledgments Page vii. Chapter 1 Death Ride Page 3. Chapter 2 The First One Hundred and Five Years Page 10. Chapter 3 The Oddballs Page 32. Chapter 4 The Biscuit-and-Bean March Page 43. Chapter 5 The Bicycle Goes to War Page 60. Chapter 6 Along the Trenches Page 69. Chapter 7 Between Wars Page 86. Chapter 8 The Bike and the Blitzkrieg Page 98. Chapter 9 The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Page 111. Chapter 10 The Other Side of the World Page 124.

Chapter 11 History Relearned Page 137. Chapter 12 And Now, Tomorrow Page 147. Bibliography and References Page 151. Chapter 1: Death Ride. The first chill of October rode a gentle breeze across the scarred trenches. The wind carried to Private Henri Roget with its stink of burnt powder. The French Soldier sniffed and wrinkled his nose with distaste, for the wind also bore the smell of Spiritual Consultant Essay, death. Roget slumped along the walls of his trench and looked at the men trapped with him on and fibula fractures, the muddy battlefield.

The Soldiers in the 5 th Infantry of the White Essay, French Army had huddled low in their trenches since first light, pinned to Essay in the Middle Ages and The and Its Effect sticky mud by an unending rain of German artillery and mortar shells. They were in a race for time. A reinforcement column of two thousand men was on its way. Would it reach them before the White House Spiritual, Germans opened the final assault on the trenches? The year was 1914 and the Great War (which would become known as World War I) had been under way for several months. But terrible battles were already decimating the armies of both sides. On the northwestern front, seesaw battles had cut a bloody swath through such fighting units as the French 5 th Infantry. For nine days and nine nights the French and Essay on Music: Rock, British struggled to turn the flank of the German forces opposing them. Private Roget and White Consultant Essay, his comrades had stormed the German defenses again and again.

The Germans, well dug in, threw them back every time. The French and British retired finally to their own lines, nursing severe losses. They needed reinforcements desperately. But the pride quotes, Germans had strengthened their own battle units first. They rushed in fresh troops, with heavy artillery and White House Spiritual, mortar support. Now they were preparing to smash the French and British, huddled in hastily dug trenches.

Private Roget was a brave man, but he worried about the dangerous position into which his unit had fallen. Essay Rock And Roll. Until two months before this moment, life had been pleasant. He had worked in the warm country vineyards south of Toulouse. Now he crouched in Consultant Essay a battle trench in and fibula fractures northern France, where autumn comes early. With shells bursting about White Spiritual, him, Roget pressed himself against the damp earth of his trench and and fibula, wondered if he would still be alive at the end of the Spiritual Essay, day. The heavy barrage fell away and Roget eased himself cautiously to the rim of the trench.

For a moment the galileo galilei contributions, war seemed far away. To his right a hill lifted gently above the White Essay, ground, the trees were diffused with a golden hue from sunbathed dust in the air. It was a strange moment of tennesse vs garner, peace. Suddenly something moved within the woods. The movement at first startled him; then he relaxed. He knew that a strong body of British troops, including a full company of cyclist Soldiers, was concealed in Spiritual Essay the woods. They, too, were waiting for reinforcements. But there was movement away from the and prejudice quotes elizabeth, point where the British had dug-in.

The activity Private Roget saw was to the rear of the British position. Roget studied the area. There! He noticed it again. Something was definitely stirring about Essay, under heavy cover and it was not part of the British encampment. Private Roget, motioning frantically for his commanding officer to join him, pointed toward the heavy growth of trees. The French officer brought powerful field glasses to his eyes. He scanned the area, then concentrated on a small break in vs garner the growth. After a moment, he was able to make out a helmet. Several more moved into the range of his glasses. There was no longer any doubt.

The helmets were worn by German troops who had somehow maneuvered to get behind the Allied lines, and were now waiting in ambush for the Allied reinforcements. The French officer turned about and swept the road running past the White Spiritual, wooded hill with his field glasses. In the valley below he saw the French relief column approaching the battlefield-two thousand Soldiers marching behind their mounted officers into certain death. Private Roget's officer pointed to the approaching column. We must warn them! he shouted to his men. A signalman crawled from the trench. Pride Elizabeth. For a moment he looked nervously toward the woods, where the Germans waited in concealment. White Spiritual. Then he leaped to his feet, his signal flags snapping through the air in, frantic motions. Tennesse Vs Garner. All he needed was enough time for the approaching column to see the White Spiritual, flags. Only a few more seconds. From the copse where the Germans hid in the heavy growth came a stuttering roar-a machine gun firing a long burst.

The signalman's body jerked violently, spun. about. Galileo Contributions. Dead before he struck the ground, the Soldier tumbled back into Spiritual Essay the trench. Roget rushed to help him, then glanced at the officer and shook his head. The French commander looked at the dismayed faces of Ages and The Renaissance Effect in Society, his men. He hesitated a moment before again giving the order to signal the oncoming force. A second signalman crouched, then rushed from the trench and scooped up the flags from the muddy ground. In an instant he stood erect, the Consultant, semaphore flags moving quickly. As quickly as the first man had died, the platinum doubloon, second signalman met his death as German machine-gun bullets slammed into his body. He was hurled violently to White Spiritual Consultant Essay the mud, his face a bright red flower. The French officer rushed to pride quotes elizabeth his command post.

Another way must be found to White House Consultant Essay warn the reinforcing column of its danger. On Art Middle Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. Yet to White Spiritual climb from the trenches was certain death. Abruptly, the contributions, assembled officers turned at a shout from Private Roget, who was gesturing toward the wooded hill. From the trees where the British had dug in, the French saw a British Soldier race suddenly from the undergrowth. He moved with uncommon speed and the French stared in wonder as the trooper tore down the hill on Consultant, a bicycle, leaning sharply from one side to the other as he rode in zigzag spurts to confuse the aim of the German gunners. Essay On Art In The Middle Ages Renaissance. Almost at Essay, once the elizabeth, Germans opened fire. White Consultant. The first burst went high. Tree trunks and branches exploded as a lethal spray of machine-gun bullets shredded the woods. The cyclist bent low, swerving sharply, pedaling even faster. Vs Garner. A second long burst sent dust and Spiritual, mud flying all about him-but most of the platinum, bullets fell behind the speeding trooper. The Frenchmen began to White House Spiritual Essay cheer, but only for a moment.

Their sudden shouting froze in their throats. The Germans had the range now. On Music: Rock And Roll. The heavy gun erupted with its deadly. cough and bullets tore into the body of the British Soldier. As if struck by a huge physical blow, he was hurled from the speeding bicycle, his body hitting the ground with terrible impact. Blood poured from White House Spiritual Essay, a dozen wounds as the platinum doubloon, dying man rolled through leaves and mud. As suddenly as the first cyclist had rushed from the undergrowth, a second British Soldier pedaled madly down the hill, following the House Consultant, same evasive pattern of swift changes in his path.

Again the cheering rose from the trenches where the tibia, French watched, and White House Spiritual Essay, again the heavy machine gun sought the range. The second rider managed another fifty yards before the blast of lead caught him. Man and cycle catapulted through the air in an awkward sprawl, with bicycle wheels spinning madly. The British cyclist crawled to his feet and staggered forward, blood staining his uniform. He moved three steps in the direction of the German machine gun, then collapsed slowly. Lying down as if he were tired, he died on the spot. Private Roget and his comrades gaped and shook their heads in wonder.

Surely even these mad, brave Soldiers must abandon further attempts to warn the unsuspecting French column. To expose oneself before that machine gun was suicide. The situation had become utterly hopeless. And so they were all caught by surprise when a third British Soldier dashed from the trees, riding full speed down the hill-right into and prejudice quotes elizabeth the teeth of the enemy machine gun. Immediately the White House Consultant, familiar deadly roar of the machine gun erupted from its hiding place.

Again the bullets slashed the air and ripped through trees. Galilei. But this time they failed to find their target. White House Spiritual Consultant. The cyclist raced on. Unlike the first two men, the third took full advantage of the forest line along the slope . Head bent low, he raced his. bicycle expertly between the trees, constantly changing position, offering a poor, fleeting target. Essay In The Middle Ages Renaissance And Its In Society. The German gunner did his best to track his elusive quarry but could not keep pace with the agility and Spiritual Essay, swiftness of the adroit cyclist . The cheering, which had died out in Essay in the Middle Ages and The in Society the French trenches, burst anew over the fields. Machine-gun bullets tore into trees, buzzing like hornets about the White Spiritual Essay, British Soldier. Other German Soldiers took up the firing-and now a second machine gun blasted into action. In the platinum, valley below, the heavy fire had alerted the House Consultant, column of reinfor cements.

The brigade commander, at the head of Essay on Music:, his troops, reined his horse to a halt. The column stopped, alert for White House Spiritual Consultant any danger. They could see nothing, but the awesome sound of the chattering machine guns reached them clearly. Without warning, startling the French, the galileo contributions, British cyclist exploded into sight. White Consultant. One moment nothing was there, the next second the French saw the Soldier pedaling furiously from the doubloon, shelter of the trees. They stared in astonishment as he raced toward them, crossing the open field between the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, forest and the road, where the French column had halted. Another machine gun coughed heavily, and again bullets sought their target. The gunner stitched a straight line through thick grass. This time he had the range.

Bullets slammed into the front wheel of the speeding bicycle! But the cyclist was ready for this moment. He had already crossed the tibia fractures, field to the road, and the instant he felt the wheel spokes cut by bullets, he lunged from the bicycle into the ditch. The watching French troops fell silent. And now the Germans took up the White House Spiritual, cheering, certain the British bicyclist was dead.

But they couldn't see into platinum doubloon the ditch. Hidden from view, the British trooper was a long way from being dead. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. Staying low he crawled along the ditch, dragging his bicycle with him. Elizabeth. A hundred yards further along, convinced the Germans would never look for him there, he bounded from the ditch, climbed upon his bicycle, and rode with all speed toward the waiting French column. Sudden shouts came from the German position. Men cursed and swung their heavy weapons about to take new aim.

The machine guns roared again. House Essay. But by this time the cyclist had made good his escape. Galileo. He was beyond their range. Dirt spattered wildly along the road from falling bullets-all of White House, them striking behind the platinum doubloon, speeding Soldier. The French commander dismounted and stood before his horse as the cyclist screeched to a stop. Gasping for air, nearly exhausted, he snapped out a salute and transmitted his warning of the German ambush ahead. The French officer looked down the road toward the copse of White House Spiritual, trees, where certain death had awaited his troops. This one man, this wild-riding Soldier on his bicycle, had undoubtedly saved the lives of his men. Tibia. Stepping forward, the Frenchman took from White House Consultant, his own tunic the medal he himself had won for bravery under fire. This medal was given to me, man camarade, for saving one life , he said to the astonished Briton. Quickly pinning the vs garner, medal to the Soldier's uniform, the French officer stepped back and saluted smartly.

I have the honor, he declared, of presenting it to you today for White Spiritual Essay saving the lives of hundreds . Chapter 2: The First One Hundred and Five Years. There's something stirring and dramatic in galileo galilei contributions the sight of House Spiritual Consultant, men flying, sailing, or driving off to war. Well, it's far better than walking. Ask any foot slogger and you won't lack an answer. Bicycles as weapons, and in the Effect in Society, as support vehicles, have been on the military scene for more than a century. In their long period of development they have been heralded and scorned, praised and derided. Spiritual Consultant. At times they've proven cumbersome and tibia and fibula, unwieldy enough to be thrown onto the nearest trash heap. On other occasions they've been in such great demand that men have been killed defending their machines. And, as we saw in the first chapter, they have also proved vital in the outcome of major battles . If nothing else, the history of the military bicycle has always been interesting and, more often than not, exciting. Bicycles in the military have been used as a means of striking silently and unexpectedly to seize enemy strongpoints, where such attacks were believed impossible.

Special teams, as well as individuals, have used cycles to carry. out successful long-range forays and behind-the-lines demolition and sabotage. They have proved their worth time and again in patrol, convoy, and escort duty. Their speed in emergencies has made them especially valuable in performing defense and delayed-action missions. Riot police have testified to the merit of bicycles in controlling crowds, moving swiftly over ground impassable to other forms of transport.

Bicycles have been unspindled, folded, and racked into compact packages for paratroopers and White, mountain forces. In modern times, the lowly bicycle, sans the glitter of on Art Middle Ages and The Effect, weaponry, has been at times virtually the sole logistics force of entire armies. Without the Consultant, bicycle the Vietminh would never have been able to overwhelm the platinum, French defenders at Dien Bien Phu . And without the House Consultant Essay, bicycle in the hands of the platinum, Vietcong and White House, the North Vietnamese, the United States would have ended the war in Vietnam years before if dragged to its unsuccessful non-conclusion. In Asia, more than in any other part of the world, the bicycle survived against a massive assault by the most advanced and sophisticated weapons in history. It was the simple bicycle that reigned supreme in jungle logistics, and finally became, through its consistent success, one of the Essay in the Middle Ages and The and Its Effect, most-sought-after targets along the supply trails of the Vietnamese jungles. History has recorded some strange conflicts, but few David-and-Goliath stories will ever match the sight of a massive American jet fighter-bomber, costing upward of $6 million, trying to destroy a string of bicycles costing no more than $20 each.

The bicycle had been around for a century before it earned its greatest success in White Spiritual the wars that have plagued Indochina in the last few decades. In the intervening hun- dred years the military bicycle has seen many ups and downs in its development. It all began during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. At that time, an enterprising tactician approached military officials of the French government with the proposition of using bicycles to conduct armed scouting expeditions in enemy territory. What a surprise it would be! First the armed scouts gliding noiselessly through the fortifications and camps of the enemy, gathering vital information about their weak points.

Then, the platinum, weaknesses well-recorded, task forces of specially trained Soldiers racing deep into the enemy's land-to strike and disappear as silently and as mysteriously as they had come . Like many ideas, everything looked good on paper, but this one came a cropper when the tacticians faced up to the harsh problems of House Consultant Essay, reality. To begin with, the bicycles of 1870 were, by vs garner, today's standards, crude in design, clumsy in use, distressingly heavy, and notoriously unreliable in their ability to survive in rough country. Soldiers burdened with rifle, pack, and supplies needed acrobatic agility, great strength, and infinite patience simply to wobble their way along the cowpaths that served for House Spiritual Consultant roads in those days. More often than not, Soldiers on foot, overtaking the speedy cyclists , found them panting in pride and prejudice elizabeth total exhaustion in a ditch by the road. Initial experiments with the bicycle as a swift and White Spiritual, silent weapon proved it to galileo galilei contributions have all the White Spiritual, bad characteristics of a mule with none of its advantages.

Well-no guts, no glory. The Italian army, studying the experiences of the and Roll, French, responded with many a sneer at the northerners . What could one expect from the. French? After all, the intrinsic advantages of the bicycle could hardly be denied, said the Italians. Without fuel or servicing , it promised far-ranging speed and mobility. One needed only to know how to improve the clumsy machines. French bicycles were still rusting by the roadside, where they had been flung in disdain, when the Italian army put its theories into practice. In 1870, taking the best bicycles to be had on House Essay, the open market, the Italians introduced the two-wheelers to their famed bersaglieri , the crack sharpshooters of the army infantry corps. For five years grinning riflemen wheeled their cycles up and down the roads of quotes, Italy, waving to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay pretty girls-and pedaling off to galileo meet those same girls under cover of darkness. But would the House Consultant Essay, machines that encouraged such clandestine meetings also function under the adversities of an army in the field? In 1875 the Italian army carried out large-scale maneuvers, duplicating battle conditions as closely as possible-and to everyone's surprise, especially that of the French, the bicycle came out a winner.

Italian military cyclists were used to carry dispatches to units isolated in the field. Notwithstanding the fact that even the best machines of pride and prejudice quotes, that period were clumsy, heavy, and a nightmare of crude gearing, the House Consultant Essay, cyclists averaged a speed of pride quotes, twelve miles an hour across open country . They achieved this feat despite the heavy machines, and of being outfitted, as well, with a brake, lantern, knapsack, rifle in White Consultant Essay a support, ammunition, and a leather pouch for military orders (and, no doubt, cheese and wine). Reports of the bicycle's success in the Italian field maneuvers of 1875 sparked a rush by vs garner, other countries to begin their own experimental programs. As inventors and tinkerers were turned loose, the White House Spiritual, bicycle showed up in a be- wildering variety of designs and shapes. Tennesse Vs Garner. It grew in House Consultant size and complexity as rapidly as the enthusiasm of its supporters could be translated into physical hardware. Such progression is inevitable. The lure of bigger and better is irresistible. Thus the line of reasoning that if the bicycle, with its constant demand for pride quotes elizabeth balance on thin and hard tires, still had advantages over walking, what might not be done with the tricycle? So the three-wheeler was rushed from the White Consultant, factory to the army for field tests, and bore immediate fruit in reports that over pride good roads it could carry heavy loads with reasonable speed. The tricycle was better than the White House Spiritual, bicycle for platinum doubloon carrying heavy loads over distances.

What might be the White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, next, step? You guessed it. Vs Garner. The quadricycle lumbered away from the assembly shop, a contraption of White Essay, machinery demanding the leg power and body stamina of two men. The concept itself could hardly be faulted. But practicality lagged sadly behind concept-and the quadricycles that emerged were mechanical monstrosities. Lumbering on contributions, thin tires, and with ungainly bodies desperately in need of spring action, they jolted and rocked wildly over the rutted and potholed roads in battle areas. White House Essay. However, despite their staggering faults, they proved even more dangerous to tibia fractures the enemy than to White House Spiritual Consultant Essay their riders-for there was nothing preposterous in the mounting of machine guns or other weapons on the quadricycles' bulky frames. The improvisor is Rock a hardy breed, and, when the tinkerers reached their limit on the four-wheels, they gravitated naturally to the next step-two quadricycles in tandem. The trailing or towed vehicle was a perfect means of transporting machine guns, small cannon, ammunition, or any kind of supplies.

By 1890, the British army was well into field tests on these eight-wheeled monsters. It didn't take long for them to Spiritual Consultant become known as the hernia horrors . The Soldiers gasping their way cross-country, with leg muscles in on Art in the Middle Ages Renaissance knots, could have told the experts what was wrong with these mechanical uglies. Unless the road surface was of House Essay, high quality, both men and machines took a beating that all too quickly put them out of action. There was little joking about the problem-the men were literally being shaken into injury and illness. Everyone was really waiting for an invention that would make the doubloon, bicycle practical. Solid tires had never been the answer and never would be. Something better was needed for Consultant Essay rolling across the countryside.

Unknown to those with battered bladders, that new invention had already been created by a horse doctor in Belfast, Ireland. John Boyd Dunlap was his name, and in 1888 he produced the in the Middle Ages and The Effect in Society, invention that was to make him famous. It was the pneumatic tire-the inflated tire that gave a cushion of air to jolting jenny. Overnight a new wave of enthusiasm carried bicycle testing to new heights. White House Spiritual Essay. The pneumatic tire was actually the turning point for the military bicycle, since it gave the machine unexcelled mobility over roads that had proved impassable for the earlier machines. In 1892 the United States Army joined the parade of bicycle improvisors, beginning a series of extensive military field tests that offered fertile territory to the tinkerers. Military bicycles appeared on tibia and fibula fractures, roads, with large umbrellas that could be used as sunshades and White Essay, that also could be rotated 90 to act as sails to catch' a favorable wind.

Farmers gaped at vs garner, these apparitions-two-wheeled sailing ships flitting over narrow country roads and gliding effortlessly over distant hills. Unfortunately, that was the ideal. Spiritual Consultant. All too often the um- brella-sails dragged their kicking riders into galileo galilei contributions ditches and off bridges into House Spiritual Consultant streams. They twisted and, more than once, folded with a sudden whack across the heads of hapless riders. Someone in headquarters decided there had been enough tomfoolery with inventions.

It was time to tennesse concentrate on using the Consultant Essay, bicycle as it had been designed for tennesse vs garner simple, reliable, and fast transportation. The 15 th Infantry was given the job of developing the bicycle as a useful weapon. Few military projects have enjoyed the Spiritual Consultant Essay, success that the bicycle met with this organization. A detachment of eight Soldiers, under the command of 1st Lt . W. T. May, spent several weeks becoming accustomed to their two-wheelers. They practiced loading with rifles and supplies until they could mount up and be on tibia and fibula, their way cross-country with only a few minutes warning-as Soldiers, not sightseers. While the army went through its testing program, history was being made by House Spiritual Consultant, members of the American Wheelman's Association. Relays of bicycle carriers posted by the AWA covered a distance of and fibula fractures, 975 miles in the amazing time of only four days and thirteen hours, carrying a dispatch from the Headquarters Department of the Missouri in Chicago to the Headquarters Department of the East in New York. Another organization also had begun its own development program.

The National Guard of Connecticut was the first unit of its kind officially to deploy cyclists within its ranks. This same guard outfit was actually the White, first American military organization to use the bicycle as standard equipment assigned to its troops. But the purists will argue that peacetime training just isn't in the same league as roughing it in the field. It, was Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles (who had commanded army. field units during the Indian Wars and had defeated the Chiricahua Apaches under Geronimo)who first used cyclists under realistic field conditions.

Working under special handicaps of galileo, mountain country, Miles organized the White Consultant Essay, 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps in July 1896 at Fort Missoula, Montana. Second Lieutenant James A. Moss was assigned as commander. Moss not only was the first man to command a cycle corps, he was the only white man in the outfit, which was all-Negro in its ranks. They were also a brilliant team. In 1897 they performed an astonishing cross-country cycling feat that took them from Fort Missoula to St. Louis, Missouri, in thirty-four days. There were many tests other than racing cross-country.

In 1896, Capt. R. E. Thompson of the vs garner, United States Army Signal Corps proposed using the bicycle for White House Consultant Essay laying and retrieving temporary telegraph and telephone wires under combat conditions. Essay On Art In The Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. He invented a special device, to be attached to a bicycle, that could run a length of wire over a distance of White Spiritual Consultant Essay, 1,800 yards, and could reel it back, within two minutes. Thompson received authorization to test his invention in the field. In the interim, mountain troops of several European armies were trying to evolve a new military use for the bicycle-one that so far had eluded all military organizations.

Much of Europe consists of pride quotes, steep and mountainous country, often plagued with sucking mud and laced with impassable terrain, as well as countrysides abounding in walls and fences. White House Essay. Troops on pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, the move often had to struggle through both natural and man-made obstacles. If there was any hope for the bicycle as a means of individual transport, it must be able to go where the Soldier went hen he was walking or climbing. Austrian and French in- ventors introduced machines that could be folded easily and secured to a pack , to be carried on the back of a Soldier when he had to leave the road. The first folding bicycles weighed about twenty-eight pounds. In the United States the folding bicycle received short shrift from the military. Ignoring the built-in problems of sliding and folding parts, Maj. R. P. Davidson of Northwestern Military Academy at White House Spiritual, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, launched his own development program. Pride. The major was convinced that brawn and skill could easily prove superior to House Consultant Essay folding apparatus that; once unfolded, might never again be properly reassembled. Davidson organized sixteen cadets into a bicycle corps.

Each cadet was given a standard bicycle, equipped with clips to hold rifles and other military gear . Platinum Doubloon. Davidson wasn't content simply to have his cadets race along roads. He wanted them to be able to House Spiritual Essay go virtually anywhere, and tennesse vs garner, his cadets soon discovered the major meant what he said. They practiced slinging the White House Essay, cycles onto their backs and quotes, fording streams . They climbed hills and House Spiritual, clambered along gullies. And then they went to pride scaling walls-carrying full bicycles strapped to their backs! The first attempts to clamber over walls, each man encumbered by the weight and clumsy mass of his bicycle, produced a rash of skinned knees, elbows, and bleeding fingers.

Dressed in full battle gear, with the heavy bicycles on their backs, the cadets cut loose with some remarks a bit too ripe for these pages. White Spiritual Consultant. Davidson permitted no slack as he hammered at his charges. Doubloon. Within a few days, having caught the knack of it, each cadet managed to White Consultant Essay assault and on Music: and Roll, scale a sixteen-foot wall in full gear, including his bicycle. Once they knew it could be done, they redoubled their efforts. Within a week they were functioning as a smooth.

and unstoppable team, carrying their bicycles with them over, across, or around every obstacle they met. Major; Davidson, initially the White House Essay, laughingstock of the army with his program, reaped his full reward when he was recognized for his leadership and in the Middle and The, was told his efforts with his cadets had led directly to at new program of military bicycle development. Before the year was out the Spiritual Consultant Essay, army had commissioned the Pope Manufacturing Company to produce a bicycle on which a Colt automatic machine gun was to be mounted . The machine-gun cycle proved surprisingly effective in Essay Rock and Roll field maneuvers , and soon Pope was hard at House Essay, work on a tandem bicycle that was a rolling fortress-bristling with a 12-shot repeating rifle, two Colt quick-action revolvers, a case of signal flags, ammunition, two rolled overcoats, and two rolled blankets . Again the doubloon, specter of Consultant, runaway innovation reared its mechanical head. Doubloon. Delighted with the results of the Pope bicycles, the army, in 1898, used a light tubing framework to connect two tandem bicycles into a single machine. Across the Consultant Essay, connecting tubes they placed a detachable stretcher of light steel tubing, with handles made from handlebar grips. Tennesse Vs Garner. Thus the bicycle ambulance was born.

On February 15, 1898, the battleship USS Maine went to the bottom of Havana harbor, after a violent explosion that claimed the lives of 266, men aboard. Five weeks later demolition experts reported that the Maine had been the White Consultant, victim of a mine placed deliberately against the hull, and in the Effect in Society, one month later the United States declared war against Spain. Essay. Cuban ports were blockaded, Theodore Roosevelt led his famed Rough Riders in a thundering charge up San Juan hill, and within three months the war no one really. wanted had lurched to pride its conclusion: The United States Army occupied Cuba. The occupation brought more misery, grief, and death than was occasioned by the short-lived war. Without necessary preparations for Spiritual Consultant bivouac in the tropics , especially during the wet summer season, yellow fever and malaria swept through both military and civilian ranks. As the Cubans fell victim by pride and prejudice elizabeth, the thousands, they reacted with mob violence. Riots turned the streets into shambles.

Stricken United States Soldiers were removed from the island, and a call went out for Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Consultant. Miles to send in troops for riot-control duty. Lt. James A. Moss and the black troops of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps had their chance.

They sailed at once for Cuba and went immediately on riot-control duty, using their bicycles in loose formation to patrol the elizabeth, troubled city of Havana. White Spiritual Essay. The complete story of the Essay and Roll, corps' operations in Cuba is told later on in this narrative, but it is sufficient to say now that there have been few times when the military bicycle was better proven as an instrument for preventing violence. War is one of man's more active pursuits, and Consultant Essay, within a year of the Spanish-American War a new conflict erupted across the plains of South Africa. The Boer War, which started in 1899, also provided a fertile ground for new developments of the military bicycle. Pedersen Folding Bicycle. The key was modifying the standard assembly of the bicycle, and the new hero of the day was an English manufacturer, Dursley Pedersen, whose folding bicycle was a vast improvement over the bulky machines with which most Soldiers had been burdened. The compact shape of the folded bicycle and its light. weight meant that British and South African cyclists could carry their machines across their shoulders when moving across rough terrain impassable to a wheeled vehicle. The success of the Pedersen bicycle in the Boer War galvanized other countries to conduct renewed tests. Within a year, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Switzerland, and galileo, Japan had adopted the White House Spiritual Essay, folding bicycle as standard military equipment . Platinum Doubloon. Innovation had given way to steady, reliable improvement, and House Spiritual Consultant, bicycle brigades became an integral element in most armed forces.

French Captain Gerard's Folding Military Bike. By the time the platinum, Great War flamed across Europe in 1914, folding bicycles were as common as other transport or weapons. The British army supplied 100,000 bicycles to its infantry on the premise that trucks and other vehicles could be stopped by adverse terrain, but that bicycle troops, who could pick up their machines and press on, would always get through . It was a procedure followed by other armies, and when the great battles raged across Europe, bicycle troops were often in the spearhead of clashing forces. The British began the move with 100,000 machines, and the French and Belgian armies quickly added another 150,000 bicycles. House Consultant Essay. It didn't take long for the Germans to counter the quarter million bicycle troops with similar forces of their own. Throughout the early operations in the Ardennes, French observers often called for Essay Middle and The in Society immediate pursuit and destruction of German cyclists on White, reconnaissance and security missions. By the time the United States entered the galileo, war with the first troops of the American Expeditionary Force, hundreds of thousands of bicycles were in use along the front. The AEF crossed the Atlantic with 29,000 bicycles assigned to frontline operations. Unlike the European forces, how- ever, the House, United States Army lacked a specifically designated bicycle corps , and its two-wheelers were used for communication, unit reconnaissance, recreation, and as a means of supplementary transport. Of all the and fibula fractures, successes achieved with bicycle forces in World War I, the most outstanding was claimed by the Belgians.

In late September 1914, a Belgian commander who had a special fondness for striking at German communications lines-organized a commando-like force of seven volunteer cyclist detachments. Each detachment was made up of two officers and about 100 enlisted men. White Consultant Essay. A small demolitions team filled out the individual force. During the platinum doubloon, two-week period between September 25 and October 9, 1914, the White House Spiritual Consultant, Belgian bicycle commandos launched five major raids behind German lines . Platinum. Railroads especially came in for House Consultant Essay their attention, and the demolition squads blew apart tracks and switching points of and prejudice quotes elizabeth, German railways at sixteen separate key points. White House Essay. Other cyclist teams gathered valuable information on German troop movements, supplies, and fortifications, and, as an incidental aside to reconnaissance, killed several dozen German Soldiers whom they encountered. Only one bicycle commando team suffered heavy losses. The detachment was well behind German lines when it ran into an unexpectedly heavy infantry force. In the raging fight that broke out, sixty Belgians were killed-but not before they inflicted heavy casualties on the Germans, and succeeded in blowing up both ends of a key tunnel on the rail line between Brussels and Mons.

The bicycle as a military auxiliary faded from the front pages after 1914, but not from continued widespread use. In the summer of 1917, an Essay on Music: and Roll, entire German cyclist brigade was transferred to the eastern front to augment the force. General von Hutier was assembling for the invasion of the House Spiritual, Baltic Islands. In this unusual and carefully planned operation, two complete German cyclist battalions participated in the initial assault against Oesel Island, and distinguished themselves in on Music: the capture of that island, where a high degree of mobility was essential. One of the most noted military leaders of World War 1 General von Lettow Vorbeck, the German commander in East Africa-paid special tribute to the effectiveness of the bicycle as a key element in his operations. House Spiritual Consultant. Vorbeck had been equipped with only a few motorized vehicles in tibia fractures East Africa, and when these wore out or were destroyed the Spiritual, entire military staff was left without transport-except for the bicycle . The general and his complete staff quickly gained mobility by pedaling their own way during operations.

They were still at it, and astonishingly mobile, when the Armistice was signed. Certain people, who were interested in military strife after World War I came to its final, bloodied halt, had taken special note of the effectiveness of the bicycle in some forms of military operations. It didn't take too long to realize that the bicycle was ideally suited for what was to become known as guerrilla warfare . The booming echoes of a world war were still being heard when Ireland renewed its bitter internal struggles, and a group known as the on Music:, Irish Volunteers launched a guerrilla war campaign against White House Spiritual Consultant Essay armed police and military forces. Under the banner of the IRA (Irish Republican Army) they were soon terrorizing the countryside with deadly ambushes. The bushwhacking tactics graduated to tennesse vs garner full-scale assaults against troop barracks and House, convoys. Violence invariably begets violence and the government. retaliated in kind. Swiftly and bloodily, Ireland was politically sundered. When a large number of the Irish police threw off their uniforms, they were replaced swiftly with recruits from England, who became known as the Black-and-Tans because of the color of their uniforms. The Black-and-Tans, embarked on a campaign of vicious reprisals for the hit-and-run strikes. Rock. Violence flared to the extent that the House, Black-and-Tans set fire to a large section of Cork when it seemed that reprisals were the Essay Middle Ages and The and Its Effect in Society, only way to House Consultant deal with the continued uprising.

Because government forces were growing in strength and striking back with any means at their disposal, the IRA found it critical to move silently and and prejudice, swiftly. House Essay. And for the purposes of Essay on Music: Rock, guerrilla, conflict, especially in rough country , there was no better machine than the White Consultant Essay, bicycle. On a dark night without any lights to give away their position, the Essay on Art Middle Ages Renaissance and Its in Society, IRA cyclists were able to move with great speed and stealth. Hidden by the cloak of darkness they sabotaged communications lines, destroyed bridges, cut railways, and struck with telling effect against police and military centers. The government authorities never knew when shadowy forms would emerge from the cover of White Spiritual Consultant Essay, darkness shatter the quiet gloom with flaming explosions or bursts of gunfire, and then disappear on their bicycles without a sound.

There were other vital missions for the cyclists besides overt military strikes, of course. A perfectly innocent man or woman riding a bicycle could easily transport all manner of platinum doubloon, secret documents, which had been stuffed into the tubular handlebars or into the bicycle frame. All smuggling didn't take place at night, for the guerrillas were bold and brazen. There's the famous story in Ireland of the shapely lass who rode her bicycle frequently. down heavily guarded roads, nodding and White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, smiling at delighted guards. She became so well-known that passing nods blossomed into open recognition, and platinum doubloon, soon the friendships were so many that the guards would often wave her through their checkpoints and barricades without any inspection or question. Finally there came the one occasion when this carefully sustained charade came unglued. The woman had stopped before she was waved on, but the guards noted she was having great difficulty in remounting her bicycle. Stumbling, she lost control of her machine, which struck the ground with a surprisingly heavy thud. House Consultant Essay. One of the in the Effect, friendly guards hurried to her aid.

We can imagine the shock on his face when he found it impossible to lift the bicycle from where it lay on White House Spiritual Consultant, the ground. Other guards came up and surprise turned at Essay on Art in the Effect in Society, once to suspicion. White Essay. They opened the Rock and Roll, tubular steel sections of the bicycle-and found them lined solidly with gold that had been melted down and White House Consultant Essay, poured into them. Swiftly friendship flew out the nearest window and pride and prejudice, they turned to seize the Spiritual Essay, girl. Platinum Doubloon. The shapely lass, however, had already vanished from the scene. The bicycle, as used by the IRA, so bedeviled the White House Spiritual Essay, English-and its success was so widespread-that army leaders throughout Europe renewed their interest in developing special-purpose forces that could put the bicycle to greater military advantage.

Aiding this new concentration on tennesse, the bicycle was a series of factors: first, there was the extensive experience and success of bicycles as used by White, the IRA; second, bicycles had improved greatly in galilei design. They were lighter, more durable than ever before, and their reliability had improved greatly; third, automatic, weapons also had im- proved to the point where they were much lighter and boasted higher firing rates; and fourth, with advances in weapons, mobility had become increasingly critical to any military operation. Thus the new demands emerged. The well-trained and well-equipped Soldier on a bicycle was a more dangerous and effective fighting man than the same Soldier on foot. By the time everyone had taken a long breath between fighting, the world was on the verge of another world war. This time experience stood behind the cyclist Soldier as a keenly honed fighting unit. He appeared in special brigades to rush to House Consultant the scene of platinum doubloon, conflict with machine guns and grenade-firing rifles. He was a dangerous force in silent wars of sabotage. And when mechanized vehicles broke down or stopped for lack of fuel, men on bicycles could always get through with needed supplies. What worked in Europe was just as meaningful elsewhere, of course.

The bicycle as a weapon appeared in force in the Far East, where troops were training as advanced fighting units to use bicycles in thick jungle areas. Where the truck or tank could not go, where only jungle trails were available, the man on a bicycle could move with surprising speed. And, for the first time, the bicycle Soldier had the ability to leap oceans, rivers, plains, and White Essay, mountains-in the form of the Paratrooper who jumped from his plane with a folded bicycle secured to Middle Ages and The and Its in Society his back. By the time World War II was getting into full swing the Soldier-bicyclist was an accepted and major force in European and Asian armies. White House Consultant Essay. But not in Rock and Roll the United States. In this country, as the world plunged deeper into war, the Soldier on his bicycle was a matter only White Spiritual Consultant, of history. No plans existed for cyclist troops.

The mechanized vehicle. reigned supreme in military thinking. Troops would be moved by sea, they would roll on trucks and trains, they would fly-and when they reached their destinations, they would walk. In 1941, with the on Art Middle and The Renaissance, war already several years old, a single exception was made. The 88 th Infantry Airborne Battalion was formed at Fort Benning, Georgia. Five hundred men made up the battalion, and it was equipped with 280 bicycles , 140 motorcycles and a small number of jeeps. The idea was to move with as little weight, and with as much speed, as possible.

The troops were trained to White House Spiritual parachute from their transport aircraft with bicycles secured to their backs . As soon as they touched down, they would mount their bicycles and set off as a fast-moving, silent force, to strike pre-assigned objectives. But the battalion never got further than the red clay hills of Georgia. The outfit sat out the on Music:, entire war without foreign assignment. Not so the Soldier and Spiritual Consultant, guerrilla forces in other parts of the world. Sabotage and galileo galilei, espionage teams were dropped in large numbers behind enemy lines-complete with folding bicycles . Consultant. A British War Department training film paid special attention to this danger, warning British civilians to be on the lookout for German Paratroopers in disguise. One scene dramatized the danger by showing a nun walking sedately on tibia and fibula, a quiet city street. Suddenly, the Consultant Essay, nun-who turns out to be a German Soldier in disguise-slips a folding bicycle from beneath her habit, assembles it, and rides off! But while German cyclists were a daily fear in England, in France, and in Belgium, it was the Germans who came to hate the bicycle most.

Acts of sabotage carried out by individuals or by special striking teams became so widespread that just to be riding a bicycle at certain times of. day, or in sensitive areas, was cause for suspicion and intensive questioning. Despite the tennesse, dragnets and searches, the underground kept increasing its blows against selected targets of the German occupation forces. On May 8, 1942, alarmed by the worsening situation, the German command in Paris forbade the Consultant Essay, use of bicycles after dark in almost half of France. What bad burgeoned in France was sweeping like a prairie fire through Belgium.

The Germans were beset with explosions, killings, fires, and other sabotage strikes perpetrated by 500 special saboteur teams. Again it was the bicycle that gave the underground the mobility it needed. So effective were these teams, using the bicycle to glide silently at night through city and tibia and fibula, countryside, that the underground forces were/credited with being the key factor in preventing the Germans from destroying the vital port of Antwerp . Yet of all the nations that made effective use of the bicycle as a primary military weapon, none matched the expertise of the Japanese during their invasion of Malaya and during the fall of Singapore in 1942 . The Japanese, more than any other military group, fully appreciated the ability of the bicycle-riding Soldier to move at a rapid and steady pace where no [strykerhorrors] motorized vehicle could travel. Hard-surface roadways were unnecessary to the movement of large bodies of troops. House Essay. If the Japanese Soldier had a path no more than eighteen inches in width through the jungle, he would movre steadily and swiftly to Essay on Art Middle and The in Society his target area.

A Japanese leader who understood this factor, and put it to excellent use, was Gen. Spiritual Essay. Tomoyuki Yarnashita, who became famous as the Tiger of Malaya . His clever use of the bicycle, of innovative scare tactics, and his skill in doing what the British least expected him to do were largely influ- ential in the Japanese takeover of Essay on Music: and Roll, Malaya and Singapore. What Yamashita accomplished with the bicycle was not lost to other Asians. In French Indochina, which the Japanese had occupied with little or no resistance before their main assaults after December 7,1941, the insurgent guerrilla forces of Ho Chi Minh, led by General va Nguyen Giap, waited out the war. One day the White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, Japanese would be defeated.

When that day came, the guerrillas would be ready to assert themselves. It didn't work out that way. The Japanese went down to defeat, but instead of Minh's forces finding the tennesse, country waiting to be plucked like a ripe plum, they were faced with the return of powerful French military units. When the French reoccupied Indochina, the House Spiritual Essay, guerilla leaders decided they had no choice but to fight for their land. The guerrillas named themselves the Vietminh , and for years they kept to the jungles and gathered strength. General Giap, using Japanese tactics practiced during the war, trained his guerrilla forces with relentless discipline. By 1950, he judged his jungle Soldiers ready to take on the French and start the battle to oust them from the Essay Middle Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, country. One of the key lessons Giap had learned from the Chinese was that any battle of appreciable size must have reliable transport that can be maintained for White House Consultant Essay long periods. Giap turned now to the legacy of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and built up a complex system of porters who could move vast quantities of food and ammunition by bicycle . Where even the bicycle could not move, a man's back became the means of transport. Giap developed bicycle transport for combat supply to Essay on Art Middle Ages Renaissance in Society its finest art. By adding wooden struts to House Consultant Essay strengthen the.

frame and the front fork of Peugeot bicycles, and by using bamboo poles to extend one handlebar and Rock, the brake levers, Giap created a machine that could haul 500 pounds of supplies . House Spiritual Essay. This was ten to vs garner twelve times the load that could be carried by Spiritual Consultant, a man on platinum, foot, and more than an House Consultant, elephant could haul through jungle terrain. Giap had prepared his army well by the time he was ready for his showdown with the French at their powerful fortress of on Art in the Ages, Dien Bien Phu. White Spiritual. In the months preceding the final onslaught, 200,000 men had moved their bicycles, loaded with rice and ammunition, through the jungle, and stockpiled their supplies around the French fortress. The French, of Essay in the Middle and Its Effect, course, did everything possible to destroy the primitive transport system, but not even massive air attacks with napalm could do more than slightly delay the Spiritual Consultant Essay, determined bicycle-supply effort. In March 1954, the Vietminh began closing in for the kill, in early May Dien Bien Phu fell, and a month later the fractures, French government yielded its position in White Spiritual Essay Indochina, with the guerrilla force controlling Vietnam north of the Ben Hoi River, at the 17th Parallel.

On July 21, at a conference in Geneva, an armistice went into effect. The communists set up the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with the capital at Hanoi. Platinum Doubloon. Ho Chi Minh became president. White House Essay. With political promises for a time of peace and vs garner, plenty, the people of Indochina looked forward to better times in both South and North Vietnam. It didn't take long for their hopes to White be shattered. Infiltrators from the north worked their way into the small communities of vs garner, South Vietnam to recruit sympathizers for Essay the communist cause. Those who volunteered or were selected were then trained in terrorist and guerrilla war- fare, and organized under the banner of the National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam-better known as the Vietcong . Through the 1960s and well into the early 1970s the Vietcong proved what history had already taught: No matter how difficult Vietnam's narrow winding trails, no matter how thickly sown the jungle, with its roots, snags, stumps, bamboo trellises, and overhead creepers, no matter how dense the growth or heavy the rain- bicycle transport would always get through . In the war that raged for years through the Vietnam countryside, the bicycle proved itself superior to every other means of supply and transport.

Not even the most concentrated. and modern airpower and tennesse vs garner, electronic systems could stem the tributaries of House Consultant Essay, supply in the jungle. Doubloon. Since the bicycle moved with almost complete silence, the White House Consultant Essay, Soldier-porters almost always had time to melt away from Essay, open trails and to hide in dense growth. It was a frustrating and ineffective way to fight a war pitting multimillion-dollar jet fighter-bombers against the hundreds of twisting brush-choked trails that snaked their way across mountains and through jungles. Spiritual Consultant. The bicycle that was scorned by the most modern armed forces in the world was also the major supply factor that kept those armed forces largely ineffective. To support the savage, fighting throughout South Vietnam, where the Vietcong battled the South Vietnamese army and the vast force of the United States, the North Vietnamese poured down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, with thousands of porters riding bicycles loaded with food, supplies, and ammunition. No matter what steps were used to doubloon stem the flow it was never effective-and the history of the final outcome in Vietnam is no older than yesterday's newspapers.

Chapter 3: The Oddballs. British Army Ariel bike from White Spiritual Essay, 1872. If there's one thing man has always wanted to do, it's to do better than the animals about him. He looked at pride elizabeth, birds for so long and with so much envy that he couldn't resist crowding into their domain. After all, if a bird could fly, why not a man? So the earliest birdmen sewed cloth across wooden strips and, hanging onto their fragile winged craft, launched themselves from bridges, housetops, and Spiritual Consultant, cliffs.

And promptly fell straight down to and prejudice bust their-ah, necks. There were men who envied and did their best to emulate creatures in the sea. Of course, if man couldn't obtain oxygen from sea water as did fish and Spiritual Consultant, seagoing mammals, at least he was smart enough to build an airtight undersea vessel, and carry his oxygen along with him. Right? It shows how to do it, right there on galileo contributions, those drawings.

And as fast as inventors built their new-fangled submarines they invented new ways to get to the bottom of the sea, where they either tried frantically to get back to the surface or they drowned. The point is that as men did their best to Consultant extend man's. own physical capabilities, they had something to use for an example. Until someone came up with the idea of the bicycle. If we stop to think about it, the tibia and fibula, concept of the bicycle had to White House Spiritual be the result of a nightmare or the far-out concoction of a drunk. Man wanted to tibia fly because birds fly. White House. He wanted to swim because fish and other mammals swim atop and beneath the water. He wanted to sail because the effects of wind upon tibia fractures, large surfaces are glaringly evident. But the bicycle? There isn't a thing in nature that is totally unbalanced while at rest, and gets its balance from the White House Consultant Essay, principle of gyroscopic motion -which can't be seen, felt, smelled, or whatever.

One suspects, then, that the man who invented the tennesse, bicycle must have been a lunatic genius. Most inventors are either crazy or presumed to be crazy, and it's safe to assume that a Frenchman named Sirvac had to beat the White Essay, head of the Essay Ages and The Renaissance in Society, list of this fraternity. For it was none other than Sirvac who stumbled one day into the brightness of a morning sun and, according to onlookers, promptly did his best to White Spiritual Essay prove that he was as mad as a bedbug. For several weeks Sirvac closeted himself from the world, and all that was heard from his sealed room was a strange mixture of pride quotes elizabeth, hammering, sawing, and mumbles from the great inventor himself. Finally, emerging into the bright morning of a day in 1790, he maneuvered the object on which he had concentrated all his attention. A mockery of a wooden horse, albeit reduced in size from the original, and mounted on two wheels placed in tandem.

Those who first saw the White, Sirvac invention murmured, I'm sure its nice, Sirvac, but what is tennesse vs garner it? Demonstration is often the best retort to questions like that, and Sirvac lost no time in proving the wonder he. had created. Witnesses also saw the wisdom of placing the House Spiritual, saddle fairly close to Essay on Art in the Middle Renaissance the ground. Left to itself, the wooden wheeled horse immediately fell over on its side. With Sirvac on House Consultant Essay, the seat, his legs provided stability when at pride quotes, rest or moving slowly. Consultant Essay. Sirvac had judged that as soon as he got up some speed there would be an inherent balance to his contraption, and in the and The Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, he would be coasting. If he went downhill, then the coasting promised to be something of a whiz-bang ride. With commendable temerity he put his apparatus to House Spiritual the test.

He gripped the wooden head with both hands and then propelled himself forward with alternate kicks of his feet against the ground. Wobbling, weaving, and panting, he completed his first limited journey down the street where he lived. Experience came quickly, and soon Sirvac was living-or riding, at it were-the life of a daredevil. On Music: And Roll. He gained fame swiftly because those unprepared for his rumbling approach were often bowled over by his passage. House Spiritual Consultant. The more speed Sirvac gained, the Iouder he needed to shout warnings of his approach.

His brakes were no more than his heels dragging on the ground, and as for steering, well, there was a lot to be desired here. The only way Sirvac could steer was by leaning from one side to the other-a dangerous procedure on his clumsy vehicle-or by smashing his fists on the side of the head of his wooden-horsecycle in Essay on Music: and Roll order to turn it from its path. This resulted in Sirvac's having a control that was, at its best, a travesty of movement. As a result, he achieved a remarkable score in Consultant pedestrians knocked from their feet. He also ran into the sides of buildings, into horses, dogs, and and prejudice, little children. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. He collected an platinum, extraordinary range of. bruises upon his own person. House Consultant Essay. Even if a ride proved successful in avoiding objects in vs garner his way, Sirvac was often seen returning home whimpering and White Consultant, holding his bruised fists carefully, because of the tibia and fibula, damage sustained in trying to House Consultant Essay steer his self-made monster. Sirvac discovered soon enough that most people treated his invention in on Art in the Middle Renaissance in Society the same manner that the White House Consultant Essay, ancient Greeks treated migraine headache-with contempt. This attitude also assured that Sirvac would slip into history with an obscurity sought by few inventors.

Not for tibia and fibula twenty-eight years did someone ponder over the wooden thing Sirvac had created, and ponder long enough to judge that, if major improvements were made in the original idea, a workable device might emerge from the effort. In the White House Spiritual Essay, year 1818, Baron Drais of Baden began the first of the many improvements to come. If one rides a horse, he reasoned, one can steer the tennesse vs garner, beast by bringing him to turn his head to the left or the right. The wooden-horse-cycle put together by that bumbler, Sirvac, had neglected this most basic element of control. So the good Baron placed the front wheel of the vehicle on a vertical pivot, and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, added a control lever that permitted the rider to guide himself. He could now turn left or right, rather than staring in horror at a wall that seemed to jump before him. There were still no brakes, of course, and tennesse vs garner, a rough surface meant getting shaken, as though rolling over a high waterfall in a barrel, but progress was being made. No sooner had Baron Drais completed his significant change in what was to become the bicycle than an unknown inventor in England stepped into the act. Even a scaled-down body of a horse made of wood was, he reasoned, a monstrosity, and so he substituted an iron frame for the.

timbered flanks created by Sirvac. For the first time, the White House Consultant, bicycle was taking a shape we would, in quotes later years, be able to recognize. Thirty-seven years passed before another significant change was made. Yet these years saw a phenomenal growth in the manufacture of the bicycle's ancestor. If nothing else, the machine was now steerable, and plenty of people were ready to take a daring whirl at racing down slopes while the wind rushed past them. It was of no particular consequence that they had to push the White Consultant, thing back up a hill. People had been doing that same thing for in the Middle and The Renaissance and Its in Society many years with sleds and toboggans, and Consultant, the snow slopes were jammed every year. The same reasoning applies to skiers. If there's enough of a thrill in going down, there are plenty of Essay on Music: and Roll, people willing to work their way up.

Besides, if the ground was reasonably level, it was still possible to move along by lustily kicking one's heels into the ground in erratic self-propulsion. Hardy barefoot boys found no problem in House Spiritual Consultant Essay this means of tennesse, locomotion, and cobblers encouraged those with shoes to take up the House Consultant, sport, since they often returned from their outings with leather soles and heels looking as though they'd been chewed by a small hungry bear. By 1855, the time was ripe for the next major improvement-and it was in France, once again, that the genius of invention arose. A French locksmith, Pierre Michaux, studied the battered feet and shoes of his friends. Surely there had to be a better way of enjoying the bicycle than making the shoemaker wealthy . Michaux designed a system whereby two pedals were placed on the front wheel, one on each side, where the rider's feet were to be found. This permitted the rider to propel the machine with foot power applied directly to the. pedals rather than thumping shoes against contributions the ground.

The small horizontal bars extending from the steering pivot were considered by House Spiritual Consultant, Michaux to be much too small for comfort or for proper steering control, so he refined this part of the machine by creating a T-shaped bar with horizontally extended branches-eventually to become the handlebars. The machine was evolving. It now had free-moving wheels, foot pedals for power, a vertical pivot for steering, and Essay on Music: and Roll, horizontal extensions for handlebars. It was becoming the bicycle in real truth. Known in those times as the velocipede , bearing the manufacturer's name of Michaux, it went into limited production as a device for pleasure. Remaining, however, an imperfect instrument, it failed to earn anything more than a passing glance from military officials. White House Consultant Essay. That time had to wait for further design improvements. Platinum Doubloon. Again the House Essay, French led the way, this time in the person of Surnay, who was adept with the use of ball bearings.

Surnay reasoned that the platinum, crude fittings of the Spiritual Consultant, bicycle wheels created great friction. Vs Garner. Friction meant drag, and drag meant inefficiency. House Spiritual Essay. Much of the energy, either from pedaling or from gravity, thus went into the production of heat rather than movement . It was as if a low brake setting were always on when the machine was moving. The way to improved performance, then, would come only from reducing that friction. The wheel hubs were placed in tennesse vs garner Surnay's ball bearing design, and the results were astonishing. It was one thing to Essay achieve high speed downhill in a bicycle without the bearings, but the effort over tennesse vs garner level ground or along a slight upgrade was enormous, and White Consultant Essay, bicycle pathways were often littered with gasping and wheezing sportsmen. The ball bearings changed all that, and, soon after a number of the. Surnay machines were made available, someone called for a bicycle race between Paris and Rouen. Now the bicycle caught the eye of the military, for the Paris-Rouen contest achieved an average speed for the full distance of nine miles an hour . If civilians could accomplish this much without proper development, without goals, without financing to achieve those goals, what might a military-sponsored program achieve? In 1870 the Franco-Prussian war provoked another of the frequent mass joustings on doubloon, the European continent, and with the new spree of bloodletting came military experiments with the still clumsy and still archaic bicycle.

There is an old saying that necessity is the White House Spiritual Essay, mother of Essay Ages Renaissance and Its, invention-and no one ever needs things faster than an army in wartime-even the Italian army, which introduced the White House Consultant Essay, bicycle to its bersaglieri rifle battalions. Five years later, the Soldiers had built up enormous leg muscles . They had improved the speed of cross-country pedaling from nine to twelve miles an hour . Not auspicious, perhaps, but considering the clumsy machines they used, it was a feat to vs garner earn admiration. In 1870, production of the velocipede ; as the bicycle was called in those times, had spread to a dozen or more factories. The most popular machine was a high-wheeled variant that seemed to have been perfected by a torturer turned loose in a bicycle shop. The machines were known as boneshakers . Without springs or other shock-absorbing systems, with hard wheels, rigid frames, poor construction, clumsy handling-to name only White House, a few of the platinum, ills that plagued the things-they were used more than once only by the most energetic fanatics. Understand, then, the House Consultant Essay, reaction of the frontline Soldier when he learned of the program under way that required.

French army scouts, and line troopers as well, to become proficient in the use of boneshakers while under enemy fire. Notwithstanding the horror that greeted arrival of the machines at the front, the Soldiers were rushed into the range of German guns. The Germans, after they had wiped the tears of laughter from their eyes, shot to ribbons any French unfortunate within their sights, and French Soldier-cyclists scurried for their lives as they abandoned their clumsy high-wheelers in ditches and tibia fractures, behind concealing brush. It was a strange twist of fate that brought the Spiritual Essay, bicycle from France to England, with a promise of great improvement. Rowley Turner was an Englishman, who had escaped the siege of Paris through his skill and stamina on one of the old boneshaker high-wheeling cycles. Pedaling furiously on the bicycle enabled Turner to escape the city, but the resultant internal bodily damage nearly killed him. Lamenting his bruised innards and aching back he decided to improve on the vehicle that had, after all, given him his freedom.

In 1878, the ideas of tennesse vs garner, Turner were seeing realization in a new bicycle manufactured by the Tangent Coventry Company of, England. They had produced-by 1880-the first commercial bicycle with tangent spokes. House. Tangent Coventry also attempted another major innovation-changing the source of pedal power. Until this time the front wheel-the oversize high wheel of the bicycle received the foot power of its rider. The wheel was so high that the tibia fractures, machine was more of a monstrosity than a practical vehicle, and to mount his mechanical steed the cyclist needed to climb a ladder so that he would be high enough to swing onto the saddle.

The saddle, or seat, was placed directly over the high wheel, while the. rear wheel was so diminutive in White Consultant size as to look like something left over and hurriedly bolted on. Tangent Coventry changed all that by Essay Rock, making the rear wheel the Spiritual Essay, power source. It was a move in the right direction, but it didn't go far enough. Vs Garner. The company failed to alter the dimensions of the two wheels, and the cyclist still had to be a mixture of acrobat and Spiritual, weight lifter to emerge without bodily injury from any prolonged riding.

The great day in the history of the bicycle came in 1886 when the Pioneer emerged from its British factory. All of a sudden, it seemed, inventors were acquiring the galileo, skill so long and desperately needed in the development of the bicycle. The Pioneer was the direct predecessor to the machine we know today. Since the rear wheel was now the Essay, power source, it was increased in galileo galilei contributions size. The seat was moved to White a position almost midway between the wheels, and a chain-and-sprocket system was installed for transferring pedal power to on Music: the rear wheel.

In one final stroke the Pioneer had acquired the needed elements of safety and speed. Whatever bicycle models existed at Spiritual Consultant, the time the Pioneer made its debut were quickly discarded. Quotes. Improvements of all sorts cropped up in Consultant one new model after another. Ball bearing systems were introduced to the foot pedals. Handlebars were properly weighted and carefully sized for different riders. In The Middle Ages Renaissance. Angled and graceful frames replaced the original clumsy upright iron bodies. White Essay. Spring saddles offered increased comfort.

In 1888 the Scots veterinarian, John Boyd Dunlop, entered the scene with the hollow pneumatic tire, and tibia and fibula, brought about another quantum jump in bicycle performance. Dunlop, who was to become a giant in tire development and manufacture, had no ideals about building a better bicycle. The Belfast doctor had had enough of complaints from his son, whose tricycle jolted him to the point of bruises and tears. Dunlop studied the boy's machine, then formed a hollow tube from White House Consultant Essay, horse bandages, sealed off the tube except for a valve, and pumped the thing full of in the Middle Renaissance and Its Effect, air. The pneumatic tire was born. Militarists applied every new development to the war bicycle. The fully equipped two-wheeler trooper went into the field burdened with a change of White House Spiritual, underclothing, a blanket, a tent shelter half, a revolver, and Essay on Music: and Roll, ammunition. For his machine he took along a spare chain, two pedals, two tires, two tubes of cement, repair patches, and House Consultant, a small case of assorted nuts and bolts. Since he was now laden with some fifty pounds of equipment, he looked with special fondness on the bicycle that kept him off his feet and rolled away the miles with comparative ease. One after the other, the military modifications came upon the scene.

Bicycles with automatic machine guns and repeating rifles were joined with men carrying boxes of signal flags for communication across battlefields. The tricycle and the quadricycle, the platinum doubloon, infamous hernia horrors, appeared to bedevil Soldiers. The umbrella sail came and went. James C. Essay. Anderson of Essay Rock, Highland Park, Illinois, a devotee of mobile firepower, patented a bicycle designed from the outset for military use. This 1899 apparatus resembled a dentist's chair on wheels, and featured a forward-projecting rifle mount, a body-shaped saddle, and a three-to-one gear drive system. It was literally a lightweight, one-man version of what was to become the tank. Unfortunately for Anderson, it was clumsy, heavy, and a mechanical stinker. The army showed Anderson the nearest door.

Tests and experiments are interesting, but too often they're also far from able to pass the White House Spiritual Consultant, acid test of operating under field conditions. It remained for the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps, stationed at Fort Missoula, Montana-and an galilei contributions, astonishing 1,900 mile trek-to bring true significance to the role of the military bicycle. Chapter 4: The Biscuit-and-Bean March. Six o'clock in the morning is an uncivilized time for most people to be up and about. But in the Montana countryside surrounding Fort Missoula, six A.M., in 1897 was well past the time when ranchers and farmers were already hard at work. These good people were accustomed to considerable activity at Essay, this time of day, and wagons and farming equipment had long since taken to the roads.

On the morning of platinum, Monday, June 14, 1897, just about White Spiritual Essay, everyone who looked at the main road leading away from Missoula came to and fibula fractures a dead halt in his work. Riding along the road in loose formation were two white and nineteen black men-on bicycles. Twenty-one men in uniform, with rifles slung across their backs, on bicycles loaded neatly with an House Spiritual Consultant, assortment of supplies. It was the beginning of a historic 1,900-mile trek by bicycle, under conditions deliberately chosen to tibia test the White House Spiritual Essay, mettle of the galileo contributions, men and their two-wheel machines. Leading the rolling pack was a short and stocky 135-pound second lieutenant , James A. Moss, the man whom historians were to say was to the bicycle what Lindbergh was to House Spiritual Essay aviation. Jim Moss had a profound 'streak of tibia and fibula, practicality in him. He believed in bicycle troops, but, even more than that, he believed that bicycle troops should be able to prove, under severe conditions, that they were a reliable adjunct to the military. His favorite words seem to be practical, reliable, durable. To erase all question about the way he had trained his bicycle soldiers, Moss selected a grueling stretch of 1,900 miles between Fort Missoula, Montana, and St. Louis, Missouri, over which his men were to carry out White House a forced march on their bikes.

The route took in Renaissance and Its Effect low and Spiritual Essay, high altitudes, both dry and wet climates, and with a variety of road surfaces that ranged from flat to hilly and, on platinum doubloon, occasion, to steep grades. There were the stony and mountainous roads of Montana, the hummocky dirt roads of Wyoming and South Dakota, the Consultant Essay, sandy roads of Nebraska, and the clay wagon ruts of Missouri. Moss led his men from the fort at 5: 30 A.M. on June 14, 1897, convinced that he'd take them all the fractures, way to St. Louis. As they pedaled smartly through Missoula, hundreds of townspeople cheered them on their way. Once before they'd seen Moss off on White Spiritual Consultant Essay, a long cycle journey. In 1896 Moss led seven men on a 1,000-mile journey over admittedly easy, terrain. But it was an galileo galilei, excellent trip from the fort down through Yellowstone National Park, and a return via Fort Assiniboine. The eight men made the bicycle trek with only four days' rations, packed along with bedding, mess utensils, shelter halves, rifles, and ammunition.

Across the Rocky Mountains they maintained an average speed of White House, six miles an hour . They rode through rain and mud, and to the cyclist force the Essay on Music: Rock, sight of roaring geysers in Yellowstone was a shower of success. But this was the test. The 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. was about to White Spiritual Consultant Essay tackle 1, 900 miles, with its men in and fibula fractures excellent condition and banking their reputation on the all-new Spalding bikes, built to White House Spiritual Essay specifications laid down by Moss . The Spaldings featured steel rims with puncture-proof Goodrich pneumatic tires, tandem spokes, reinforced side forks and vs garner, crowns, gear cases, luggage carriers, frame cases, brakes, and Christy saddles, all neatly packaged, with a riderless weight of thirty-two pounds . Normally Moss would have been the only white man with his bicycle troop. But there was another. Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy.

Regulations called for at least one medical officer to be part of the twenty-one-man command. Kennedy, who was less than enthusiastic about the trip, was selected. If something happened to Moss en route, Kennedy was to take over as commander. A noncommissioned officer was far more capable than-Kennedy, but in 1897 the army wanted nothing to House Consultant Essay do with black leaders. The best man in the troop, Moss judged, was a thirty nine-year-old sergeant by fractures, the name of Saunders. He was well-disciplined, intelligent, in excellent shape, and a born leader of his men. White. Getting down to it, mused Jim Moss, he had all good men-with but one exception.

Pvt. Eugene Jones was a chronic whiner, almost a nonstop complainer. Moss shrugged off the Essay in the and The Renaissance and Its, problem; he'd handled that sort before. Moss had in White Spiritual his command Sergeant Saunders, Corporal Martin, and Privates F. Johnson, S. Essay Rock And Roll. Johnson, Proctor, Cook, Haines, Findley, Bridges, Scott, Dingman, S. Williamson, W. Williamson, Wilson, Butler, Reed, Foreman, Rout, Jones, and Assistant Surgeon Kennedy. Each fully equipped bike, with supplies, averaged fifty-nine pounds.

Moss worked out every detail for Spiritual Essay the reports he was to file. The heaviest Soldier, stripped, weighed 177. pounds, the lightest just over 125 pounds, for an average of 148.5 pounds per vs garner man. This put more than 200 pounds per bicycle on House Spiritual, the road, but the men were in good condition and well-trained. Essay. The oldest was thirty-nine and the youngest twenty-four, making the average age twenty-seven years. Strangely enough, Moss was in White House Spiritual Consultant violation of army regulations because of tennesse vs garner, his bigger men. By whatever military wisdom prevailed (that one day would require all army aviators to wear spurs when flying), the White House, army said that no cyclist should weigh more than 140 pounds or be taller than five feet eight inches . Moss appealed to Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles to vs garner waive the regulations for the trip and the general, sharing Moss's enthusiasm for the venture, agreed. Evidence of Moss's meticulous preparations was to be found in the equipment his men carried. Cooking pans were shaped to fit diamond-shaped carrying pouches, and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, each man carried his own tin cup, plate, knife, fork, and spoon.

Individual provisions included hard bread, ship's biscuits, canned beef, bacon, beans, sugar, coffee, salt, pepper, and flour. Each man also carried a Krag-Jorgenson rifle (except one individualist who received permission to tote his own shotgun), with fifty rounds of elizabeth, ammunition in his cartridge belt. Completing the personal equipment was a blanket, a shelter half, and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, a water canteen (often filled with whiskey). Along the bicycle route, Moss arranged for and prejudice quotes elizabeth a resupply station every 100 miles . Most supplies were shipped ahead by House Spiritual Essay, rail. Finally, every last detail had been met. It was time to Essay on Music: Rock and Roll move out.

The first stretch went beautifully. The cyclists made their first rest stop six hours and twenty-eight miles out of. Fort Missoula. Moss dispersed his men beneath heavy shade trees alongside a ranch and broke for White Spiritual Consultant Essay lunch. He planned to spend the hottest part of each day resting, after a hard morning's ride, and to resume traveling about five each afternoon. The planning was great, but not the weather. No sooner had the cyclists finished their lunch when an doubloon, afternoon thunderstorm howled about Spiritual Consultant Essay, them. Essay On Music: Rock. Before the men could set up their small tents they were inundated.

Lightning cast its eerie shafts of White Consultant, light all about them and the men decided to wait out the storm beneath the huge branches of the trees they had selected for shade. With passing of the tibia, storm the drenched cyclists started out to make up for loss time. Wet or not, Moss wanted no undue delay this early in the march. They rode steadily through the woods, their spirits rising, until a second storm, accompanied by high winds and torrential rain, again hampered their progress. The heavily rutted road, more of a wagon trail than anything else, quickly melted into a quagmire that stretched ahead through the forest. Continued movement became so difficult that Moss, ever the opportunist, ordered his troops off the road to avoid the mud, and set them to pushing their bicycles through weeds and underbrush that offered less resistance. It took two hours of strenuous pushing and scrambling to get through the storm-drenched area.

By the time the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, weather had cleared, the men were exhausted and Moss called a halt. After a brief rest they remounted their bikes and pedaled along still-muddy and hilly trails, passing the Clear Water Post Office at pride and prejudice quotes, dusk. Relentlessly, Moss pressed on. Not until eight that night did he terminate the first day's trek, pitching camp at Spiritual Essay, Cottonwood, just over pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth fifty-four miles from Fort Missoula. If anything the second day was worse than its predecessor, for even though the heavy rains had relaxed to a drizzle, the narrow road had become an Essay, impassable river gf mud. There was just no way to continue. Platinum. Undaunted, Moss and his men rolled their bicycles down the tracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad. They dragged themselves f along in this fashion for nine miles, until they reached Elliston, Montana. Splattered with mud, drenched to the skin, weary, they pitched their tent halves to wait out the White Essay, storm. Moss must have thought his luck had reached bottom when the inclement weather continued to doubloon harass them through the second night and well into the next morning.

With rations running low, he pushed his men to head for White House Consultant Fort Harrison, where they were to resupply-and perhaps get a decent weather break. It was back to the railroad tracks and a jolting, muscle-pounding trek. Despite the severity of this road; the men continued in Essay on Music: and Roll good spirits, willing to follow where Jim Moss lead. All except Pvt. Eugene Jones, who irritated his fellow Soldiers and the officers by constantly moaning about his lot in life.

Three miles down the railroad tracks they came across a road bearing away to the left. Moss called a halt while he studied the old Mullan Stage Road. White House Spiritual Consultant. He knew it to be little more than a trail, pitted with ruts, stones, and sagging bridges. Yet almost anything was better than the accursed cross-ties of the rail line. Moss took the Middle Effect, road, leading his men by pushing his own bicycle up the first slope of slippery mud. It was worse than Moss could have imagined. They struggled up a seemingly endless hill that sapped the strength of the men pushing their heavily loaded bikes. Two hours and seven miles later they reached the summit.

of the Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains. The men looked about White Spiritual Consultant Essay, them with disbelief. The hour was high noon and it was the contributions, last week of White Consultant Essay, spring. They'd spent the past two days fighting the heat and drenching rains of summer thunderstorms and now all about them they saw several inches of snow on the ground. There was hardly time for a few muttered curses when a freezing sleet slashed down at them from the leaden sky. Moss rushed them from the summit to tennesse get to White warmer air, but the temperature dropped so swiftly that every five or ten minutes the men had to stop to rub freezing hands and ears.

The way down the slope left no doubt that Moss had made the worst possible choice of pride elizabeth, trails to travel. The old Stage Road had never been much more than a dry creek, which exploded into life with spring rain, sleet, and melting snow. White Spiritual Consultant. Now the men worked their way slowly and vs garner, carefully down a road filled with water and slush above their ankles, exerting a constant grip on White Spiritual, their heavy bicycles to prevent them from getting away. Four-and-a-half hours after starting down the mountain slope Moss and his men dragged themselves into tibia and fibula Fort Harrison. They broke formation to eat, checked their equipment, and Spiritual Consultant, collapsed for the night. The men awoke to unexpectedly clear skies. With drying roads beneath their feet, they pressed on at an accelerated pace. By the time their trek ended at nightfall they had covered more than their planned fifty miles, and set up camp in a construction area called Recap, located between the Northern Pacific Railroad tracks and the Gallatin River. Morning light brought groans from the men. On one side of galileo, their planned travel route rose a high bluff.

The river. covered the opposite side and once again the House Spiritual Essay, bicycle corps men trudged along railroad tracks. They rode and pushed their way for five jolting miles over new cross ties, the spaces between, the platinum, newly installed logs still unfilled and tamped down with earth. If only White House Essay, they could move alongside the tracks, but there was no way the railbed was a mess of old cross ties, and heaped dirt and rocks on both sides. They could feel their muscles tightening as they fought their way ahead, finally covering the five miles to Gallatin, Montana, by midmorning. Here their morale rose, for they had been assured that good roads awaited them. But beyond Gallatin the good road turned out to be a blind trail through marshy fields buzzing with vicious mosquitoes. Off they went, into the worst segment of the trip so far, maddened by the incessant bites of tennesse, swarming insects. o matter how fast they pedaled the mosquitoes stayed with them, causing intense suffering from swollen eyes, faces, necks, and hands.

Just west of Logan, they swerved away from the marshy trail to follow the rail tracks into town, and White Spiritual, another two hours of tennesse vs garner, pedaling brought them to Bozeman, center of the White House Spiritual Consultant, Gallatin Valley. Behind them was a day of more than fifty miles of muscle-tearing, mosquito-ridden travel. Platinum. And they had ticked off only a small part of the journey to come. On June 23, nine days out of their home base, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps rode into House Spiritual Consultant Billings, Montana. It wa's a little before 10 A.M. In four hours of hard riding that morning the men had sped over platinum thirty-seven miles. They pedaled into Billings in high spirits. At the local rail depot they picked up the supplies waiting for them. Quickly word of their arrival spread and townspeople gathered to watch the show . Seeing nineteen black men in uniform on bicycles brought forth catcalls and derisive laughter, and House Spiritual Consultant, an angry Moss led his men quickly out of the town. Moss must have felt that someone was jinxing them. Riding away from the Yellowstone River, they moved into the Crow Indian Reservation against a stiff headwind, working up long grades.

Before Moss and his men knew what was happening, they were surrounded by tennesse, whooping Crows, having the time of White House Essay, their lives making fun of this Soldier infantry on bicycles. It took more than an hour of stoically ignoring, their feathered companions before the troopers found themselves alone again-and back into heavy rains. A short time later they halted along a steep trail, in mountain country, wet, cold, and facing early darkness. Hastily they set up camp and crawled beneath their small tents, listening the night through to Essay Middle Ages and The and Its Effect an incessant hissing rain.. Moss realized that to slow down now could cripple the expedition. White House Essay. The men had to keep moving. As they ate a quick breakfast, the rains eased and doubloon, finally stopped.

The break in the storm heartened them, but new hopes vanished as they staggered along the steep, winding trail, slogging their way through gripping clay-gumbo mud that made every step an effort. The entire day ground slowly forward. Essay. Bone weary, caked with mud, bitten by voracious insects, they were still fighting the killing mountain trail when darkness settled upon the rugged land. They made camp and collapsed into deep sleep. They were awake at dawn and started another grueling. session along the winding and tibia and fibula, hilly trail, stopping frequently to scrape caked mud from bicycle wheels and frames. They were still on the trail when night fell. By now they were convinced they were the only living beings in the godforsaken hills. They were so fed up with the trail they decided to push on as long as they could in darkness. Two and-a-half hours later they stumbled onto the banks of Pryor Creek.

No disillusionment with the White House Spiritual, task of fording the stream. It was a joy compared to the mountain trails and the water washed the heavy mud from their bikes. Across the stream they came upon a deserted Indian cabin where the galileo galilei, men fell asleep in their clothes. By now their supplies were almost gone. For breakfast each man had a cup of weak coffee and a small piece of hard bread. They tightened ,their belts, knowing that the next supply station, Fort Custer, lay forty-two miles cross-country. Their spirits sagged further when their first three hours of House Essay, fighting through still more mud gained them only and prejudice, six miles. Then they crested a ridge and saw Moss's weary features break out in a huge grin! The lieutenant pointed ahead. Before them lay a hard, dry surface-and all downhill slope.

Moss rode out, with the others behind him, and with everyone picking up speed all the way. At three-thirty that afternoon they pedaled into House Consultant Fort Custer. They had now completed the first leg of their journey while being completely out of touch with the outside world. In the fort the men enjoyed a hearty meal, then cleaned up their clothing and pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, equipment. Judging his troop to be close to complete exhaustion, Moss announced a day's rest. The cyclists camped that night near the scene of Custer's last stand , where in 1876 227 cavalry troops had been. wiped out in a bloody fight with Sioux and Cheyenne Indians.

They spent their day of rest sightseeing along the White Spiritual Consultant, Little Big Horn. Refreshed and rested, with their bellies full, the bicycle troops pedaled away from the old Custer battlefield, determined to pick up the precious time that had been lost in the mountains. They were now moving from tennesse, Montana into Wyoming, and at the crossing from one state to another was an imaginary signpost marking the first third of their journey of 1,900 miles. It was a good thing they'd, had their rest-the ninety miles from the Little Big Horn to Sheridan, Wyoming, proved to be one of the most difficult legs of their trek. What was laughingly called a road snaked through rough and hilly country, trying its best-and. failing-to follow the river to the Wyoming border. Six times Moss and his cyclists came to a stop, staring morosely at the water before them, and each time they had to ford the Little Big Horn wading chest-high through water in Consultant teams of and Roll, four carrying their bicycles across one by one, raised high above their heads on long poles.

Grimly determined now to successfully [tbate]combat whatever nature had to offer, the twenty-one men hammered their way to the Wyoming border. Their route led them southeast away from the river, but through dangerous country that abounded In huge potholes filled with alkali water. No small matter, this, for they obtained their water from sources they found en route. Their main supplies came from railroad tanks they passed. Despite all the White House Consultant Essay, difficulties they had encountered, they were only slightly behind schedule when they passed through Sheridan. They pressed forward and on June 29, after having battled their way up twenty miles of mountain grade, tortured by a broiling sun, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps pedaled wearily into Gillette, Wyoming. Moss grinned at his men.

Time for lunch , he announced. As his men rested, Moss. checked the route ahead. Thirty miles distant was Moorcroft, where he could count on getting water and additional supplies. At four o'clock that afternoon they were on their way, making eight miles an hour beneath a late-day warming sun. On Music: Rock And Roll. Just after six P.M. things started coming unglued. Storm clouds swept behind them and the men started searching for House Consultant Essay a safe camp.

At that moment they all heard a sharp metallic snap! Private Foreman stood beside his bicycle with the front fork sagging from a broken axle. Moss tried not to tennesse show his frustration: They had no spare front axles . White Consultant. Foreman would have to walk, pushing his machine all the way, to doubloon the next supply station. By now Jim Moss had endured all he could in complying with orders to which he'd never agreed. He turned the command over to Spiritual Essay Sergeant Saunders: Keep the men together , ordered Moss. In The And The Renaissance And Its In Society. Proceed to Moorcroft with the speed it takes Foreman to walk his machine. I'm going ahead with the cook and two men. We'll get a hot meal together and line up repair materials and supplies . Moss and the other three men sped off down the already dark, unfamiliar road.

They made only four miles before the black night and muddy surface forced them to dismount. House Consultant Essay. Now they had to walk, pushing their bikes into increasingly treacherous underfooting. It was midnight when the four exhausted men stumbled upon railway tracks. Hungry and cold from the damp. night air, they sprawled on the ground to rest. They needed warmth but failed to and Roll find firewood. As they huddled together, sharing their misery, a rifle shot cracked through the Spiritual Consultant, darkness.

Fire one shot , Moss ordered a Soldier. Moments later three of his troops, who had pushed their way ahead of Saunders' group and lost themselves in the dark, staggered up to Moss. Now they made up a band of seven, with fourteen more coming up behind. Pride And Prejudice Elizabeth. Moss and the six Soldiers started out in the darkness for Moorcroft. The pain of pulled muscles was excruciating.

Every man suffered from muscle cramps. White House Spiritual Consultant. Doggedly and galilei contributions, deliberately they pushed on. The journey became a mind-blurring effort of lifting one foot after the other. Then, after hours of body-punishing travel, a voice groaned.from the darkness. My God. . . I can't . White House Essay. . . And Prejudice Elizabeth. I can't go no more . Moss turned but couldn't see a thing in the inky night. Yet he knew the identity of the Soldier who had fallen out and was already sprawled by House Spiritual Consultant Essay, the side of the muddy road. Leave him there , he ordered. Let him sleep . Tennesse. Moss resumed the march.

All he could think of now was reaching the next supply station, where he could regroup his command. His men were strung out along fifteen miles of muddy Wyoming trail. He stumbled on, more asleep than awake, his bicycle as much a support to his shaking body as it was a burden to push. He blinked his eyes, wondering if he was falling victim to House Spiritual Consultant hallucinations. In the distance there seemed to be a faint glow of light, as if a clothesline were strung before the road, drifting toward him. It came so close it seemed certain to strike his face. Several times he threw out his arm, but nothing was there. Jim Moss fell asleep even as he fought his way through the mud. Galilei Contributions. His feet stumbled and. he went down, as if in slow. motion, unconscious but still trying to walk.

The six men with him went down like poled oxen. Each Soldier slept where he fell. Barely sixty minutes later Moss opened his eyes, stunned to find himself lying on the road. As first light silhouetted the horizon, Moss stared through morning mist at White House Consultant Essay, a red building. Moorcroft! And only a few steps away from where they'd fallen into elizabeth the mud. Angered and White House, disgusted with himself, Moss shouted at the other men to get to their feet. With stiffened arms and legs they lurched into vs garner the supply camp. The cook ordered the men with him to help. Hot food quickly revived them, and Moss split his force, one group sleeping while the others prepared for the rest of the men to arrive.

One by Consultant Essay, one the rear guard straggled in, grateful for pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth the hot meal waiting for House Spiritual Essay them. By two o'clock that same afternoon, the vs garner, 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps was again on House Spiritual Consultant, its way. Jim Moss knew many things. But not how to quit. For the platinum, next five days the bicycle troop traveled steadily across the southwestern corner of Consultant, South Dakota. And their luck held until they were well into Nebraska where, to their surprise, they plowed into that state's hills of sand. Their progress slowed by difficult riding and rising temperatures, the men turned to whatever water they could find. Unfortunately, the Essay on Music: Rock, water they drank was heavily laced with alkali, and White Spiritual Consultant, just beyond the city of tibia and fibula, Alliance, Nebraska, Jim Moss toppled from his bicycle seat. Half unconscious and seriously ill from House Spiritual Consultant, taking too much alkali into his system, he was judged unfit for further travel by on Art in the Middle Ages Renaissance, bicycle.

Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy now took over command of the troop. The men carried Moss back to Alliance where he could recover and, later, could travel by train to rejoin his command. Kennedy must have regretted the twist of fate that gave him control of the Soldier-cyclists, for no sooner was Moss removed from White Spiritual Consultant, his position of Essay on Art Middle Ages and The Renaissance, leadership than the troop plunged into a fresh nightmare. The Nebraskan hills tortured them with roads of shifting masses of White House Consultant, sand worse than any mud. Every day the sun blazed hotter in the sky, sapping their strength and burning whatever skin was exposed to its brutal rays. Finally human endurance reached its limit, and Kennedy led the men away from the ankle deep sand to tibia and fibula fractures follow the House Essay, railroad tracks. Ahead of the men lay 170 miles of torturous travel.

It was a question of which was worse, the jarring of the Essay on Music:, railroad cross ties or the ankle-clutching sand. On July 7, as the White Essay, men fell by the tracks to rest beneath trees, the temperature registered 110 F: in the, shade. That night more than half the men were seriously ill. Two Soldiers suffered the agony of badly blistered feet-the result of endless trudging in burning sand. The others had a variety of ills, ranging from heat prostration and pulled muscles to chafed skin and stomach cramps.

Despite the heat, the blisters, and assorted sufferings, the Soldiers exerted every ounce of their strength to continue. What carried them through the. worst of the trek was the clean water they drew from the railroad storage tanks. They pushed their way through the worst of the sand hills in four-and-a-half days, establishing the fractures, astonishing average of better than thirty-seven miles a day. The men greeted a recovered Jim Moss with shouts of joy as the lieutenant swung down from a train he had ordered stopped. With Moss again in White Consultant command, they reached the clay roads of Missouri on July 17.

They rolled into the. town of Rulo, where they discovered that the local citizens were every bit as hostile as the tennesse, country through which they'd just fought their way. The local folk, it seemed, wanted no truck with negras , even if they were Soldiers. The sand. hills were behind them, and so were the mountains, but nothing had improved where the roads were concerned. They crossed the state on what Moss later described as the White Spiritual Consultant Essay, worst roads of the entire journey. The troops finished the last three heat-scorching days struggling from one hill to the next, their lips becoming parched and their tongues swollen when their water supplies ran out. By this time, however, nothing, not heat nor terrible roads nor the hostility of the local people could keep Moss and his men from on Music: and Roll, getting through. No matter that almost all of Missouri regarded them .as outcasts. St. Louis made it up to them with a thundering reception and Essay, open arms.

Waiting to greet them was a huge crowd of cheering well-wishers on bicycles, who provided a colorful escort for the men. They officially ended their memorable trip of 1,900 miles before the Cottage Hotefin Forest Park. Fractures. It was six o'clock on the evening of Saturday, July 24, 1897. Exclusive of the brief time spent in repairs and White Consultant, recuperating from illness, they had completed their journey in thirty-four days of actual travel, averaging 6.3 miles an hour and tennesse, 55.9 miles a day . Jim Moss was the hero of the White House Spiritual Consultant, day. Tennesse. He told reporters he was convinced that the Consultant Essay, trip had demonstrated the ability of an army bicycle corps to compete with infantry or cavalry moving cross-country at one-third of the cost. Some of our experiences , he stressed, tested to the utmost not only the pride, men's physical endurance, but also their moral courage and disposition. I wish to commend. them for the spirit, pluck, and fine Soldierly qualities they displayed . Of the twenty-one Soldiers who pedaled from Fort Missoula, twenty reached St. White Consultant. Louis in surprisingly good health and condition. Only one man failed to complete the trip. One week short of their destination, Pvt.

Eugene Jones claimed to be too weak to tennesse continue. Moss shipped Jones and his bicycle back to Fort Missoula by House Essay, train. No one missed him. They were too busy enjoying their moment of well-deserved acclaim in Essay in the Ages and The and Its in Society cycling history. Chapter 5: The Bicycle Goes to War. The bicycle managed to survive three decades of Consultant, trial-and-error military experiments before actually being committed to battle, But going to war on two-wheelers was actually a two-phase affair, the first being a too-late entry into Cuba, and Essay on Art in the, the second being a full-scale test in South Africa. The initial orders for combat service came with the Spanish-American War of 1898, and once again it brought to White House Spiritual the limelight none other than Lt. James Moss and his men of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps . . When Moss completed historic journey from Montana to Missouri, his hopes for realistic tests for platinum doubloon bicycle troops fell by the wayside. House Spiritual. He soon found himself a cyclist leader with no one to lead, and an officer without a command. On his return to Fort Missoula, Moss prepared an official proposal, for an unprecedented and, he considered, a really acid test of the bicycle under field conditions.

He asked permission to lead twenty Soldier-cyclists from Fort Missoula to San Francisco, and to return along a route different from the outgoing roads. To Moss, who now had experience to back his proposal, such a trip would demonstrate beyond all question the bicycle's qualifications as a vehicle to convey troops across long distances at only a fraction of the cost of horse-drawn wagons . Moss was dismayed to discover his enthusiasm didn't reach beyond the walls of Fort Missoula. The Secretary of on Music: Rock and Roll, War , who passed upon such matters, had little interest in Soldiers pedaling their way around the country. Spiritual Consultant Essay. The horse and Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, the railroad , by God, were the ways to transport fighting men. Moss's request came back with the explanation that sufficient experiments had already been made with the military bicycle to tell the army everything it needed to know about such matters . Sorely disappointed, Moss swallowed his pride and returned to the mundane life of an army post officer, while the black cyclists who had made history with him returned to House Spiritual Consultant Essay their prosaic duties. Yet prosaic was a matter of galileo galilei contributions, attitude. House. The black Soldiers' regiment was at the time the only organized force in galileo contributions the northwestern United States, and much of their time was spent away from their post, helping people recover from the [transformationunderfire] ravages of weather and White Spiritual, man . They assisted people caught in floods, fires, and storms. When local police authority failed to and prejudice control lawlessness, the black Soldiers went out to regain command.

They assisted Indian agents in a wide range of duties. White House Spiritual Essay. They trailed deserters across hundreds of miles, formed military posses where they were needed. At times such duty was the best a Soldier could have, for quotes the men often set up camps deep in Consultant California's Yosemite, Sequoia, and Grant national parks. There they rounded up cattle and sheep-rustlers, disarmed anyone caught carrying weapons without special authority, protected game in the parks, arrested timber stealers, and often, fought raging forest fires. Then came the Spanish-American War and a renewed interest in bicycle-mounted troops.

Moss received orders to. regroup his force. Now he was in Middle Ages and The Effect command of House Consultant Essay, 100 men, all trained to use the bicycle as a well-disciplined military force. Once he had selected the men best suited for the new cycle corps, Moss had each bicycle fitted with a special clip fastened to the left side of the frame, where rifles were carried muzzle to the front and barrel up. And Prejudice. The tension clip was designed to let a man snatch his weapon from the clip for White Spiritual Consultant immediate use. Moss had learned his lessons well on his 1,900-mile trip, when the on Music:, weight and clumsiness of a rifle slung across a man's back was nearly too much to endure along with other privations.

He also armed each man with a double-action revolver, kept in a holster strapped to White House Consultant Essay his right hip. Moss never went to [nation-state] war with the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. The war didn't last long enough. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and his cavalry troop of Rough Riders stormed San. Juan Hill and three months after the Rock and Roll, war began it was ended. Essay. The Army took up occupation duties in tennesse vs garner Cuba. Resigned to remaining forever in Montana, Moss was surprised when he received emergency orders for shipped out to Cuba. All hell had broken loose in House Consultant Havana. In the wet summer season there was an explosive spread of yellow fever and galileo galilei contributions, a mild form of malaria.

Cubans and White House Spiritual, occupying American troops alike were affected, but the local citizens heaped blame on Middle Ages and Its Effect in Society, the United States Army, taking to the streets with mob violence and Consultant Essay, riots. The United States hastily withdrew its own stricken Soldiers and Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles sent out a call for Moss and his all-new bicycle force. Two days later Moss and on Music: Rock, his 100 picked men were on a train to Tampa, Florida, where they moved quickly aboard a waiting troopship. No sooner had they disembarked in. Havana than they were rushed into House Consultant Essay immediate riot-control duty. There was no question that their appearance caught the attention of the Cubans, although the first reaction was one of loud laughter. The sight of black Soldiers on doubloon, bicycles wheeling to scenes of trouble brought its mixture of scorn and amusement. The chuckles died away when they watched the disciplined order of Moss and White Essay, his men who, heavily armed, rode unflinchingly into the worst trouble spots in the Cuban city. For a while the Cubans held back.

Then the incidence of fever increased sharply and amused tolerance exploded again into anger. Moss and his cyclists were busy day and fractures, night dispersing crowds and stopping mobs in the streets. Spiritual Essay. There were so many incidents that a force five times greater than the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps could never have dealt with them all. Yet wherever Moss and his men appeared they put down the tibia fractures, rioting mobs. Their technique was to approach in groups from different sides of the crowd, who suddenly found themselves facing a hundred heavily armed and House Consultant Essay, determined men . If the cyclists encountered a crowd that seemed determined to break through their ranks, the men would dismount, stack their bicycles into Essay on Art Middle and The Renaissance Effect a barricade , and present a solid force of firepower. Against all the White Spiritual, pessimistic forecasts for a force of only a hundred men, the Moss troop was given credit as the pride quotes, major factor in White Consultant stopping a potential destruction in pride quotes its tracks . Oddly enough, the bicycle troops never had to resort to their weapons.

In fact, they didn't have to fire so much as a warning shot-an incredible testimonial to their effectiveness. The men stayed on twenty-four-hour duty until the outbreak of fever subsided and the threat of mob outbreaks eased away. Moss and House Spiritual, his men returned to Montana with their weapons unused, but with a ringing tribute to galilei the effectiveness of military bicycle forces. Yet many observers hesitated to accept the bicycle as a major element in the military. Riot duty was one thing, they noted, not without justification. [Nation-state] Combat was another. That test was to come just one year later. War broke out in 1899 on the plains of South Africa.

It was called the Boer War after the Dutch farmers of that land who decided to implement armed resistance against White Spiritual Essay the British advance into Essay in the Middle Ages Renaissance and Its Effect in Society the territories of the White House Consultant Essay, area. Their resentment began thirteen years earlier when the discovery of gold brought a swarm of British miners and prospectors to the Dutch farmlands . To control the newcomers the Boer government refused them citizenship and pride, imposed severe taxes on almost every activity in which they engaged. The British, as might have been expected, vigorously protested such shabby treatment, accepting the White House Spiritual Essay, moves of the Boers as a direct challenge to the Crown. The situation went from platinum, bad to worse when, in House Spiritual Consultant 1895, Sir Leander Starr Jameson carried out an unexpected military raid against the Boers. The Dutch on tennesse, their part shouted that the Jameson raid was an ill-concealed British attempt to White House Consultant seize the Transvaal. In mutual self-interest the platinum doubloon, locals immediately formed a military alliance of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. One action begets another. The British reacted with the claim that the alliance was a subterfuge to deny deserved commercial rights to their citizens, and White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, demanded the disbanding of the new alliance and the withdrawal of fractures, military. forces.

No one yielded and on Spiritual Consultant Essay, October 12, 1899, both sides plunged into open conflict. Perhaps the Essay, single most important piece of equipment brought to South Africa by the British military force was the House Consultant, bicycle. The British commander had judged with great wisdom the problems peculiar to the country his troops would face. And the first lesson he observed was that reliance upon the horse, traditional in regions such as South Africa, would be a disaster. Essay. The mortality rate among such animals was nothing less than crippling. To have based his field operations upon horse-mounted troops, with the loss of the horses through disease and sickness, could have crippled his men and left them at the mercy of their enemies. At the same time, he needed mobility. The nature of the land called for great flexibility in moving his forces from one danger point to White House Essay another.

For this purpose the British made their gamble on the bicycle. If they were right, then British troops would be able to move with much greater speed than' could the Boer Soldiers, and the British would enjoy the vs garner, advantage of being able to select their battlegrounds, as well as being able to Spiritual Essay press after enemy forces. Thousands of bicycles arrived with the British. They were given, as first priority, to the combat troops, although they were in great demand with virtually everyone else. The bicycle carried supplies, permitted rapid communication and transport, and galileo galilei contributions, served as a substitute for White House Essay horses, without the tennesse, attendant problems of food supplies and diseased animals. The bicycle became synonymous with the British in South Africa and prompted one African, upon seeing his first bicycle under way with a British Soldier riding se- renely by to comment: Trust the English to House Essay invent a way of platinum, traveling while sitting down . During its initial use in White Essay South Africa, the tibia, bicycle faced many of the White House, problems other military forces had encountered in the field. The machines were heavy, required excessive maintenance and, unless surface conditions were reasonable, they often had to Essay Middle Ages and Its Effect be abandoned by troops who were forced to keep moving in field operations. All that changed when Dursley Pederson applied common sense and skilled engineering to the problem, and produced a folding bicycle that weighed only fifteen pounds . Soldiers who were issued the new machines quickly devised carrying straps and slings for the folded bicycles, and White Spiritual Consultant, overnight the problems of moving through terrain impassable to any wheeled vehicle disappeared. On good terrain the troops could travel from forty to sixty miles a day with full equipment. When they encountered uncharted and rough surfaces, the men folded their bicycles into a compact and manageable size, lashed them to their backs, and Essay Rock, kept moving on foot.

The moment they were back on reasonable ground, the folded machines were reassembled, and the men were moving swiftly in White Spiritual Consultant pursuit of their enemy. Essay In The Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. No force on foot could hope to White Spiritual escape the pride elizabeth, cyclist troops . The advantages of the bicycle were never brought home more forcibly than when British and African Soldiers were chasing their enemy holed up in distant sanctuaries. So long as the House Spiritual Consultant, Boers knew the general distance of Essay on Art in the and The Renaissance and Its in Society, their camps from the British and Africans, they assumed they had a built-in time safety factor. But too often they judged that time on the basis of troops on foot. They were completely unprepared for the silent swift strikes of men on bicycles. The British and African cycle.

troops covered ground quickly, and were able to move into encirclement positions without detection by their unsuspecting foes. Spiritual. Then they had the choice of swift attack, often firing from platinum, moving bicycles for Spiritual Consultant surprise effect, or moving up close to their enemy and making a rush on foot. A year later the war was considered all but ended. Essay On Art In The And The. The British landed heavy reinforcements under the House Spiritual, command of Lord Kitchener, and the newly arrived troops moved across South Africa in a well-planned mopping-up maneuver. The campaign fizzled out vs garner when the Boers chose not to stand and fight. Instead they slipped away from the concentrations of British troops to begin two years of White House Essay, guerrilla warfare.

Once again the quotes, key factor, where the British were concerned, was the House Consultant, fast mobility of field forces. And the bicycle became the critical element of platinum doubloon, that mobility. Kitchener's troops were forced to comb the guerrilla country section-by-section. Spiritual Consultant. So long as the British had to move on foot, the Boers could always keep one step ahead of them. But not ahead of bicycle troops, who could move with many times the Boers' speed. If they remained holed up, the platinum doubloon, British had plenty of White House Spiritual Essay, time to move in heavy siege forces.

If the Boers fled, they were sure to be overtaken by hundreds of fresh, heavily armed men on bicycles. Unable to Rock deal with these tactics, outflanked and outmaneuvered by House Consultant, the Bicycle-Soldiers, the Boers capitulated on May 31, 1902. The bicycle emerged from the Boer War with its vital role in combat field forces no longer in question. Theory had been replaced with performance. Platinum. Questions, had been shunted aside by victories. The bicycle had ridden off to war an unknown machine, but it emerged from White House Consultant Essay, its first major conflict with flying colors. Pride. It proved able to travel where no horse had ever penetrated . White House Spiritual Essay. It conquered South Africa's densest brush, rolled along its narrow trails, and sped across fields and Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, roads quickly and silently, demanding no more support than a lubricating can and a pocket wrench. The military bicycle had come of age. Chapter 6: Along the Trenches.

The first light of day came reluctantly, if it preferred the hiding cloak of Spiritual Consultant, darkness. Yet the earth rolled ponderously about its axis, and no wish or hope could stay the tibia, thin sliver of gray that began to splinter the eastern horizon. As the sky brightened, it passed through a brief period when the slanting rays of the sun- touched high clouds, first with deep pink, then glowing yellow, and finally white, all before the sun itself climbed above the visible edge of the world. In that quiet moment hundreds of thousands of men lifted their eyes upward, regretting the brightness that would follow, that would reveal to them the scarred horror of a world gone mad. White Spiritual Essay. For in the area of France where the river Marne flowed, terrible things had been done to Essay on Music: Rock the earth, now lying stark in the growing day. The fields and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, the farms, the banks of streams and the slopes of gentle hills, the orchards and valleys, all had been attacked and laid bare to their earthly bones. In every direction across the countryside holes gaped like great blind eyes-holes made by galileo galilei, bursting shells.

Slicing crazily through the mindless pattern of House Consultant, destruction were other scars, zigzag things carved from the pride and prejudice elizabeth, soil by men desperate to escape the reach of jacketed steel and glowing fragments. and powder that shattered all about it, especially the White House Spiritual Consultant, fragile bodies of men. Yet, despite the disease that scarred the land, there was still beauty to be found. It was fleeting, to be sure, and not all men who looked upon tennesse, it saw the same thing. Spiritual Essay. To some it was beauty.

To others it was nothing, for they stared upon the world with eyes too long vacant. And finally, to fractures another group of hard-eyed men, the beauty that was the early morning mist gliding from the White House Consultant, Marne River was a gossamer shield behind which they might conceal themselves from enemies. On the south side of the Marne was a group of men with bicycles. Some kept on their machines, patiently waiting, with legs comfortably wide for on Art Middle and Its in Society balance. Others had left their cycles and White House, sat or sprawled on the ground, awaiting the on Music:, signal that would galvanize them into action. But all of White House Consultant Essay, them studied the mist that drifted from the rippling gray surface of the Marne. The cottony soft mist sheathed river and surrounding. countryside in a hush of its own making. At a touch of breeze the mist swirled, sending tendrils exploring upward along the river banks, reaching high enough to glide along the tibia fractures, lower structure of a bridge spanning the White House Essay, river and into the village of Mt. Rock. St. Pere. There was a false security in that mist.

It soothed the minds of Consultant Essay, men, and for doubloon this the cyclists south of the bridge were grateful. They were Germans, and they were deep in the land of their French enemy. The mist also lulled the French into a pervasive security that was perilously thin and White House, insubstantial. A German trooper, his hand moving with a subconscious desire for reassurance from his weapons, slapped gently at the side of a lethal machine gun on tibia, which he sat, balanced, waiting for the moment to roll forward. The. trooper nodded to himself. He thought of the French just beyond that mist and a thin smile came to White House Essay his lips. Turning slowly, he glanced about him again, then nodded with satisfaction. His men, soldiers of the 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion of the Guards of the German Army, had traveled a long way through a treacherous night.

In the vs garner, midst of the enemy, the German cyclists had struggled through more than twenty miles of muddy roads, unexpected embankments, and open fields. They had managed to Consultant Essay escape the attention of French patrols and to work their way through mine fields. Moving with careful discipline, the entire force on bicycles had penetrated deep into French-controlled territory. Now, looking down from fractures, a slope on the iron-and-concrete bridge spanning the Marne River to Mt. Spiritual Essay. St.Pere, they waited out the final minutes of their daring operation. The bridge across the Marne, shrouded in the swirling, sound-deadening mists. It was critical to quotes the operations of both the White Spiritual Consultant, Germans and the French. Everything had to platinum be timed perfectly.

If the German troopers continued moving with the clockwork precision they had sustained through the night, then even the White House, daring of their presence would be far exceeded by what they would next attempt. For they had come here to snatch the galilei contributions, bridge from the hands of an enemy force well established on its own ground . A force well dug in, that far outnumbered that of the Germans, was backed with artillery, communications to bring up immediate reinforcements, and had a further advantage of White House Spiritual Essay, zeroing in its weapons from different sides to defend the pride quotes, bridge. The Germans, on Spiritual, their part, had allies the French lacked: surprise and audacity. The last minutes ticked away. By the first day of September in 1914 the Great War was still less than overwhelming in galilei contributions its dimensions. The combatants had succeeded in wrecking enormous areas of land, and at times the bloodletting on both sides was staggering. Yet the fighting was still, as tacticians described it, rather straightforward.

Combat leaders were to accept specific areas for fighting the enemy. It was essentially a static front war, with sluggish movement on both sides; a battle of two massive elephants grinding slowly at one another. Thus the German trooper who came up with the White House Essay, idea of bicycle troops, outfitted with machine guns, to serve as a swift-moving advance guard before a main body of troops, was actually a man of audacious, almost reckless, thought. He was flirting with things beyond the accepted pattern of military operations. The idea was ridiculous. But the officers of the German 5 th Cavalry Division agreed among themselves that it was so ridiculous the last people to admit its possibility would be the tennesse vs garner, French. Which meant that if they were too hidebound in their thinking to conceive of fast advance guards on bicycles, then it was most likely they would not grant to the Germans such an innovation in thinking . Ergo, the French would be particularly vulnerable to a surprise strike with such a force. So it was with the House Consultant, bicycle.

The Germans were under no misconception about the use of the on Art Middle Ages and The Effect, bicycle with foot Soldiers. White Essay. It could liberate them from the restricted pace of platinum, a march on foot, and open up many additional miles to swift-wheeling cyclists . But that was as far as it went, where the French were concerned. An army with tens of. thousands of bicycles aIong its frontline units, like the White House, French, was chained to limited thinking. For it was the official line among the French military leaders that the galileo galilei contributions, bicycle was strictly for transport , and Spiritual Consultant, could be effective only and fibula, when that transport took place under the heavy protection of massed French arms. Logistics, to White House the French, was the goal for the bicycle, and not exposure to enemy guns that could tear cyclist troops limb from limb. By this line of reasoning, then, it was obvious that any troops of bicycle Soldiers that pedaled away from this protection was doomed to being cut to pieces. They must remain with the main force. Essay On Art In The Ages And The Renaissance. This was a fact life. Of course, where the White Spiritual Consultant, French went wrong was assuming that what was obvious to doubloon them would be equally clear to the Germans. The stultified French thinking, and lack of imagination was the first breach in the defense wall along the Marne River.

Thus the German moves began with an already existing safety factor-the shortsightedness of White Spiritual Consultant, their enemy . On the night of September 2, 1914, the lead elements of the tibia and fibula, 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion slipped away from their frontline positions. Advance scouts studying the area until the last touch of White House Consultant, day vanished reported all was well. The French had pulled back within their defense positions. There might be a scouting patrol that night, but otherwise the French were holing up for the hours of darkness. The Marne twisted as it went through the town of Mt. Essay On Music: Rock. St. Pere, and the main French force had dug in White Essay their bridgehead on the north bank. Across the bridge, along the south bank, the French maintained another defensive force. The. latter group was intended solely to safeguard the approaches to the bridge. If there was to be any attack against the bridge, the defenders would have more than enough time to both sound the alarm and hold off their attackers, while the main body of troops roared forth from the stronger positions along the north bank.

It was the type of strategy that induced commanders to shift responsibility to subordinates, and the subordinates, in turn, naturally did everything the easiest way possible. As the German troops rolled silently through the night, all protruding pieces of metal were muffled, with cloth so that no betraying sounds would alert the and fibula fractures, French troops sprawled in deep slumber. Only a handful of guards were up, and these few paid little attention to House Spiritual Consultant Essay the approaches leading to the bridge. What could possibly threaten them or the bridge they guarded? The nearest enemy forces were more than twenty miles away. And how could they get there without being noticed? If they walked it would take them, all that night and platinum doubloon, longer, and they would be exposed by daylight, and decimated by superior French firepower. White Spiritual. Would the contributions, Germans approach by House, motor transport? Not very likely, for the sound of motorcycles or trucks would have been heard for miles.

What about horses? Again the sound would have been a fatal giveaway. No, there had not been a sound during the night. The outlying posts had heard nothing, seen nothing. So one would be foolish not to relax, to get a good night's rest, to count on the few sentries who had the task of scanning the approaches to tibia the bridge. Morning came, and in the faint light of the new day the world was wreathed in heavy mists from the river. A stillness to make one forget the war. Enjoy the moment while it was there. The German troopers checked their watches.

The weariness that came with the forced ride of White Spiritual Consultant Essay, more than twenty miles--and with maintaining absolute silence--was now gone. As the last moments of their carefully followed plan slid away, adrenalin rushed through their bodies, bringing them to full alertness. Elizabeth. They had managed the first of several impossible steps by arriving where they were without detection. Now they must press that advantage. The German commander scanned his cyclists, took a look at his watch, then raised his arm for White Spiritual Consultant the signal. The others stood ready, right feet poised on pedals, prepared for the sudden downswing to get started. The commander dropped his arm. The cyclist troops rushed forward to strike, still enveloped in galilei contributions silence, but now racing toward their still-unsuspecting foe.

The advance team of German cyclists took advantage of the steep down-slope toward the river. There, along the House Consultant, south bank, was the main defense element guarding the doubloon, approaches to the bridge. They had to be knocked: out first. As the cyclists rushed down; they spread apart , allowing a preplanned distance between each man. And as they closed the distance between themselves and the unsuspecting French, they prepared to open fire. The strike was made in two prongs. White House Essay. First came the advance group, streaming down hill, fanning out, preparing to chew into the collection of galileo contributions, French tents . Spiritual Consultant. Directly behind them was the main striking force that kept to the road, bunching together for greater fire support, heading directly for the bridge, and prepared to Essay on Art and The Renaissance Effect in Society go storming across that vital passageway. The Germans wanted not to capture the bridge, which would' have meant bringing up heavy reinforcements, but to destroy it, so that it could not be used. by the French to counter a planned offensive by White, the German army. Potential Mountain Bike Handlebar Weapon: Full-Automatic Pistols.

Everyman rode forward with his left hand gripping his handlebar and his right hand clutching the trigger and butt of his machine gun . Moving in behind the main force on the road was a third force on bicycles. But these men, instead of being machine gunners, were sappers, loaded down with demolition charges . The lead team of cyclists rode toward the galilei contributions, enemy, waiting for the prearranged signal to commence firing. It came suddenly, a shattering explosive roar as the commander squeezed his trigger. White House Essay. Instantly the others opened fire dozens of platinum doubloon, machine guns roaring violently. White Consultant Essay. The men had spread out, enough now so that their deadly fire tore into on Music: and Roll the rows and clusters of tents . In a few brief seconds the French bridgehead force, intended to House Spiritual Consultant Essay hold off any attack, was decimated. Men were killed where they slept. Bullets screamed through thin canvas and tore into bodies. Those not killed outright rose up in platinum panic, rushing out blindly with their weapons so they might see their attackers.

They. were caught in a devastating crossfire, The men on bicycles continued their dash downslope, firing in long bursts that tumbled French Soldiers from their feet, and Consultant Essay, sent them rushing for cover. Now they were cut to ribbons by another team of German cyclists. These men had dismounted and platinum, setup machine guns to sweep the tent area. As the French Soldiers dashed out of their tents to avoid the fire of the men racing at them, they were riddled by the machine guns chattering from the side. It wasn't even a fight. Instead, the cyclists attack had been so effective, so devastating, that the French.

troops had no chance to defend themselves . Those who escaped from their tents and from the hail of bullets all about them, could only flee for their lives. The Germans continued their hammering fire as the enemy Soldiers, many of House Consultant, them clad only in socks and underwear , threw themselves frantically into the river, trying to escape by swimming away, or concealing themselves against the lower bank. This was good enough for the Germans, for Essay Rock and Roll their mission was to White Consultant destroy or pin down the bridgehead defense force so it could not interfere with the main body of cyclists. On the bridge there was pandemonium within the ranks of the guards on duty. The staccato roar of machine guns brought them upright--just in time to Essay on Art Middle Ages Renaissance and Its Effect in Society be cut down by the withering fire of the main body of German cyclists, already on White, the bridge and racing for the north bank. The few guards on the bridge never even slowed down the Germans. Pedaling furiously, they rushed across the bridge and Essay on Music: and Roll, swept up the opposite side. The lead cyclists were already firing into the main body of French troops, and once again the carnage was repeated. With no warning, completely unexpected, a savage band of men with machine guns had exploded in the midst of the French. Those who rushed from their positions with guns at the ready were met with a wicked fusillade from both flanks. On the south bank, the House, cyclists who had decimated the on Music: Rock, defenders were now in secure positions and blazing away with covering fire to protect their men who had rushed across the bridge . No matter which way the French turned they were whipsawed by Consultant Essay, the lethal crossfire from the German machine guns.

Badly outnumbered, the platinum doubloon, invaders had the satisfaction of House Consultant Essay, seeing the French in complete turmoil. Within moments the survivors of the French units were throwing down their arms; In the river, dozens of bodies floating beneath the bridge were' staining the water a bloody red. Other French Soldiers were sprawled grotesquely along the banks, like dolls hurled away and crumpled in anger. The firing began to die away as the platinum, French came into the open, demoralized and shocked, their hands held high. An entire French force posted along the north bank was captured intact. The Germans kept moving with incredible precision. Machine gunners herded the captives across the bridge to the south side, where they were started moving at double time back toward the German lines. These men now served a dual role-as captives and as insurance against immediate assault, for a counter strike against the Germans now would result in House Spiritual thus committing murderous mayhem upon tennesse vs garner, the French prisoners. As soon as the surrendering French Soldiers had been herded across the bridge the White Essay, enemy sappers received word to go ahead with their assigned job. Their bicycles were safely on on Art Ages and The and Its in Society, the south side of the river. The Germans placed dynamite in strategic spots along the span, connected the wires, unrolled those wires as they raced from the bridge to Spiritual Essay concealment, detonated their charges.

A sheet of on Music: Rock and Roll, bright flame erupted outward, followed instantly by a, thunderclap of sound as the explosives went off. Huge chunks of White House Spiritual, concrete and iron hurtled through the air, followed by and fibula, clouds of dense, acrid smoke. Moments later the placid gray surface of the Marne boiled with the House, debris crashing into it. Well before the gentle morning wind pushed the sudden rising smoke and on Art in the Middle Renaissance and Its, spray to one side, the Germans were hurrying back to their own front lines, herding their prisoners before them. House Essay. They moved quickly and they kept up their.

pace for tennesse hours. By the time they were back with their own unit, the story of their incredible mission was spreading like wildfire through the House Spiritual Essay, ranks. The story, incredible as it seemed when it was heard by and fibula, officials on White House, both sides, was true enough. The bridge at Mt. Pride Elizabeth. St. Pere had been wrecked, blown apart and hurled into the river. The French guard along the south bank had been torn to pieces, the men surprised and thrust into chaos and confusion. The strong garrison forces along the north bank had been caught in their quarters, their strength slashed, their ability to fight seriously hampered. Most of the House Spiritual, men were either dead, missing, or prisoners.

And the tennesse vs garner, Germans had suffered only a few casualties during the daring foray. They had fought a brilliant military action and retired safely and swiftly to their own lines. And they'd done it on bicycles . Where were the British Bicycle-Troops at Arnhem? Germans on Bicycles Repulse Them in 1944. If nothing else; the French knew how to nurse their wounded pride . The incident across the Marne River at Mt. St. Pere sent repercussions all the way back to White House Spiritual Paris.

The French had suffered, more than their killed, wounded, missing, and prisoners. More than the loss of the vital bridge. The Germans hap rubbed their heavy boots in the French nose. Tibia And Fibula Fractures. And they'd gone so deep within French lines. Let it not be said that the French could not profit from their losses. House Spiritual Consultant. Six days after the disaster at Essay on Art and Its in Society, Mt.

St. Pere a French commander, convinced the House Spiritual Consultant, Germans would never dream that the French might give them a dose of their own medicine, sent a strong force of bicycle troops beyond the tennesse vs garner, French front lines, deep into German territory. Their mission? No bridge this time. No working up slowly to a specific target. Spiritual Consultant Essay. Their mission was to get into the. midst of the enemy, who would not be expecting swift and silent mobility-and to raise general havoc. Which is precisely what the French did. They threw a temporary bridge across the Marne at Mt.

St. Pere, they brought equipment over by boat, and when the Germans least expected it, French troops rode like ghosts into their outposts. The bicycles permitted them to challenge strongpoints from different sides, all at the same time , and the French, eager for revenge, were off on a shoot and run operation that wreaked no small havoc among their enemy. Operations such as these, especially that of the Germans, who had executed their mission with precision, daring, and extraordinary effect, could not help but have reactions throughout the different high commands. Within a month of the tibia and fibula fractures, incident at Mt. St. Pere, the allied armies of the French, the Belgians, and the British had thrown into the combat zones more than a quarter of White Spiritual Consultant, a million bicycles . The Germans were already well-equipped with the two-wheel vehicles, and they responded, wherever conditions dictated, with strong bicycle troop operations of their own. Both sides did their best to use the bicycle in the roles for which it was best suited. It was hardly a combination of mobility and heavy weapons transport, but it was excellent for scouting, foraging, and reconnaissance. Bicyclists could move well ahead of an advancing force to contributions search out the best roads and surface conditions.

They could study the White House Spiritual Essay, lay of the tennesse, land for enemy strongpoints and, like all scouting forces, could often determine enemy dispositions by deliberately drawing fire . Spiritual Consultant. A rather risky way to do a job, but sometimes the only one available. Some officers of the First World War likened the bicycles. in such roles to fast-moving wraiths that always kept one jump ahead of the tennesse vs garner, enemy trying to knock them out. One man on a bicycle, who could use his eyes and ears and get back with his information, was worth more than a thousand men committed to a battle where the disposition of the enemy was in question. The combat bicycles that came into wide use with the allied armies were of the latest designs, equipped with three-speed gear systems that made it possible for their riders to White Spiritual Consultant cycle over almost any kind of road, without suffering the injuries associated with the older hernia horrors . Soon a common sight along the frontline areas was a combat patrol on bicycles, peddling in doubloon low gear along a muddy and rutted road, but with normal riding effort and also with excellent sustained speed. A sort of personal combat flavor arose along certain, areas of the front, much in the manner of the jousting that marked aerial combat in White Spiritual Essay the fabric flivvers of the in the and Its Effect, age. Patrol leaders took pride in the capabilities of their bicycle troops, and fierce-and often fatal-competition developed between allied and enemy bicycle groups.

They developed unwritten rules of White Spiritual Consultant Essay, warfare, much as did the pilots in Fokkers and Sopwiths. And Fibula Fractures. At times the White Spiritual Consultant, exchange of fire between small groups exploded into and prejudice elizabeth huge frays of Spiritual Essay, bicycle-mounted forces, as great armies wheeled to have at one another. Pride Quotes Elizabeth. Finally, just as happened in the air, individualities melted away in the sheer numbers and Spiritual Consultant Essay, horror of the platinum, war. Even when bicycles were replaced in many sectors by powerful motorcycles, the foot-powered machine more than held its own for combat situations where stealth was all important. Essay. While bicycle brigades hacked and blasted one. another in galileo galilei contributions the open along the front lines, commando cyclists took advantage of the silence of White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, their vehicles at night to penetrate rear areas of enemy territory. In any war, personal stories emerge as reflections of the larger and tennesse vs garner, faceless mass of men who were engaged in the business of trying to destroy one another. These Individual tales are valuable arid evocative as emblematic of the larger canvas of Spiritual, action. Pride And Prejudice Quotes Elizabeth. Such is the case concerning Corporal Walter Roberts, whose bicycle got him into White Spiritual Consultant terrible trouble, kept him in backbreaking work while a prisoner of the Germans, and also provided his means of escape--a rare case indeed of a man's fortune being welded to the frame of his own machine! Roberts was a Welsh dispatch rider who made the unfortunate mistake of fractures, pedaling directly in front, of the White Consultant Essay, rifle sights of galilei contributions, a nest of German snipers.

Riding for his life as shots rang out suddenly, Roberts felt the impact of a high-velocity bullet smashing into his rear tire. The Welshman didn't hesitate for an instant. The moment the bullet struck he hurled himself into a ditch alongside the road, letting the bicycle go spinning off by itself. Roberts discovered quickly, as bullets smacked the ground about him, that the refuge he had selected was extremely low, and hardly the best place to Spiritual Essay be while German snipers made sport of and The Renaissance in Society, his presence. Beyond the White House, ditch stretched a turnip field, and the now-frantic Roberts worked his way forward, face pressed in dirt and in the Middle Ages and Its Effect in Society, leaves, belly hard against the ground, hoping to find a shell hole or depression that would hide him from the hornet-buzzing of bullets.

No matter where he moved, a bullet sang its death cry just before him, close to his feet, or on either side of him. White House Spiritual Essay. It slowly dawned on Roberts that had the Germans wanted him dead by now he would have been riddled from his skull. to his feet. They were using him for doubloon sport! His suspicions were confirmed when one sniper expertly sent a round directly through the crown of Roberts' dispatch rider's cap. He needed no further demonstrations. Immediately, while still lying on the. White House. ground, he brought both hands into tibia fractures the air, above the field of Spiritual Consultant Essay, turnips. When no further shots were fired, and he heard the sound of German laughter, or Roberts clambered slowly, to his feet, his hands thrust as high as he could get them. The Germans waved him forward, and Roberts was made a prisoner; at which time the platinum, grinning Germans (who could easily have killed him at any time) stripped him of his revolver, knife, dispatch, and other papers. Roberts gratitude at White Spiritual Consultant Essay, having his life spared was immediately modified and color by ensuing events.

Any idea he might have entertained that the elizabeth, Germans had suffered compassion evaporated quickly. The snipers, who moved in a group, from one area to another, were weary of carrying their heavy supplies. And there was this stranger on White House, a bicycle. Don't kill him, friends let use him! They did. Galileo. While grinning Germans held his rifle casually on House Spiritual Essay, him, Roberts repaired the galileo galilei contributions, puncture in his bicycle's rear tire.

When everything was in good order the squad of snipers came up with their, supplies and gear. White House Consultant. The bicycle became heavier and tennesse, heavier as Roberts tied and lashed everything together. When he could barely stand with the machine, the Germans tied a small bag of biscuits for Roberts to House eat, and with the muzzle of galileo galilei contributions, a rifle prodded him into activity. Cpl. Walter Roberts was now, the private packhorse of a squad of skilled German killers, and White House, watching them at their work made it all too obvious just how slim his chances were of getting away alive. Well, at least it was better than. being penned up in a prison camp. Galilei. His captors made certain that Roberts remained in good health and decently fed. He would be of no use to White House Spiritual them as a weakling. For five weeks Roberts hauled the equipment and supplies of the German sniper squad from one place of concealment to another.

Every time he thought he might have a chance to pride and prejudice elizabeth escape he studied the situation with extra care, then changed his mind because the chances far success seemed so dubious. But as he walked and wheeled his heavily loaded bicycle through fields of deep mud, along back roads, and through heavy brush, he never stopped looking far opportunities. Finally, late one afternoon, the moment came. It was near sunset. The snipers were fully deployed in combat gear, waiting in a carefully planned ambush for a squad of British troops who were approaching their position from the east. The snipers did their job with thoroughness. House. They left nothing to chance, and Essay on Art in the Ages in Society, their ambush was so set up that the British Soldiers were facing directly into the blinding light of the sun. That could work for Essay me as well , Roberts thought. He knew the Germans had already came to accept his presence as part of their own squad. They were concentrating so hard on the anticipated ambush that they had actually dismissed Roberts from their minds. As the Germans kept their sights on the approaching squad, Roberts casually began to unload the pride and prejudice quotes elizabeth, heavy supplies from his bicycle.

No one paid any attention to him. A shot cracked out and Roberts flinched, dropping to one knee. Another shot sound, the bigger, the faster the trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and bombers, the more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at House Spiritual Essay, anything that expandimself onto his. bicycle, leaning far forward and galileo galilei, pedaling far his life. White Essay. Not toward the Essay in the Middle and The and Its Effect, British but away from them---straight into the brilliant setting sun. Anyone who looked his way could hardly see him, and Spiritual Consultant Essay, besides, the Germans suddenly had a thundering fight, an their hands. Roberts wheeled wildly down a slope, swung along a ditch out of sight of the German snipers, and tibia and fibula, began the long turn back to the east. That night he showed up at his command headquarters, a ghost who had been given up for dead. Before the long, dreary, and bloody war reached its end, the military cyclist was part and parcel of the White House Spiritual Essay, vast system of machinery used to carryon the fight.

Almost every duty that required transport and mobility fell to the lot of the cyclists-from rear-area carrying of messages to mortal combat in and behind the front lines. Small groups of cyclists grew to doubloon complete brigades shipped to the front, and White Spiritual, they formed the major elements from which entire campaigns were begun. By the platinum, time the war ended in November of 1918, more than six thousand cyclist troops had met their death in combat; another eight thousand were seriously wounded; and tens of thousands more were listed as missing or taken prisoner. The cyclist troopers thus took their place among the bravest of the brave. Chapter 7: Between the White House Spiritual Essay, Wars.

What the bicycle could do in vs garner the big war it could also accomplish in small wars. Small wars is White House Consultant one way of describing insurrections, revolts, uprisings, takeovers, revolutions, protests, overthrow of authority, guerrilla warfare, and disruption. [EDITOR: a more accurate description is that large wars are NATION-STATE WARS (NSWs) and tennesse, small wars are SUB-NATIONAL CONFLICTS (SNCs).] The echo of House Spiritual, huge artillery shells was still dying away across the battlefields of continental Europe when new fighting broke out in the British Isles. The Irish Volunteers, fed to the teeth with what they considered to be repression, launched a campaign of pride, hit-and-run -tactics, neatly mixed with devastating ambushes that sundered the White Spiritual Consultant Essay, country. The hard-pressed Irish Volunteers, as already noted, found the quick and quiet bicycle the perfect weapon with which to inflict punishment upon a superior military force and armed police. To stand and and prejudice quotes, fight was to invite disaster. The only way to strike hard and House Consultant Essay, survive was to hew strictly to galileo galilei the strategy of hit-and-run raids. White House. The bicycle brought the guerrilla combatants to the scene of their raids and tibia and fibula fractures, removed them as silently and swiftly as they had come. A world in which many great nations had been bled white found no way to exist without powerful military forces. No matter what other problems bedeviled a country, government leaders considered (and not entirely without reason) that not to maintain a powerful armed force was to invite disaster from one's neighbors. The economic disaster of World War I, and accompanying minor conflicts, also demanded the House Consultant Essay, maximum military for the minimum dollar. On Art In The Middle In Society. (That attitude hasn't changed.

Today the reference is to Spiritual Consultant Essay the biggest bang-for-the-buck .) To meet these special needs, military leaders studied the on Art in the Ages and The Renaissance, lessons of the massive war that had just been fought. More than a half-million bicycles had been in use by the various combatants at one time. And this same bicycle imposed no economic hardship in mass numbers as did the horse or the motor vehicle. The demands of peacetime military forces are different from those same forces in White House Spiritual time of war. It's easy too see that if you need a patrol to cover thirty miles a day, day after day, and month after month, you're going to be faced with a staggering logistics consumption. Using supplies is doubloon only the top of the iceberg. You've got to produce those supplies, purchase them, store them and White Consultant, ship them to their destination before they're consumed.

Keep this up for months and years and the economic load becomes staggering. The Great War had ended, but smaller wars were raging, and the combatants in these head-bashing episodes had no choice but to make maximum use of the minimum material available. The strife chewing up the green fields and lovely villages of Ireland was perhaps the best example. From all the various requirements of galilei contributions, conflicting groups one vehicle emerged that met all economic needs: the White Consultant Essay, bicycle. At this point, then, the bicycle acquired its between-wars popularity.

Military needs, hobbled by economic restrictions, demanded total performance from the two-wheelers, which remained free from fuel, food, or shelter require- ments. Even the galileo, most volatile critic of armed forces could hardly criticize the bicycle. The widespread acceptance of the bicycle by White House Consultant Essay, national armed forces had one glaring exception-the United States . The record of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I in Europe made it all too clear that the bicycle was an idler's toy-at least in the minds of our military leaders. The two-wheelers that arrived in Essay in the and The Europe with the AEF, were allotted strictly for odd jobs-carrying mail, personal transport in House Spiritual Essay local areas-in general, for us wherever it was easier to platinum doubloon pedal than to walk. No native resistance to House Consultant the bicycle generated this attitude. Rather, the United States had a smashing love affair going with all mechanical objects that roared and tennesse, thundered and spewed forth exhaust gases. White House Consultant. The more powerful, the galileo contributions, bigger, the faster the trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and bombers, the more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at anything that expanded our horizons and increased our performance.

This was an honest, if economically costly, attitude in Spiritual Essay the postwar period. Experienced men swept aside the bicycle because motorized machines were faster, could carry heavier loads, and had vastly greater endurance. Machines meant heavy weapons moving quickly over long distances. When the Middle Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, argument was put forth that the bicycle was superior in White House Consultant Essay the economic sense, the answer was that economics were overshadowed by the need for galileo performance. There was no shortage of fuel, nor was there likely to be any. It could also be argued that, on this basis of thinking, the steamship was an economic disaster compared to House the great sailing ships.

And to continue this line of reasoning, the ox-drawn cart could feed itself en route, whereas the locomotive had to rely upon coal, oil, and water. Such arguments can, of course, become specious. Tennesse Vs Garner. It would be unfair to pass on from this attitude without a word about the philosophy underlying the decision of the United States to ignore the bicycle as a major adjunct to our armies. We were a nation of vast distances . White Essay. Europe was, in comparison a collection of small states with short distances between lands of different governments and languages. A man could ride a bicycle for two days in Europe and cross several national borders. He could do the same in the United States and crawl an inch or two on a map. Galileo Contributions. The inclination to Spiritual count upon motorized transport was a natural one and best suited to our needs. For all these reasons it came to pass that between the two world wars the United States kept the bicycle relegated to the status of an on Music: Rock and Roll, interesting experiment, or simply a transport or recreation device, while other nations, combined, put more than a million men on two-wheelers. Any vehicle-or other form of equipment-is developed for military use on the basis of what may be done with that vehicle.

So it was with the bicycle. Experiments had taken place in Essay the past involving the projected use of the bicycle in two-, three-, and four-wheeled versions for hauling rapid-fire weapons into combat areas. And Roll. The glorious predictions for such machines usually collapsed when it came to their practical use in White House Consultant the field. Testing a bicycle on a paved surface, as we have seen, is contributions a far cry from trying to pedal that same machine through a road reduced to sucking mud. And a man who is exhausted from that kind of effort will soon heave the offending machine to White House Consultant the side and revert to walking. One of the doubloon, problems of hauling heavy weapons about on bicycles, when conditions were less than perfect, was the. weight and cumbersome shape and size of the weapons themselves. White House Consultant Essay. All this was to change in the years following World War I. New metal alloys, vastly improved ammunition, and galileo galilei, air-cooled automatic weapons, all brought such powerful instruments to manageable size and weight, so that their use with bicycle-borne transport became a sensible venture. The bicycle itself had gone through a steady evolution. White House Consultant. Its metal frame was lighter and stronger than ever before.

The wheels could endure far more punishment than older machines could have absorbed. New ball bearings, lubrication systems, drive trains-everything had undergone improvements. Gear systems had advanced to the extent that a man could pedal up a long slope with a heavily loaded machine as easily as a lightly loaded vehicle could be handled on a level stretch. There was another way-a broad view-to consider the military bicycle. Other weapons had improved, especially new explosives.

Pound-for-pound new explosives were anywhere from two to platinum twenty times more powerful than older materials . This had a profound effect upon military thinking. It meant that one man, or a few men, in the right place at the right time, could enormously affect any given situation-because now they could carry, even on Essay, bicycles, a hundred times the contributions, firepower available to them before . In the old days, it might have taken twenty men to carry enough explosives to blow up a certain bridge. Twenty men carrying supplies aren't that easy to hide . They cover a fair amount of ground physically when they're under way. The chances of making noise are greatly increased. They need protection from House Essay, men who carry nothing. but weapons, so their total numbers in the force are increase at fractures, an a alarming rate.

But if one man can carry by himself the House Spiritual Essay, explosive force formerly handled by twenty or thirty men, then a tiny band of three men could do what might previously have required fifty . The use of such small teams, with their enormous potential for destruction, has made the bicycle all the more valuable. Among the on Music: Rock and Roll, nations that took the lead in developing the bicycle as an essential element in their military forces were England (especially with its great success in the Boer War), France; and Hungary. Hungary grouped its cyclists into in organization made up of seven battalions, breaking gown each battalion into three companies of mounted cyclist troops. Within each company they established two rifle platoons and White House, a light machine-gun squad. Always available for any special operation then was a permanent force of forty-two bicycle-mounted rifle platoons and twenty-one machine-gun squads. Field tests with the new bicycle force were so successful that the Hungarian army went so far as to establish a new table of organization. Before the extensive trials that proved the bicycle troops a powerful weapon in tibia their own right they had always been tacked onto of other units. Now, for the first time, the Hungarians regrouped the bicycle troops into a special corps, on an equal footing with other elements of their field army. The Dutch had an, especially keen interest in Essay a new bicycle military force. Having suffered particularly during the and Roll, war, the Hollanders were determined to maintain a standing fighting ,force in excellent condition. White Spiritual Essay. At the same time, the.

limited resources of Holland prevented free spending in this area. Investigation of all possibilities caused attention to focus on the bicycle. The Dutch reasoned that they could never establish a field army consisting mainly of heavy weapons. Massive tanks and artillery forces were too unwieldy and expensive. What they needed most of all was a high-quality, always ready and mobile force of light divisions.

Accordingly, orders went out to Essay on Art in the Renaissance and Its Effect equip each division with a special unit of bicycle-mounted infantry. Another change came about in House Essay the organization of reconnaissance groups. Until the period after the war, the Dutch reconnaissance forces were composed exclusively of horse cavalry and armored vehicles. Looking toward the long run and intent on minimizing the drain on the national coffers, the Dutch army created crack teams of cyclists for reconnaissance squads. Tennesse. Using multiple-speed bicycles and men selected for their excellent physical condition they built up squads that could easily cover more than a hundred miles every day. In a country as flat as the House Consultant, proverbial pancake, duty in the bicycle squads became a favored choice for the infantryman. But it was in Italy that the bicycle took a down-turn in post-war organization. The Italian army, considered one of .the pioneering forces in the use' of the military bicycle, decided that the rough terrain of the country, and the long distances separating the north from the south, called for powered vehicles to handle the special forces equipped with light machine guns. The Italians kept infantry teams on bicycles within their celebrated bersaglieri regiments, but re-formed light-machine-gun squads around motorcycle sidecar equipment. Innovation was the keynote to the use of the bicycle in Russia. A vast land in which the wealthy seemed always to remain wealthy, it was filled with people who had lived on the thin edge of economic disaster all their lives.

Until their industrial muscle could grow far more than was possible after the Great War, the pride quotes, Russians preferred the Spiritual Consultant, use of manpower to machinery whenever this was feasible. Essay In The And Its In Society. The bicycle, therefore, came under serious consideration. At first it seemed that the bicycle could be used only in certain seasons. Mobility in Russia had to be equated with mobility during the infamous Russian winter. Spiritual. Could the bicycle be used when, the ground was not only frozen, but covered with ice and galilei contributions, snow?

Moreover, distances were so vast that it might be necessary for Russian bicycle forces to live for long periods of time away from main supply bases . All these problems were seriously considered by the Russians. The result caught many people by surprise. Using wider tires than were normally used on bicycles , the Russian Soldier proved adept at maneuvering his machine, over the most treacherous ground surfaces. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay. It was appreciated that men sent into the vastness of the land must themselves have protection, and it would, been even better if they could present the galileo galilei, unexpected to a potential enemy . Thus was created the bicycle-man-dog combination, a troika of weaponry. Consisting of the Russian trooper mounted on his bicycle, with a specially trained attack dog running by his side. It was a dazzling arrangement. Man and dog protected one another.

They could maintain the same steady pace while moving cross-country. Exhausted men could sleep after covering great distances, with the dogs providing the Consultant, best sentry duty . If the Russian troops. had need to enter forested areas, what better weapon than the extraordinary scent and hearing of pride and prejudice elizabeth, their animals-always ready to open a slashing attack against any foe! It will undoubtedly come as a surprise for most readers, but the one nation that made the greatest use of the bicycle as a military weapon was Germany . The surprise can be explained by the fact that the German army before and during World War II was famed for its powerful mechanized and House, armored forces . It is difficult to imagine otherwise for the Germans made blitzkrieg (lightning-fast attack) a household word. Yet the truth of the matter is that a great percentage of the German army-before and during World War II was horse-drawn! Millions of horses were pressed into use for transport . On the elizabeth, Russian front alone the Germans lost more than one-and a half million horses killed in combat and by other factors. The Germans, then, could well be expected to consider the potential of the military bicycle.

Certainly their experience during World War I had established the value of the two-wheeler. Now they made their move to improve not only on the machine, and its weapons, but on the organizations using the bicycle, as well as different means of rushing bicycle troops to combat zones where their particular advantages could be best employed . If horses were so important to the German army, it can be understood that a means of moving troops rapidly, without the supply problems of motorized vehicles or animals , would be welcome. White Spiritual Consultant. The German High Command ordered bicycles by the tens of thousands and rushed them off to training units. Years. before the German army committed itself to the combat actions that would trigger World War II, every infantry regiment was assigned one complete company of bicycle troops.

Each company was issued rifles as standard arms and in addition, received nine light machine guns. Normally, the bicycle company marched and fought with its assigned regiment, but the galilei, German commandant had several options for special operations. The German Army in WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. The reason was to have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING. The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to work together just like the M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave)

Infanteriedivision (1. Welle) (Commander on 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. Frhr. v. Gablenz. Gen.Maj. Frhr. v. Schleinitz. Gen.Maj. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. Graf v. Sponek.

Airlanding equipment was in depots back in Germany. Gen.Maj. v. White House Spiritual Consultant. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon.

German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle)

4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol) 1 NCO for galileo Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)

1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in charge of baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle)

1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for baggage and equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun. Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols)

6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars; 7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. He could group his cyclist companies and send them into battle as a complete battalion. They offered a unique mobile reserve . They could be sent out in teams of varying size as scouts and White House Essay, reconnaissance patrols. Tennesse Vs Garner. And they were always available for special operations calling for the movement of troops to House Spiritual particular sectors.

Carrying ammunition, and as many machine guns as might be needed, they formed a highly effective means of moving concentrated firepower about in a combat area. Most armies concentrated the use of cyclist troops in galileo galilei contributions two basic areas. The first was in the form of line troops little different from any other manned force. The second was for special operations as scouts or as cyclist-commandos venturing behind enemy lines. The latter assignment gave rise to the German use of cyclist troops that were sent far behind enemy lines by parachute. Paratrooper teams fitted with folding bicycles operated as sabotage teams and commandos on special operations.

Intelligence units intended to operate in the midst of White Spiritual Essay, enemy country were often dispatched on their missions by parachute, and then used bicycles to cover long distances on the ground, certainly far from where any tell-tale aircraft engines might have given them away. Another innovation for tibia and fibula which the German army was cred- ited was the House Consultant, chemical warfare unit assigned to bicycle operations. Essay. Men who received advanced training in chemical warfare, specializing in problems associated with poison gas, were rushed to the front lines and. to areas where an House Essay, enemy gas attack was expected. Their bicycles were carefully modified in the frame went a complete chemical warfare detection kit, which would not only reveal the presence of galileo, even slight traces of poison gas, but would also permit immediate identification of that gas. White Spiritual Essay. Each bicycle was a small chemical warfare station 'on wheels.

The rider carried in his saddlebag pouches fastened to the bicycle complete protective equipment in the form of gas mask and impermeable suit with hood, boots, and platinum doubloon, gloves. On the other side of the world the Consultant, Japanese were making their preparations for tens of platinum doubloon, thousands of troops equipped with bicycles to be used on the Asian mainland. China loomed large on the horizon as a target for Japanese invasion. There were Korea and Manchuria in the north, and the lands of Indochina to the south, and in all of Spiritual Consultant, these areas there was special interest in the vast campaign of conquest planned by the empire. Japan was a powerful industrial nation; but a small giant. Few people are aware that at the peak of and fibula, her strength Japan never had even 10 percent of the industrial might of the United States. Third World Bike Use: Logistics Kings (mouseclick power point show) To a nation with severely restricted resources, especially, petroleum products, the bicycle became a vital addition to the Japanese army. White Consultant. The average Japanese foot-Soldier was expected to quotes walk to White Spiritual battle, but there would be times when speed was important, and the Japanese wanted that speed without the expense of motorized transport, with its vast consumption of fuel and oil. By the tibia and fibula, time the Japanese were on the move in Asia, they.

had perfected the use of a cyclist-mounted light-machinegun corps operating as a permanent unit of a cavalry regiment. Fifty thousand Japanese Soldiers, armed with rifles, and sharing machine guns, were shipped across the White Essay, seas surrounding Japan. World War II was about to begin. Chapter 8: The Bike and the Blitzkrieg. The role of the pride and prejudice quotes, bicycle in World War II has been greatly understated. The bulk of the records of bicycle troops vanished in the maw of fighting and destruction, Most of the men who rode bicycles off to war were killed, or so scattered that their stories were lost forever. And in the face of vast numbers of tanks and Consultant, armored vehicles of tens of thousands of fighters and bombers and other aircraft, in on Art in the Middle Ages Renaissance battles involving millions of men and in the great struggles at sea, the House Spiritual Essay, military part played by the bicycle was tossed aside in the fury of the conflict.

Yet the bicycle played vital, if isolated, roles as an important weapon in a world war that lasted, from doubloon, 1937, with the first fighting in China, to White Spiritual Consultant the surrender of the Japanese' in August of 1945 soon after the towering remnants of two mushroom clouds drifted away before the wind. Full-scale war in Europe began on the first day of September in 1939, when the Wehrmacht of Germany unleashed its massive armored divisions against Poland. We have seen how much of the German, army was horse-drawn and mounted on bicycles, but it was the very use of such transport in rear areas that permitted the Germans to concentrate their armored and mechanized forces at the tip of their military spearheads . The leaders of Poland, in the final tense days before they were invaded, were not obsessed with fear of the German army. They respected the ability of the Germans to fight and had no misconceptions about the contributions, quality of German weapons. But the Poles could not conceive of the White Spiritual, extraordinary discipline and galileo galilei contributions, effectiveness of the House Consultant Essay, Nazi fighting forces -and the shock was so great it quickly broke the Middle Ages Renaissance in Society, back of the Polish defense. As the Germans moved their armor up toward the Polish border, the Poles took stock of theft own men and weapons, and concluded that, while they might suffer severe losses, they could throw back the strongest blows that could be directed at White Consultant Essay, them. Essay On Music: Rock And Roll. This was anything but blind confidence for the Polish armed forces were every bit as strong as those of France and, not incidentally, almost as powerful in numbers as those of Germany itself. The Poles had mobilized thirty infantry divisions and a dozen cavalry brigades.

Their air force was on Spiritual Essay, the alert and ready for any action against the enemy Luftwaffe . What they could not comprehend was the relationship between the platinum doubloon, armored spearhead of the Nazi panzers -the armored forces-and the Consultant Essay, long Polish borders. Against the type of attack expected by the Poles-a broad and steady advance along a wide front-they could have battled effectively against the invaders. But not against the blitzkrieg, a massing of the most powerful armored forces on the ground, operating beneath an umbrella of the best fighters and bombers in the world. Shortly before six o'clock on the morning of September 1, 1939, Hitler unleashed his war machine. German fighter planes-the outstanding Messerschmitt ME-109s-ripped through Polish air defenses.

Polish pilots were outflown, outgunned, and outfought almost everywhere they turned. by the superior German fighters. And with the Essay Rock, air cleared of any meaningful defense, German bombers-notably waves of Junkers Ju-87 Stukas -shattered Polish strongpoints as well as armored units in the field. And then came the panzers .. Row upon row of fast, deadly tanks. Thousands of men in armored personnel carriers . Powerful antitank killer teams. All of them moving swiftly and with deadly effectiveness behind the hammering blows of the Luftwaffe . Polish resistance crumbled on almost every front. White House Spiritual Consultant. The Poles were simply unprepared physically or mentally for the staggering weight of arms hurled against and prejudice quotes elizabeth them. The Germans advanced as fast as their tanks could move. Where the Poles massed for counterattacks they were ripped from the air, then cut to pieces by White Spiritual, fast-moving tanks.

The Poles had no time to adjust to the withering assault. No matter which way they turned, they were slashed and battered from the air and on the ground. All too quickly the follow-up tactics became evident. The armored juggernaughts kept moving. They swept past huge pockets of Polish infantry, for behind the armored waves of the blitzkrieg came German infantry to finish off what the galileo galilei contributions, tanks had split wide open. And within the ranks of the House Consultant, crack German troops, in a regiment of the Volks Grenadier Division, was a bicycle battalion hoping to Essay on Music: Rock get into Spiritual Essay the thick of fighting before the panzers had finished off the opposition. It was a curious change from the on Music: Rock and Roll, first Great War on the continent. Then, in the period from 1914 through 1918, the Soldier on his bicycle had been the fastest mobile force on the battlefield. Those days were gone, and now the cyclist Soldier followed the spearheads of the panzers and White House Spiritual, personnel carriers into combat. The German cyclist troops, in fact, never had an opportunity to prove themselves in full-scale fighting with the fractures, Poles.

The Polish army fell apart much too quickly for White that. But there was a vast amount of mopping up to be done. Scattered Polish army units, fully armed and supplied, were on the loose and had to be considered dangerous. The German tanks and motorized divisions were still needed along the spreading wave of the invasion. Mopping-up operations fell to special units, which included the tibia, bicycle troops. Most of the Polish defenders had lost their vehicles and were retreating on foot along back trails and into remote areas. They could be located by German air reconnaissance, and White Spiritual Consultant, bicycle-mounted Soldiers were sent rushing after them. What was important to the Germans was not the destruction of vs garner, these scattered Polish units, but the need to keep them moving to prevent their joining into a cohesive force. And this mission the White Essay, cyclist-Soldiers did well.

After all, the tanks and tracked vehicles would be back soon enough to tibia and fibula finish the war. Eight days after the Spiritual Consultant, invasion began, the first panzers race through the outskirts of Warsaw. Less than three weeks later Poland surrendered. On October 5,1939, when Adolf Hitler came to the Polish capitol to review personally his victorious forces, the proud cyclist troops of the Volks Grenadier Division were among the crack units paraded before the man who had ordered the attack. In the spring of 1940 the German army was again on the move, slashing with its panzer divisions into Denmark and Norway.

Danish defenses succumbed quickly to the heavy Nazi armored forces, but the battle for Norway extended beyond the planned timetable as unexpectedly stiff resis- tance slowed down the invaders. Here was no level ground over which the panzers could race forward, crushing everything before them. Even the Luftwaffe was hard-pressed to do its work in steep fjords and mountain passes, where the Norwegian resistance held fast behind its skilled mountain troops. For the and fibula fractures, first time, the Germans found a critical need for their bicycle troops. Accordingly, crack Soldiers on bicycles were thrown into the very spearhead of the fighting, inflicting and receiving heavy casualties. Norway was unsuited to great masses of men hammering their way forward. The available ground for House Consultant Essay movement and fighting was much too restricted for that . The battles became bitter struggles for strongpoints that controlled roads, valleys, and backcountry areas. If the Germans moved forward with infantry on foot behind tanks and armored vehicles, the Norwegian mountain fighters set up deadly ambushes, picking off the German infantry from long range and setting off avalanches that roared down upon the armored units and foot Soldiers. If the Germans were to defeat their enemy, they needed the armor as a spearhead to grind along, the mountain roads, while the infantry moved out swiftly from, those roads to dislodge the Norwegians. The system of armored personnel carriers following the tanks worked only up to a point. The situation called for an orderly arrangement that could propel Soldiers in swift sorties along back roads.

The natural answer to the problem was to dispatch selected elements of tibia and fibula fractures, bicycle-mounted troops down narrow trails and along mountain passes, while operating under the protective fire from German armor. This is how the war proceeded. The cyclist troopers of the Spiritual Consultant, Wehrmacht suffered severe losses as they maneuvered over icy roads. Yet there was no stopping them. Heavily armed with grenade launchers and light machine guns, they kept moving, with their powerful firepower always at the ready. If they needed to shift quickly to gain an advantageous position, the bicycle was always there. If Norwegian resistance was too great to risk getting into the open, the cyclists remained close to Essay and Roll German armor, while powerful tank weapons methodically blasted away at enemy strongpoints.

It was an effective combination, ideally suited to the unusual terrain of the country. And when the battle ended, it was the bicycle-every bit as much as the tank or the bomber-that crushed Norwegian defenses. Many of the first Americans to fight the Japanese in World War II were pilots, and the ground crews of fighter planes who started rolling on bicycles. The bicycles were not used as combat weapons, but as quick transport, grabbed hastily when the Japanese air strike on December 7, 1941, turned Pearl Harbor into a flaming shambles. It was a strange quirk of fate that many of our first casualties during the war should occur on bicycles. As the Spiritual Consultant, air shook from the concussion of Japanese bombs and exploding torpedoes, pilots caught away from their planes on that Sunday morning took to cars and pride and prejudice elizabeth, bicycles, as did ground crews, to reach their aircraft. And they fell victim to strafing Zero fighters, streaking low over the American installations just for that purpose-gunning down pilots trying to get into the air to intercept the Japanese. The Japanese, as has been noted in the preceding chapter, had prepared 50,000 cyclist troops as part of their. spearhead forces to sweep through the Asian mainland.

And no military force in the history of the bicycle was so well prepared for its task as the cyclist troops trained on Hainan Island by Gen. White. Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya , whose forces finally swept through Malaya and into tennesse vs garner the great British stronghold of Singapore. Harsh discipline and training, meticulous attention to detail, and perfect timing-as well as playing on the fears of the British and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, native troops-gave the Essay on Art Middle and Its in Society, Japanese cyclists an advantage far beyond that achieved by any comparable force in Essay any war. When we consider that the use of firecrackers along gloorny jungle trails helped convince the British that the Japanese were swarming through the tennesse vs garner, undergrowth-when in reality only White Essay, a comparative handful of men were creating that impression-it is tennesse vs garner clear that Yamashita had no competition as a master in bicycle combat. White Consultant Essay. In the many years of fighting in China, the details of grinding advances and the long occupation often went unrecorded by the combatants on both sides. Yet there is no question that the bicycle formed a mainstay of transportation for, the Japanese army throughout China, Manchuria, and Korea, or that Japanese combat and security patrols were carried out by bicycle. In areas of particularly strong unrest, the standard procedure was to send out one or two light armored vehicles as a rolling command post, while anywhere from a dozen to a hundred Soldiers kept pace on bicycles, with the vehicles mounting radios and machine guns. The Chinese, of course, used the bicycle in vast numbers as part of their daily lives, and it was inevitable that Chinese resistance, especially in mountain redoubts, would make maximum use of the bicycle for galilei guerrilla warfare. Such resistance measured always depended on speed and stealth and the bicycle, of course, filled the bill admirably as a means of launching hit-and-run forays against superior forces.

In certain areas of heavy population and industrial concentration, occupying armies were hard-pressed to combat well-organized resistance. Perhaps the best example of underground organization, making maximum use of the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, bicycle, was to be found in Belgium. In that small but fiercely independent country, a secret army was created to fight the Nazis. Five hundred bicycle-mounted sabotage teams struck repeatedly at fractures, German communications lines, transport convoys, strongpoints, and bodies of troops. The destruction and killing became so great the Germans resorted to desperate measures specifically to counter this threat. The German moves in Belgium became their standard operation in almost all occupied areas during the White House, war. Special platoons and companies were assigned to full-time duty to fight the underground.

They were organized into instant-response teams armed with light and, heavy machine guns and grenade rifles. To better organize the fight against the elusive underground guerrillas, the Nazis kept their units in touch by radio with a central headquarters coordinating all movements. To maintain high mobility, the Essay on Music:, special teams were mounted on bicycles, motorcycles, and trucks. In most cases bicycles were loaded onto truck beds so they could be rushed along highways to trouble spots, and to the edge of narrow lanes where a truck could not enter. The cyclists unloaded their two-wheelers and set off in Spiritual hot pursuit of the sabotage teams. Normally the Nazi patrols rode back and forth along pre-assigned roads and pathways so they could cover a strip several miles on either side of a major highway. But this was only during the daytime. Then the Germans might roll with heavy forces as much as twenty miles to each side of that highway, moving without warning into any town or community within the zone to be investigated. This freedom of action vanished at night. Then the smallest path, the narrowest lane, became an invisible artery for the Belgian underground traveling on bicycles.

To venture forth along isolated roads at night was for the German occupying forces an invitation to disaster. Galileo Contributions. Bicycle teams, warned ahead of time by White Spiritual, radio, would swiftly set up ambushes that trapped and decimated the hapless Nazi troops. Bicycles maintained a freedom of action for the Belgian underground completely out of proportion to their military strength. Tibia And Fibula. And it was a freedom they used to the utmost, keeping the Spiritual Essay, Germans on platinum doubloon, edge, and denying them great areas of country, until Allied armies hurled the White House Essay, enemy out of Belgium. When the American army moved into Europe during World War I, it brought with it, as already noted, a total of 29,000 bicycles. During World War II, fighting on and prejudice, many more fronts, American armed forces went overseas with a total of more than 60,000 bicycles.

But it was a case of history repeating itself-none of the White Essay, two-wheelers were assigned to combat organizations to be used as weapons. Instead, the bicycles filled subsidiary roles in personal transportation, message carrying, recreation, and other utility functions. In one of the paradoxes of the bicycle's employment during the war, American Soldiers in Europe ended up using the two-wheelers in pursuit of the platinum, Germans-on captured enemy machines. Wherever G.I.s found bicycles abandoned by hastily retreating Germans, they snatched up their booty on the basis that it's better to be riding than walking. Hundreds of Spiritual Consultant, G.I.s used captured bicycles for their immediate needs, which were as wide as imagination allowed. After the quotes, invasion of Europe on June 6, 1944, and House Spiritual, the breakthrough that followed, the galileo contributions, American Soldiers found thousands of bicycles piled along French roadways. If the French got there first, the bicycles were gone. House Spiritual. If not, they were there for the picking. One example will demonstrate a semiofficial use for su.ch vehicles. Pvt.

Oscar Mondoza of the 101 st Airborne fighting at the time in Holland, came across a storage depot of German bicycles. One of Mondoza's duties was to keep a steady flow of rations and ammunition going to the members of his unit scattered in the area. Mondoza was handy with tools, and after several hours of tinkering he rigged up a hauling bed, two feet wide and, four feet long, placing the bed between two wheels he had mounted in front of the bicycle. The standard rear wheel with its chain connection provided footpower. Mondoza had contrived to assemble an excellent and practical tricycle, complete with loading pallet for moving supplies through snow, mud, and even across fields. Of all the bicycles that were sent to combat areas in World War II, it would appear that no one machine could possibly be singled out platinum doubloon as a coveted prize by other men. Yet this was precisely the case in December of 1944 in the area of White House Consultant, Manhay, Belgium, where American Soldiers of the 3 rd Armored Division were slugging it out Essay Rock and Roll with crack units of Germany's special SS troops. German Bicycle-Troops in Action Later in WW2. German Radhfahrtruppen (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem.

As Elite Panzerjager (tank hunter) Anti-Tank Forces. During several skirmishes, American Soldiers later reported that they had witnessed the incredible sight of one German SS trooper-powerfully built, daring, and seemingly possessed with nine lives---pedaling his bicycle into the worst of the White House, fighting. Intelligence was at first inclined to water down the reports, but the grins accompanying the stories vanished quickly when it turned out that the Essay on Music:, bicycle-mounted SS trooper was also an effective killer. At times he would ride under cover of night to a spot selected as a point of ambush. House Spiritual. There, concealed from view, he waited until American Soldiers were well within his sights. Then he opened fire. The German was an Essay and The Renaissance and Its Effect, expert marksman. Almost every time he struck, American Soldiers were killed or wounded. When the G.I.s finally succeeded in flanking the position from where they'd been attacked, there was no one there. All they found were bicycle tracks leading away from the scene. On other occasions the House Spiritual Essay, Nazi would ride full tilt within sight of Americans on patrol and open fire suddenly with a light machine gun.

As quickly as he appeared he was gone, his powerful legs propelling him away from the astonished and and prejudice elizabeth, enraged American troops. The SS trooper burst from heavy snowfalls. He struck during day and at night. Hundreds of rounds were fired at White House Consultant Essay, him, but he seemed to live a charmed life, weaving from side to side as he raced away from his pursuers. And still the toll rose, and tibia, the stories began to make some sort of cyclist superman of the German. The word went out to get him . Even a cat runs out of lives sooner or later, and White Spiritual Consultant, so did the luck of the German. But not entirely. The phantom killer with his bicycle was captured. He had killed twenty-two American Soldiers with his daring hit-and-run attacks, by himself, on Middle Renaissance and Its Effect in Society, his bicycle! He survived the war as a prisoner.

It was perhaps a fitting touch that the last use of the bicycle as an White House Spiritual, offensive weapon against tibia and fibula fractures American troops was more pathetic than it was dangerous. In February of 1945 the 84 th Infantry Division- the Railsplitters -took on dug-in German troops in a pitched battle near Rickelrath, Germany. American Intelligence learned that the Germans had been ordered to stand their ground. They were not to retreat a foot, but were to die where they were, or else hurl themselves at the Americans in a final and gallant attack. And the attack did come-with German Soldiers appearing in House Spiritual Essay the distance on bicycles. And Fibula. Armed with rifles and other small arms, the Nazi troops pedaled in Spiritual Consultant Essay an uneven mob directly at the astonished American Soldiers. Rock. It was an incredible sight to the G.I.s, but their first astonishment was replaced quickly by the grim preparation to meet the weird and House Spiritual Essay, unorthodox enemy challenge. At a given signal a withering fire tore from the Ages Renaissance and Its Effect, American positions.

Bicycles were flung and tossed in every direction as the riders were blasted from their seats. House Consultant Essay. The G.I.s were starting to pick off the survivors when the and prejudice elizabeth, command rang out to House hold their fire. The best of the elite German forces had been reduced to. old men and young boys, hardly trained, ill-equipped, but still driven by a desperate hope to Essay on Music: and Roll stand their ground. The shooting, for this battle at least, was over. The G.I.s lowered their weapons and White Spiritual Essay, shook their heads as the crying, broken cyclists dragged themselves away. Chapter 9, The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Throughout this book we have referred to the many occasions when the bicycle was adopted as the and The and Its Effect in Society, favorite mobile weapon for guerrilla fighters, special forces, members of the Essay, underground, and tibia fractures, other special organizations that moved and fought with stealth as their ally. But special or limited operations were not the only province of such groups. There were occasions, and we have seen some of them, when the bicycle became a primary weapon for a daring and critical operation on Spiritual Essay, what must be considered a major scale. Among such actions, the one that stands out from all the others took place in February 1942. It demonstrates about tennesse vs garner, as perfect a use of the bicycle as was ever planned.

Our story begins at White Consultant Essay, night, high over the French coast along the English Channel. At midnight the world was a silent clash between deep darkness and the sporadic brilliance provided by galileo galilei, the light of a silvery moon that rode high along the tumbling rims of snow clouds. The clouds themselves formed a line of Consultant, battlements towering over tibia and fibula fractures the coastline of White House Essay, France along the English Channel. Essay On Art In The Middle Ages Renaissance And Its Effect In Society. The rushing night wind buffeted the drifting clouds, shredding them occasionally and creating gaps and valleys, troughs and holes, through which a single aircraft and-in some places-a dozen aircraft might slip with ease. This is precisely what happened at midnight: through the gap of one great cloud ravine, gliding like silvery metallic minnows against the mile-high towets of clouds, flew a long formation of Whitleys . The Whitley was, by contemporary standards, an Spiritual, ancient machine, a bomber that had seen its best days in years past, a combat machine that dared not venture into skies filled with new German fighters.

But while it could no longer perform adequately in the thick of aerial conflict, it flew well, and tennesse, it had a capacious fuselage into which men, instead of White House, bombs, might fit. And if a special effort needed to be made, the lumbering Whitley could carry both men and bombs. So it was this night. The bomb bays carried their bulging cases of death, and the bellies of the airplanes were crowded with men. Tennesse Vs Garner. British commandos, clumsy in fighting gear and White House Essay, parachutes. Tibia. Cold, jammed together, uncomfortable, waiting to White Consultant plunge into action. The British formation of bombers was detected by the enemy.

German radar, German acoustic detectors, German ears saw and heard the line of aircraft and tibia and fibula, plotted their probable target. Those targets ahead of the bomber formation were alerted about the chances of a raid. Antiaircraft installations rumbled into action and at remote airfields Luftwaffe pilots hurried with sleep-heavy eyes to their machines. There was no immediate rush to meet the White Consultant Essay, bombers. They were swinging inland along a course that would take them to an industrial target some distance away. So the Nazis paid little attention, except for tennesse vs garner tracking, as the old bombers droned over the coastline. And no one on the ground saw the White Spiritual Consultant, dark shapes tumble from the bellies of the Whitleys . Dozens of objects fell toward the earth below and then, suddenly, their plunge was arrested as dark canopies blossomed, with thin riflelike sounds. An entire commando force had left the old Whitleys , which continued on with a diversionary bombing strike. The men floated easily and silently through the cold air.

They had selected their landing area well, in tibia and fibula fractures open fields far from any community. The commandos assembled quickly. White House Essay. It had been a good drop. Essay On Art In The Middle Ages Renaissance In Society. They were eight miles from their objective . If they continued to move as planned, maintaining silence, there was every chance they would burst with complete surprise upon the Germans. As guards searched the Consultant, area, the other men unfolded strange contraptions of metal bars, wheels, spokes, pedals, and handles. Within scant minutes every British commando had beneath him a completely assembled bicycle . Quickly the paratroopers loaded their gear-grenades, ammunition, machine guns, iron rations, explosive charges. Using hand signals instead of voice commands they pedaled away, following a narrow trail covered with a thin layer of fresh snow. The men rode steadily through the night along the French coastline. Doubloon. Eight miles ahead of them lay a huge and Spiritual Consultant, secret radar installation, the most advanced system of its kind.

It was a powerful weapon in the hands of the Germans, used fqr tracking aircraft flying to Europe from Britain. Knocking out the radar would effectively poke a stick in the electronic vision of the Nazis. Leading the commando force was Maj. John D. Sheffield. [EDITOR: then Lieutenant John Frost was a subordinate leader of this raid] The major crossed his fingers. If events kept unfolding the and fibula, way they had so far, they could do their job and Consultant Essay, get out without suffering heavy casualties. Knocking out the platinum doubloon, radar installation might turn out to be a bigger bite than they could handle. The radar system was critical to German air defense on the (Continent and the Nazis were sure to have set up bristling defenses on the ground. Sheffield shrugged to himself. They'd know soon enough.

He had led his small force through brutal training for four solid weeks, and each man was already a crack professional before joining Sheffield's tight commando group. Every man knew as well as did Sheffield the House Spiritual Consultant, layout of their objective. Galileo Contributions. The vital radar site lay near the village of Bruneval in northern France, about House Spiritual Consultant Essay, twelve miles north-northeast of Le Havre. As well-defended as was the radar installation, British army officials were gambling everything on the fact that the enemy would never dream an attack would be launched against the well-defended site by bicycle . It seemed too incongruous, this concept of Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, trained killers pedaling their way into the mouths of Essay, German guns. Well, now they were for it. Sheffield and his commandos maintained a steady pace on their bicycles, on galileo contributions, the way to their moment of destiny. White House. The Royal Air Force had flown them in.

If they did their job and survived to Essay get away, the White House Spiritual Essay, Royal Navy would be waiting for them on the beach to bring them out. There was only one small hitch about galileo, that. Consultant Essay. First, the commandos had to wrest control of the beach away from the Germans. Intelligence advised Sheffield and his men that the radar installation itself appeared to be housed within a cabin, standing deep inside a pit. The cabin itself was located near ari isolated house between cliffs that were 500 feet high. Pride Quotes Elizabeth. The Intelligence report, based on aerial reconnaissance photographs, described the house as lithe modern villa type and quite new . Undoubtedly taken over for the convenience of the Germans, judged Sheffield. Yet the information had presented a serious problem. The towering cliffs eliminated any hope of White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, making an assault from the sea. Tennesse. Long before a small striking force could work its way to the radar site it would come under a withering crossfire.

The answer was the parachute and the bicycle . Even as the commandos rode toward their objective, the old Whitleys were dumping their bombs on a distant target, and hoping the Germans would see nothing unusual in their flight pattern. Sheffield thought of one beach area in particular. It lay about a quarter of House Consultant, a mile south of the and fibula fractures, radar installation, a small steeply sloping beach of pebbles and Consultant, sand lying at the foot of high chalk and flint formations. He hoped to see that pebbly stretch of sand on platinum, schedule, for it was there the Navy would pick them up for the dash home across the Channel. Sheffield concentrated his thoughts again on the defenses of the radar site. Most of the work crew, he had been told, would be German specialists attending to White Spiritual the radar equipment itself. Tennesse Vs Garner. They might or might not be armed. That situation would have to be handled as events developed. Immediately adjacent to the radar installation, the Nazis had prepared an extensive trench with regularly spaced dugouts, where the Spiritual Consultant, commandos might encounter heavy machine-gun fire.

A short distance from the site was a powerful pillbox covered by a machine-gun detail and situated right on the edge of Essay on Art Middle Effect in Society, a cliff, so that it looked down on the radar installation. White House Essay. Just south of Bruneval was another pillbox. On Music: And Roll. Both pillboxes were so located that they could cover the cove in House Consultant a devastating crossfire. Four hundred yards inland from the radar site was a farmhouse with a German garrison of galileo contributions, unspecified strength, but believed to be strong in numbers. A small wooded area embraced the farmhouse, which was designated on Sheffield's map by the name of le Presbytere . In all, the radar site was defended by fifteen separate posts, most of Essay, which covered approaches to the beach. The others were pointed seaward . Intelligence guessed that the Essay on Music: and Roll, German force in the immediate vicinity of the radar installation-the guard force-numbered about 100 men. Perhaps a mile or two away, the House Spiritual, Germans had garrisoned a full regiment of infantry, and a few miles beyond that was quartered an entire battalion equipped with armored cars. Any assault force that moved in daylight would also face attack from German fighters based on fields in the area. The strike, therefore, had to be executed with speed and precision or the commandos would be cut to pieces . The commandos bore down steadily on their target. Luck had been with them in several ways.

A bright moon reflected ideally along the snow-covered path before them, providing the men with more than adequate visibility without risking lights. And the light snow cover softened the inevitable small noises such a group might make. They reached their first planned stop point, only and fibula fractures, 200 yards from the bulking radar installation, without any alarm being sounded. Spiritual Essay. Everything was going with clockwork precision. Staying low, muffling their movements, the men looked to their commander for final orders.

Immediately, Sheffield divided his attack force into four units. He would take the Essay on Music:, first group of commandos in a wide-open assault against House Consultant Essay the house nearby. Pride And Prejudice Quotes. The major believed the reserve troops and a good number of the permanent guards would be in the house. If he could catch them unawares--in fact asleep--he could wipe out a dangerous part of the resistance that could be mounted against them. The second commando unit was ordered to move against the radar installation proper. White House Spiritual Essay. Group three would cover this move, taking up a position between the le Presbytere farm and galilei contributions, the edge of the cliffs. The fourth and last unit was assigned to White House Spiritual work its way around the cliffs to reach the beach. If any opposition was encountered there, it was to be ruthlessly cut down.

At all costs the beach must be secured by the remainder of the tennesse vs garner, commando force for the purpose of embarkation. Everything was set. The men remounted their bicycles and House Consultant Essay, Major Sheffield passed the word to commit. The first and second groups pedaled furiously toward the isolated house and the radar post. Still no alarm!

As quickly as they reached their objectives the men leaped off the bicycles and rushed to attack position. Sheffield headed straight for the farmhouse door. A heavy boot smashed it open and the major dashed inside, weapon at the ready. No one in platinum doubloon sight. Sheffield blew a loud blast on House, his whistle and other commandos rushed in on his heels, moving swiftly to tennesse break into the four rooms on the ground floor.

They were all empty. At once Sheffield pounded up the stairs, four men with him, to the second landing. Hiinde hoch! he called, shouting an order to surrender. A single thunderstruck German Soldier brought his the radar site. House Consultant. But that accounted only for enemy personnel in the immediate area. Doubloon. Sheffield realized that reinforcements would soon be rushing to the scene.

As things turned out, the troops assigned to permanent garrison duty were already on Consultant, the move. The first sign that all was not well came with a long burst of probing machine-gun fire from the nearby farm of le Presbytere . German troops were on the move within the wooded area surrounding the farmhouse. First things first, reasoned Sheffield. Return to the house and get his men out. Firing on the run in short bursts, the galileo galilei, first group with Sheffield raced back to the house where the twelve men were standing fast. Now the men ran outside again, crouching low and weaving from side to side. The German troops were completely over their initial surprise and House, laying down a heavy fire. Miraculously, only one man was hit.

Despite his wounds, he kept up with the rest of the men. Sheffield's group, joining up with the platinum, third-or covering-unit, scrambled to set up a heavy defensive fire in the vicinity of the radar post. The demolition team needed time to set their explosive charges. Well, murmured Sheffield when told he would have to hold off the Germans for awhile, we'll jolly well give you the time you need. Get to Consultant Essay it, lads. The Germans moving in from the farm worked their way steadily toward Sheffield's force.

The commandos held their fire until the last moment, then cut loose with a withering blast at the advancing enemy. As Sheffield had figured, the Essay on Art Renaissance and Its, return fire from the House Spiritual Consultant Essay, British force was so heavy, and caught the pride and prejudice, Germans with such surprise, that they held back on further advances and resorted instead to White Consultant Essay heavy firepower. Two German machine guns, well protected from return fire, hammered at the British in the radar post. Bullets slammed into the house in a steady rain of galileo contributions, death. Sheffield was more than content with the standoff. House. So long as the Germans kept their distance his demolition team could complete their work. Then the situation began to change swiftly. The lights of three vehicles were seen in on Music: Rock the distance, coming toward the radar site. Sheffield looked about him.

It was going to White Spiritual Essay get very sticky in Ages a hell of a hurry. Let's get cracking! he shouted to the demolition squad. Move it, lads! Reinforcements are coming in and we bloody well can't hold them off for House Consultant Essay long! His words were almost drowned out in another burst of machine gun fire. Sir! a commando shouted back. We're done!

Charges all set! All right! Sheffield bellowed to platinum doubloon his men, sensing that there was no time to waste. Everybody start moving out! Get to the beach! They began moving from the house, crouching low, the men situated in the rear cutting loose with bursts of machine-gun fire to cover the withdrawal. For the first time since they had left England, they abandoned their bicycles. White House. The remainder of their travels would be across six hundred yards of open, rough country, south of their position, toward the village of tennesse, Bruneval. But now they had a pack. of House Consultant, hellhounds at their heels. German reinforcements had rolled to the scene and tennesse vs garner, German firepower seemed to increase with every moment. It was to their advantage that the enemy seemed to overestimate the strength of the commando force.

They moved toward the British in careful stages, covering every move with heavy blasts of White House Spiritual Essay, machine-gun fire. The commandos were forced to retreat in stages, running twenty or thirty yards, then turning and digging in to fire furiously at fractures, their pursuers. The going was getting uncomfortable even for Sheffield when the sky split wide apart with a terrifying mushroom of red flames. Instantly there followed an White House Consultant Essay, ear-shattering crash of thunder. Tennesse Vs Garner. The commandos answered the blast of their demolition charges with shouted cheers, and an enthusiastic burst of fire in the direction of the Nazis. No matter what happened now, their mission was fully successful. Another blast ripped through the radar site and an angry red fireball licked upward, churning within itself like a thing alive. Low clouds were moving silently into the area, and the curling flames glowed with a sinister ruddy reflection along their bases.

Sheffield saw his men staring with fascination at the blood-red flames. All right! he shouted. The sightseeing is done with. House Essay. Let's move it! Retreat, fire in short, massed bursts, then run like hell and flop down in the thin snow for another ripping fire at the Germans. They were at the cliffs and a voice called hoarsely.

The boats are here. It's all right, fellows. Come on down, and hurry it up, will you? Sudden elation became shock when German machine-gun posts on each cliff opened up with stuttering bursts. Pride Quotes. The troops in the pillbox had waited out the retreat in silence, knowing the commandos must venture into their crossfire when they tried to work their way down to the beach. Now Sheffield and his men were being cut up by fire from White House Essay, their front and and prejudice elizabeth, rear. Dig in! he roared to the commandos.

They had taken immediate hits. White House Essay. One man died instantly as he took the platinum, full effect of a long burst. House Spiritual Consultant Essay. A second commando tumbled wildly through the air, collapsing with several bullets in in the Middle and Its Effect his legs and a third fell with three rounds in his abdomen. His stunned friends found him alive and cursing his luck. House. No one believed it then, but the man would be carried to safety and would survive the on Music:, raid. Sheffield was trying to figure a way out of the mess when a voice called up to House Spiritual Consultant Essay him from the beach. Don't come down, whatever you do! The beach isn't secured yet!

Sheffield recognized the voice of Lieutenant Frost, commanding the fourth unit of vs garner, commandos . It wasn't difficult to figure what had happened. Frost's group had run into stiff German resistance. House Consultant. All they could do was hold on until more commandos arrived. Sheffield ordered one group of his men to tibia fractures concentrate their fire on the machine guns atop the cliffs. With those weapons pinned down, he led a force of commandos through the narrow pass and House Spiritual Essay, down onto the beach to link up with Frost's men. The unit firing at the cliff top Germans then withdrew hastily and joined Sheffield. With full strength at doubloon, hand, the White House Consultant Essay, major began the rush against German outposts along the beach.

The biggest problem was a pillbox bristling with machine guns. Sheffield and several men with him went in low, against the pillbox walls, and hurled grenades through the gun slit. Essay On Music: Rock And Roll. They mopped up swiftly until answering German fire from the beach died out. Further along the beach, the commandos discovered a small house that had remained unknown to them. Within the house a single German orderly clung to his telephone, trying to House Spiritual Essay explain to a major from the nearby garrison that the explosions along the beach were from grenades thrown by British Commandos . Unable to understand the Essay Rock and Roll, words because of the noise of gunfire and White House Consultant, exploding grenades, the German officer was reduced to cursing and shouting.

He never had the chance to pride and prejudice elizabeth finish. The commandos burst into the house and the German signalman threw up his hands. The British troops took the signalman, and another wounded German hiding in a back room, as prisoners. These two men, along with one soldier captured along the edge of the cliff, were the Spiritual, only prisoners taken during the raid. Sheffield peered at his watch. It was two-thirty in the morning. The commandos had been on French soil twoand-a-half hours. Galilei Contributions. Off the coast, the Navy rescue force had been watching, spellbound, as the night lit up with explosions and the glowing fireballs of House Spiritual, tracer bullets. Finally they received the pickup signal and started in.

Assault landing craft rode directly to the beach, where the commandos poured aboard. Heavy German fire from machine guns swept the beach. Further out to sea, supporting ships opened fire with heavy weapons. British guns raked the contributions, cliff tops with thundering blasts that killed many enemy defenders and tore huge chunks from the nearly vertical walls. The German fire died abruptly, and the assault ships pulled away from the beaches. Of the commando force that rode its bicycles along the French coastline, eight men were left behind.

One had been killed. The other seven never made it to the beach, but Sheffield could no longer wait for them. The boats had to break from the beaches. As they headed back for White Spiritual England he counted his casualties. One dead, seven wounded, seven missing. They were fifteen miles from the French coast when dawn broke. Spitfires flew protection cover. But Sheffield and his men were looking at pride quotes elizabeth, the beach fading in the distance, where the ruins of the shattered radar installation were still smoking. Chapter 10: The Other Side of the World. First it was China.

Fifty thousand Japanese troops on bicycles with rifles, light machine guns, and Spiritual Consultant Essay, mortars. A rolling mass of soldiery carrying supplies and food, spare parts and medicines, everything an army on the move might need. The officers rode on horses or in the rare motor vehicle, but when the Japanese army struck across a country where no rail lines stretched, they sent their best men on bicycles. While the platinum, Japanese chewed away at the vast mainland of China, more troops trained with bicycles on Hainan Island under the White House Spiritual, fierce disciplinary rules set up by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Others went through their drills in mainland Japan. These troops lived under primitive field conditions . Doubloon. Again and again they rehearsed beach assaults and invasion breakouts.

They were drilled until they were considered experts in maintaining their health in humid jungle conditions and knew how to Spiritual Essay use the tennesse vs garner, jungle to obtain food. They were already loaded on troopships moving away from home ports when Peal Harbor was bombed into a blazing shambles. White Spiritual. Across the Pacific went the Japanese. And into the Philippines went their best army-thousands of the Soldiers on bicycles. Without trains, without fleets of.

trucks, the Japanese army moved swiftly along roads, paths, and trails . Retreating Filipino troops and hard-pressed Americans were stunned,to find the Japanese foot Soldier always breathing down their necks. Then came Malaya and Singapore, where General Yamashita's earlier meticulous preparations for battle against the British paid off so handsomely. The victory he achieved in this theater of war is even more noteworthy in Essay on Music: view of the almost insurmountable problem he faced of White Essay, defeating an army three times stronger than the largest force Japan could bring to bear against the British-and the latter were embedded within a mighty fortress. It is pride and prejudice important to note, also, that from the outset the bicycle affected every move the Japanese general was to make. The first thing not to White Spiritual do, Yamashita knew, was to hurl himself and his men into the teeth of enemy firepower. Open attack was suicide.

But what if the defenders could be made to believe that the Japanese attackers were many times stronger than their actual number? The ultimate purpose of any assault is to make the defenders change their minds about tennesse, resisting . House Spiritual. If they believe they can't hold out against attack, there's a good chance they'll give up quickly. Keeping this tactic in mind, Yamashita began his extensive preparations. Long before the Japanese planned to launch their invasion, he set up a network of espionage and intelligence. He recruited as his agents fishermen, plantation managers, merchants, barbers, and photographers from among the Japanese already living and working in Essay on Art Middle Ages and The Renaissance in Society Malaya. From the reports this network forwarded to headquarters in Japan, Yamashita acquired an excellent inside view of conditions existing in the Malayan countryside and within Singapore itself. The old adage that truth is often stranger--and more unbelievable-than fiction applied in every way to Yamashita's careful preparations. White House Consultant. For the methods he was employing were those taught annually at contributions, British staff war colleges ! Special studies conducted by the British showed that an attempt to take Singapore had .the best chance of succeeding if the invader landed in White Spiritual Consultant Essay Malaya and worked his way southward. Above all, the galileo galilei contributions, invader would do well not to attempt an assault by sea, where he would be met by massed big guns. That is so strange is House Spiritual Essay that what was established doctrine in the war colleges never seemed to reach the men who commanded the defense of Singapore, and platinum doubloon, they operated under the firm belief that the Japanese would never dare to House Consultant attack except from the sea.

At the same time the British considered the and fibula, jungle an impassable barrier, simply because no large military force had thus far penetrated it. The rest is Spiritual history. Yamashita's troops spent months learning to live in thick jungle growth, to cut bicycle trails through heavy undergrowth to move on bicycles and to fight at a moment's notice. As Yamashita had planned, his men used abandoned British trucks for transport wherever they were to tennesse vs garner be found. But most of Consultant Essay, his troops moved silently through the jungle on bicycles. Finally major contact was made with resisting British forces, and Yamashita opened his bag of surprises. First, the Essay on Art in the Effect, size of White Consultant Essay, his force was less important than what the British believed that force to vs garner be. Yamashita sent picked troops riding through jungle trails on their bicycles, setting off firecrackers and explosive charges. Everywhere the British turned they heard explosions and shots ripping through the heavy growth.

The constant barrage of explosions and White Consultant, shots, combined with well-timed and fiercely mounted Japanese attacks, convinced the galileo galilei contributions, British that they were under assault by White, an enormous army grinding its way into Singapore from the land side-where its defenses were weakest. It took more than this grimly effective charade finally to defeat the tibia and fibula fractures, British, of course. White Essay. But Yamashita had gained an enormous advantage over his enemy. Large areas of jungle, as well as selected strongpoints, were yielded to his phantom army , when a minimum of resistance might have held the Japanese at bay. The defeat of Japan in the late summer of 1945 was the tibia and fibula, beginning of one of the longest wars in modern history the bitter struggle for control of the mountainous jungle of Indochina. Spiritual. In the land we know today. Vietnam, North and tennesse, South, insurgent guerrilla forces had waited out years of fighting against House Consultant the Japanese, prepared, to take over control of their lands when the Japanese were thrown out. The rest is, of course, history. Essay On Music: Rock. The moment the Japanese were gone, the French returned, convinced that they would resume their former position as rulers of Indochina. House Consultant Essay. But the insurgency forces of Ho Chi Minh, led by the brilliant General va Nguyen Giap, had already steeled themselves to begin a new fight for platinum liberation-to rid their land forever of Consultant Essay, foreign domination. For five years the Vietminh guerrilla forces prepared for their final battle.

They had nothing to compare with the great weapons of their enemies. They lacked tanks and armored vehicles, trucks and and prejudice, warships. They counted no heavy artillery among their forces. There were no fighter. planes and bombers. White Spiritual. No transports. No fleets of helicopters.

But they had the tibia, bicycle. From only a hundred feet away the eye can see nothing but thick jungle. But as, the White Spiritual Consultant, viewer moves through the tangling plants and vines it is possible to discern a narrow trail winding through the growth. A trail barely wide enough for two men walking abreast. Fractures. That was all. House Essay. A narrow dirt trail in the midst of teeming jungle: the guerrilla highway leading through Vietnam. Sounds are heard along the trail, and a convoy works its way into view. The word convoy invariably brings to mind great fleets of and fibula fractures, trucks. Not !here.

Instead the viewer sees a long column of weary Vietnamese. They move single file along the House Consultant Essay, narrow trail through the jungle. Each man walks alongside a bulging mass of supplies. Barely visible is the bicycle on which. one man can move a quarter-ton of materials. A Peugeot, modified with bamboo poles to extend one handlebar.

A brake lever sticking well to the side of the' machine. Racks and handles all over the thing. A bicycle impossible for a man to ride. But he can walk his machine with its enormous supply load. A thousand men could move 250 tons steadily along the guerrilla highway. Ten thousand men could move 2,500 tons down this highway. If you had a dozen trails-well, the numbers add up alarmingly: If you need materials moved with greater speed, you reduce the and prejudice, load per bicycle, and the men pedal instead of walking. Invisible in the jungle.

Narrow tributaries. Dozens of them. A lifeline impossible to choke off. The weapon that was to defeat the French in Vietnam. The guerrilla porters who pushed their swollen bicycles. ever southward to bring up the supplies that would be used against the French were like pack horses. Their days were spent in muscle-tearing toil to move their groaning bicycles.

Their nights were filled with weary, leaden sleep. When they were awake and Spiritual Essay, moving, their visible world stretched narrowly before them, its horizons the thick greenery of the jungle. Vs Garner. Day after day, for weeks and months, this was their lot in life. At times they crossed marshland or long stretches of paddies. They wheeled their bicycles along narrow trails. White House Spiritual Consultant. They crossed water on bridges made of bamboo and planks. They suffered under broiling heat, endured hordes of insects, and worried about snakes and other creatures deadly to man. They ate and drank small quantities of the food and liquid carefully rationed out to them. When they emerged from jungle, there was a vast expanse of plains. And beyond the platinum, plains were limestone cliffs.

Beyond these, rugged mountain ranges thrust their jagged peaks toward the sky, while fast-flowing streams cut across rolling green terrain. The guerrilla highway. If you could stand high enough to Spiritual Essay gain an eagle's view of the land, you could see for hundreds of, miles across Vietnam-a land where the ground rises and pride elizabeth, falls in House Consultant Essay steep slopes, blanketed with sturdy trees and lush jungle growth. Only the crude trails of the galileo galilei, natives, or those pounded and hacked out by the guerrillas, offer a way through. White. And even the trails are not enough, for there are enormous gorges to be crossed, heavy, rains and platinum, mud landslides often make the footing perilous.

Away from the House, worst of the terrain are the communities. Wherever a strip of tibia, land makes cultivation possible, there. one finds a collection of the inevitable straw-thatched wooden huts. If there is enough land, a village grows up. Now they can raise pigs and White House Consultant, poultry, and on slopes where heavy growth has been burned away it is possible to grow corn and poppies. It seems to tennesse vs garner be a geographical chaos. House Essay. An impassable land with far-flung and haphazardly located communities. Tibia And Fibula Fractures. Not so. There are also deep and White Spiritual Consultant Essay, beautiful valleys. And it was here that the Vietnamese began to close in on the foreigners who occupied their land. The cultivated valleys were the garden spots of Vietnam.

And it was in these areas that the French settled. Here the French Expeditionary Corps dug in with solidly entrenched bases. Each individual military camp shut in platinum doubloon upon itself like a hedgehog rolling into a ball for White Essay defense. The isolated base was called Facilite' , a strange play on words by the French. At every Facilite' roads were hacked out of the earth and laid across the paddies so that any part of the tibia fractures, local valley could be reached by motorized vehicles. There was almost always an House Spiritual Essay, airstrip for transport planes, and, all too often, for tennesse vs garner a force of deadly fighters and bombers. The individual [EDITOR: forward operating] bases, the Facilites' , were hated by the Vietnamese.

And the largest and most hated was in the largest of the valleys, located to form a center of communications between China, Vietnam, and Laos. White Spiritual Consultant Essay. The French were certain the size and military strength of galileo galilei, this particular Facilite ' made it impregnable to guerrilla attack. They called it Dien Bien Phu , loosely translated as the big administrative center of the White Consultant Essay, frontier . This French military complex alone was eleven miles long and three miles wide. Rock. In all directions limestone hills rose in White Spiritual the form of a jagged amphitheater, the tibia and fibula fractures, peaks crowned thickly with. trees, the highest peak reaching 2,000 feet about the Nam Rom River. Any enemy who approached Dien Bien Phu from the east, toward the Mekong, would be tempted to House Consultant try passage through the valley. But whoever controlled Dien Bien Phu controlled the valley, and the entire region in all directions. And if he controlled the fractures, surrounding amphitheater of White House Consultant Essay, mountains he controlled all movement throughout this vital section of Essay on Music: Rock and Roll, Asia. For years the White Consultant, hidden jungle beyond the military complex had been filling with guerrillas waiting patiently to seize Dien Bien Phu from the French. Essay On Art And Its Effect. For years they had been moving supplies secretly by Spiritual Consultant, bicycle along the jungle trails to the valley. For years they had buried those supplies in huge caches among the mango, breadfruit, palm, orange, and lemon trees.

With their supplies in caves and tunnels , and their bicycles hidden, the guerrillas could mix with the tibia and fibula, local population, receiving no more attention than the White Consultant Essay, pecking hens or the grunting little black pigs. Like other guerrilla commanders, General va Nguyen Giap had long dreamed of crushing the French in Dien Bien Phu. Pride Quotes Elizabeth. Giap was a man slow in his gestures, clumsy in bearing. He affected a loose-fitting uniform without any badge of White Spiritual Consultant, rank or honor. He had been raised in the sandy spaces of central Annam.

The stolid man in the jungle had studied philosophy and law at the University of Hanoi. Even then he was known for Essay in the Middle Ages and The and Its Effect infinite patience and an unshakable faith in himself. Giap realized that much more than revolutionary zeal would be required to break the viselike clamp of a powerful European nation. He studied other men who had done the White House Spiritual Essay, impossible. He seized on the lessons of Mao Tse-tung, whose religion of military tactics demanded using every. means of fighting at one's command, as well as knowledge of the terrain on which one must fight, far better than does the enemy. There was another lesson. If one remained invisible , then even the guns of a vastly superior enemy could be minimized and blunted.

Giap kept to the jungles, bided his time, and built up his supplies. Two hundred thousand Vietnamese toiled day and galilei contributions, night, month after month, until the jungles surrounding Dien Bien Phu became an enormous storehouse of guns, ammunition, and House Spiritual Consultant Essay, food. Giap had waited a long time for the moment now drawing near. Long before he was prepared to smash Dien Bien Phu, Giap's wife had been arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment by a military court-martial in Hanoi. She had fought to oust the French and had died in Rock a French prison. Anticipating the battle against the French, as it would be fought under the command of White House Consultant Essay, Giap, Ho Chi Minh stated: It will be a war between a tiger and an elephant. If ever the tiger stops, the elephant will pierce him with his tusks. Only the tiger does not stop.

He lurks in galileo contributions the jungle by day and emerges only at night. He will leap onto the elephant and rip his back to White House Consultant shreds before disappearing again into the shadows, and the elephant will die from exhaustion and loss of blood . Following the tennesse vs garner, lessons of China's Mao Tse-tung, Giap knew he would gain his claws and White House Spiritual Essay, tiger's teeth only by building military strength over platinum doubloon a long and patient waiting period. White. In his land transport was everything. Food, weapons, and ammunition were not enough. Essay On Music: Rock And Roll. They had to be brought to the right place for use at House Essay, the right time. Everything depended upon the bicycle. Giap increased his military force from vs garner, guerrilla bands to. a battle corps.

He formed six infantry divisions, each comprising three regiments. House Spiritual Essay. He created a division of engineers and artillery experts. He established antiaircraft commands. And he built an enormous supply organization. This, if it were to survive-and his entire army along with it--must be kept off known roads where French fighter-bombers could tear them to pieces . The rule was expanded. Everything depended upon the bicycle within the tennesse, jungle.

Careful planning soon proved itself. In January of 1951 Giap fought a vicious battle against White Spiritual Consultant the French that lasted five days and five nights. Pride And Prejudice Elizabeth. The French were astonished at the ability of the White House Spiritual Essay, Vietnamese to remain in the battle zone while consuming enormous quantities of supplies. One hundred and Essay on Music: Rock, eighty thousand transport workers of Giap's army brought a thousand tons of ammunition and supplies into the battle area every day. Unseen by the French, untouched by the French, the bicycle brigades rolled steadily to their fighting men. When it came time to White House Essay set up Dien Bien Phu for the kill, the guerrillas intensified their transport flow with bicycles. The Soldiers closed in to encircle the Essay Ages and Its Effect in Society, great French bastion. White House Spiritual Essay. Seventy thousand men took up positions around Dien Bien Phu, and galilei, the bicycles were right behind them, moving in White Consultant Essay supplies to combat positions. Another 20,000 Soldiers remained in the highlands, ready to leap into action when called. With the airstrip the only safe exit from the and fibula fractures, garrison, many French officers drew close to panic, convinced they were cut off from Spiritual Essay, escape.

The last thing they had ever expected from the communist guerrillas was a major assault with heavy firepower . The flow of combat supplies to advance positions began. on March 8, 1954. Two days later the on Art Middle Renaissance and Its Effect, first mortar and artillery shells slammed into the airport runway at Dien Bien Phu. For the next five days the porters worked relentlessly to bring up additional ammunition. The bicycles rolled in with seventy tons of food, as well as two tons of medical supplies, every day. As fast as the Vietnamese consumed supplies, the bicycles came in relentlessly to White House Spiritual Consultant replaced what had been used.

On March 13, three days after the runway came under shellfire, the final battle began, as the on Art in the Middle Ages Effect, Vietminh attacked in heavy waves. From the crests dominating the White House Spiritual Consultant, valley, thousands of Soldiers in pride quotes latania palm-and-bamboo helmets began their move toward the encircled French. In Dien Bien Phu, despite initial panic, the White Consultant Essay, French were convinced they could throw back the guerrillas. The natives would be shredded by heavy firepower from the complex of fortresses that made up the Falicite '. Rock And Roll. The longer they tried to batter their way in, the more casualties they would suffer, and the faster they would waste their supplies. General Henri-Eugene Navarre, commander of the French] forces in Indochina, committed what was to be a mortal error in his gross underestimation of what the bicycle could do in the hands of determined men . Navarre planned his estimates of the fighting on the basis of what he thought could be moved by bicycle-and it was this error of judgment that undermined French strategy to the point of defeat. A bicycle, Navarre stated to his officers, could carry only two to White Spiritual Consultant Essay two-and-a-half times the and fibula, weight of the man pushing that bicycle.

He reminded his men, not without answering laughter, that the Vietnamese really didn't weigh very much. A coolie at 100 pounds could never move more than. 200 to White House Spiritual Essay 250 pounds, if conditions were perfect. Navarre, then, was 50 to 70 percent under in his judgment of platinum, Giap's bicycle supply system. The French general was also convinced that any attempt to move supplies into the combat zones immediate to Dien Bien Phu would provide excellent target practice for his pilots. The pilots, in their turn, complained bitterly about poor reconnaissance, abominable weather, and the fact that the Vietnamese preferred to move during the nighttime (when they couldn't be seen) or during bad weather (when the planes couldn't fly ). And when the French pilots did find evidence of Spiritual, bicycle transport moving through the jungles, the galilei, targets seemed to vanish as quickly as the House Consultant Essay, first shot was fired. The bicycle porters preferred roads to jungle trails, of platinum, course. Hard-packed and decently wide, they permitted greater speed and ease of travel. The French planes went after these targets daily. If they didn't find bicycles as targets, they would tear up the roads with bombs and, for good measure, dump out a load of delayed-fuse bombs that could go off hours later.

In this way, through creating fear-of the White Consultant Essay, exploding bombs, they believed the bicycle porters could be stopped. Local villagers, sometimes under the prodding of the guerrilla Soldiers, swarmed from the jungle with shovels, pickaxes, and baskets to fill in bomb craters. If an unexploded bomb was the problem, a man would crawl to the bomb and hook a cable to a tail fin. A rope party at a respectable distance would haul on the bomb and roll it away to be exploded harmlessly. Meanwhile, the pride quotes, bicycles rolled on. The angry French resorted to deadly butterfly bombs. Thousands of the Essay, small devices were strewn along roads. and trails.

They exploded only when there was physical contact with the bombs. But movement on roads and tennesse, trails was impossible with the deadly weapons waiting to explode. The guerrilla Soldiers sent buffalo from the local villages onto the roads. When this road-clearing project ended, there were a lot fewer animals left to work in the fields, but buffalo meat was in excellent supply. On March 30, three perimeter fortresses fell during a long and heavy Vietminh attack and, before the first week in April was over, Dien Bien Phu was completely surrounded. White House Consultant. Now was the time to tighten the noose. Giap's army, well-stocked with supplies brought in by bicycle, surged steadily forward. As the guerrillas advanced, they dug trenches and tibia and fibula, consolidated their positions. On May 1, Giap's men began the massive all-out assault that was to crumble the French defenses. The French government considered the consequences of such a move.

They considered also that when the mushroom clouds drifted away, and when the fire and Spiritual, heat and blast were gone, the tennesse vs garner, bicycles would still be there, with tens of thousands more on White Spiritual, their way in. The French declined the offer. On May 7, 1954, a Vietminh division smashed through crumbling French defenses and Dien Bien Phu was overwhelmed. When the smoke of platinum, battle cleared away, the White, bicycle porters came out into the open to stare at this once-powerful enemy bastion, now brought to its knees. With the supplies rolled to galilei the scene by bicycles. Made by White Spiritual Consultant Essay, the French.

Chapter 11: History Relearned. Tran Duc Than rode easily with the balance of long experience in the teeming traffic of downtown Saigon. On Art In The Middle And Its. All about him were throngs of people, crowding the sidewalks, filling shops and buildings. Bicycles, motor scooters, motorcycles, jeeps, trucks, and even armored vehicles jammed the Spiritual, streets. It was normal and everyday chaos. Tran Duc Than, like thousands of and fibula fractures, other cyclist, rode with the flow of House, traffic, maneuvering among the heavy vehicles. To look at Tran Duc Than was to see any ordinary Vietnamese. Who would have suspected him of being a member of a Vietcong sabotage team?

He looked like any other citizen. There was no way to tell that he carried with him a terrible weapon. Not anything he carried on his person. The murderous bomb he had with him was 'the very bicycle on which he pedaled leisurely through the city. Yet there was suspicion of Tran Duc Than. Not of the Essay in the and Its, man individually, but of every cyclist in the city. The 1960s were a time of distrust and suspicion in House Consultant Saigon. Communist loyalty wasn't something that could be seen. Pride Quotes Elizabeth. Political unrest didn't stamp its mark on a person's face. Anyone could be the enemy.

So everyone was watched and, as might be expected, it was mostly a useless effort. Tran Due Than was no ordinary cyclist. He had spent. years in secret training with the Vietcong known officially as the National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam . They made a demolition expert out of Tran Duc Than. They taught him that his bicycle was a weapon, with many capabilities. The bicycle and trucks, rafts, sampans, riverboats, horses-anything that could move.

But of them all the bicycle was best. Vietnam could not move without its bicycles. In downtown Saigan, Tran Duc Than was a faceless soul among millions. His bicycle was no different from the others that filled the streets. Not on White House Spiritual Essay, the outside, that is.

High explosives had been packed tightly within the hollow tubular frame. Platinum Doubloon. Beneath the bicycle seat was the Spiritual Essay, main charge and detonator. From the seat ran an electric wire to the firing mechanism. On Music:. The man and his rolling bomb could use one of two devices. White House Consultant. The first choice was a watch and Rock, two 4.5-valt batteries installed within the White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, headlight.

The second change was the standard bicycle generator, by the front wheel, used to light the headlamp at night. Either system was reliable, but Tran Duc Than preferred the generator. To set the watch-and-battery system required handling the in the Renaissance and Its, equipment, and this in itself was a suspicious move in the midst of House Spiritual Consultant, crowds. But with the Essay on Art Ages and The and Its in Society, generator, all Tran Duc Than needed to do was to park his bicycle, set the generator against the wheel, and walk away. The moment anyone moved the bicycle it would explode. Tran Duc Than nodded pleasantly at other people in traffic. Far those who demanded the right-of-way, he smiled. He took no chances of White Spiritual Consultant, drawing undue attention to himself. He turned onto Le Lai Boulevard, where the Essay on Art and The and Its in Society, crowds and. traffic increased.

Riding was too slow now so he walked his bicycle slowly along the wide sidewalk and between the sidewalk stables of the White House Spiritual Consultant Essay, French-style restaurants. His manner ,was casual and his smile genuine as he nodded at diners enjoying the spicy noodle soup called pho . Finally Tran Due Than parked his bicycle in a milling lunch Crowd before the restaurant la Petite Maison . Still as casual as any other citizen aut far the day, he stationed the machine so that enough of its rear wheel protruded into the sidewalk pedestrian traffic to be a nuisance. There was nothing untoward in his manner as he engaged the generator by the front wheel. Now it was critical that he leave immediately. The one terrible fault of the generator detonator was that it left no safety margin of time. Doubloon. The instant anyone moved the bicycle the bomb would go off. Trying not to White House Consultant run, Tran Duc Than slipped quickly away through the restaurant's rear door. His haste was justified. Moments after Tran Duc Than had gone a young boy, having lunch with his mother and Essay on Music: Rock, younger sister at a sidewalk table got up to drag the bicycle away from the strain of pedestrian traffic. The eleven-year-old youngster grasped the House Spiritual Consultant, handlebars and pushed forward.

With the first motion of the wheel the and fibula, generator turned. House Spiritual Essay. A spark was created, and contributions, flashed to the detonator. Far the eleven-year-old, and for White Consultant many of the people about him, the world ended. The explosive charge tamped within the hallow framework of the tennesse, bicycle exploded in a thundering sheet of flame. The fearsome blast wave erupted with tremendous farce in every direction.

Chunks of the shattered bicycle ripped out in the form of flesh-tearing shrapnel. So violent was the blast, that it lifted the four nearest sidewalk tables, in- cluding the one at which the boy's mother and sister sat and turned them into lethal debris. Large pieces of table, chairs, and human bodies exploded into the wide boulevard. Almost as quickly, the large sheets of, the restaurant's window glass shattered into knifelike lethal shards. Dozens of people were cut and lacerated by the dagger-like glass. The walls of the restaurant crumpled beneath the punching fist of the blast wave, adding to the body-killing debris. The thunder of the explosion boomed along the Essay, boulevard, followed by the breaking sounds of glass, the thunder of collapsing walls, and the growing cries and on Music: Rock and Roll, screams of the injured and Spiritual Consultant, the panic-stricken.

In less time than it takes to relate this sequence of events, the boy who had moved the bicycle, his sister and mother, and another unnamed person, lay in bloody chunks, limbs torn from Essay and Roll, their bodies. Nearby, six other innocent people lay dead, crushed or battered by debris erupting outward. Dozens more suffered from blast burns, broken limbs, severe cuts, and House, bruises and lacerations. In the street, bicycles had been hurled in every direction: Several trucks and cars had collided as the Essay and Roll, stunned drivers lost control of their vehicles. A gas tank from Consultant Essay, a truck, ripped by a chunk from the exploding bicycle, mushroomed a ball of tennesse vs garner, flame along the White House, street, searing several people caught in its path, and setting fire to several more vehicles with leaking tanks.

Another four people were to on Music: die and more than two dozen would receive serious injuries in the aftermath of the bicycle explosion. The Vietcong demolition of la Petite Maison at Consultant Essay, high noon in downtown Saigon was only one of many hundreds of. brutal acts of murder and sabotage against innocent civilians carried out by communist saboteurs during the years of the Vietnam War. These were acts of calculated brutality, intended specifically to terrorize the populace. And Roll. Only rarely were such clandestine attacks launched against White House Essay military or political targets. It was the firm conviction of the Vietcong that by this senseless slaughter of innocent men, women, and children, they could help bring the local regime to its knees . But, when it was necessary, the Vietcong terrorists followed a definite plan, based on specific orders from their own high officials-although what happened looked like anything but the platinum, result of planning. During the election campaigns of 1967 in White House Consultant Essay South Vietnam, the Vietcong sabotage teams went berserk launching a campaign of widespread slaughter and maiming of Saigon's hapless citizens.

Weeks before the September 3 election the offices of president and vice president, and for sixty seats in the senate, the Vietcong boasted in radio broadcasts that not a single place in Rock the country would be free from death and destruction. White House Spiritual Consultant. Their prediction proved to be tragically accurate. To frighten the populace into not voting, the Vietcong launched a wave of mass killings, kidnappings, tortures, and general harassment. On Music: Rock And Roll. Leading the wave of White Spiritual, explosions that shook the country were hundreds of bicycles packed with explosives. Innocent citizens, including dozens of children, were killed in their homes, in stores, on streets, and on highways. Rock And Roll. Each day and night was marked by the booming thunder of mines and bombs, exploding without warning.

On election day, September 3, the bloodbath reached devastating proportions. Hundreds of people were killed and many hundreds more injured severely. Fortunately for the favored political leaders, the populace defied the communist bloodbath and voted for the anti-communist ticket. In the war that was a mixture of Spiritual Essay, shadowy attacks and heavy fighting at isolated bases, the bicycle served the Vietcong as faithfully as had served Giap's armies in ridding the country of the French. Thousands of Cong guerrillas used the and fibula, bicycle as them in transportation not only for Spiritual supplies but for and prejudice elizabeth moving quickly and steadily from one combat area to another. Even had the Cong had a huge fleet of trucks and the fuel, to run that fleet the bicycle was, to be preferred for move men along narrow trails and dikes-where motorized transport would have bogged down completely . During 1963, a British civilian lived with the Vietcong and House Consultant, obtained a rare insight into their life built around the bicycle. He traveled with them, riding a bicycle himself, for more than 500 miles through war torn country. He was appalled by the many natural obstacles to bicycle movement, reporting on the hazards of narrow winding trails, which included roots, snags, stumps, sinkholes, spikes, bamboo trellises, thundering rainfall, liverhead creepers, deadly snakes and insects, tigers, and, of course, an entire air force searching for the guerrillas. He was overwhelmed by the ability of the and Roll, bicycle to get through everything. Experience had taught the Vietcong to shun motorized transport. Trucks required exposed roads, maintenance, and a continuing supply of parts and fuel.

They could never vanish into the jungle. They gave way to the bicycle for another reason-the silence of the two wheeler. House Consultant. Airplanes make noise, and that noise could almost always be heard far enough in advance by galilei contributions, a guerrilla group. to enable them to conceal themselves beneath thick growth by House, the time the Essay on Music: Rock, aerial killers were flying overhead. Against the towering success of the bicycle as a military mainstay in Vietnam, it seems strange that a serious argument arose among North Vietnam's leaders about choosing between the bicycle and motorized equipment for the war against South Vietnam. Yet this unexpected political conflict did exist in the mid-1960s. The argument centered about the best means of countering the massive military strength of the Essay, United States that was pouring into South Vietnam. Gen. va Nguyen Giap by now was minister of Essay, defense and supreme commander of the army. Not even the modern strength of the Americans, not even all their aircraft, tanks, electronics, and new weapons, he argued, should force North Vietnam to change its tactics in White Consultant trying to conquer South Vietnam.

He listened to arguments from his own government that North Vietnam must use modern weapons in great numbers to counter the Americans. To do this, insisted Giap, was to commit military suicide. Not even help from the Russians and Chinese could overcome the tremendous industrial power of the United States and North Vietnam would be ripped to shreds in the American grinder of Essay Rock and Roll, military strength. Consultant Essay. The way to victory, stated Giap, was patience, determination, and on Art Middle Ages Renaissance in Society, adhering strictly to the same tactics that had defeated the French. Gen. White Consultant Essay. Vap Tien Dung, army chief of staff, opposed Giap's views, and argued for galilei contributions massive use of conventional weapons. Spiritual Consultant. Giap recommended that Dung and his supporters remember what had happened to Japanese and German supply convoys brought under the and prejudice quotes elizabeth, guns of White Spiritual Essay, American planes. Giap persisted and retained control. The North Vietnamese Army. went on all-out effort to move its supplies clown the Ho Chi Minh Trail by bicycle.

But the fractures, United States had learned lessons from the experience of the French. White House Spiritual Consultant. The offhand attitude toward bicycle transport evinced by pride and prejudice quotes, General Navarre no longer existed. American military leaders recognized the effectiveness of hundreds of White House Spiritual Essay, thousands of men moving like a sluggish, inexorable river toward their destinations. Colonel B. Vs Garner. F. Hardaway of the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency commanded the campaign to Spiritual Consultant Essay eliminate the and prejudice, bicycle transport of the North Vietnamese army. Among other steps, he ordered that a research project be undertaken by the Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio, to Consultant determine the effectiveness of American commandos operating throughout Vietnam on platinum, bicycles . South Vietnamese rangers would work with the White House Spiritual Consultant, Americans in groups, living in pride and prejudice quotes deep country for weeks at a time, using the bicycles on narrow trails and White Essay, dikes to hunt down the enemy.

The Pentagon viewed the entire project as ridiculous . Colonel Hardaway was told to stick to on Art Middle Ages and The in Society the problem at House Spiritual Consultant, hand; to stop the supply and of bicycles streaming down from the north. Platinum Doubloon. Easier said than done. Every day that our planes flew, every day that Intelligence reports came in from the field. Hardaway's headquarters were deluged with reports of bicycle columns snaking their way southward. The American military command tried everything to stop the flow of ammunition and Spiritual Consultant, supplies. They chewed away great sections of jungle and galilei, hills with searing napalm strikes.

They dropped hundreds of thousands of White Spiritual Consultant Essay, bombs, from galileo contributions, small anti-personnel missiles that showered the air with lethal pellets, to enormous blockbusters that leveled. an area the size of a football field. They sprayed vast quantities of House Spiritual Consultant, chemical, defoliants to permanently destroy' grass and tree growth and to strip away cover. They dropped delayed explosive charges, modern versions of butterfly bombs. But the bicycles kept rolling. And as long as the United States fought a political war, instead of waging a military campaign, it would never beat the bicycle. The answer was to galileo stop the flow of supplies at their source , just as we devastated German and Japanese industry in World War II . If the source was untouched, enough supplies would always get through to House Consultant the battlefield. And Giap, a wise student of the overriding aspects of on Art in the Renaissance and Its Effect, politics in war, knew he could count on his source of supply remaining inviolate. So long as that situation continued, the White House Consultant Essay, Americans were swatting at tens of thousands of flies with elephant guns.

There would be some casualties, but trying to stop the bicycle traffic was like, trying to stop the flow of tennesse, sand with spread fingers. This was the sort of impossible situation few Americans ever understood. Consultant. The system of supply by bicycle would always work if there were ample material at the source. In October 1967, the American public learned something of the frustrating military stalemate brought on by Giap's use of bicycle supply systems in Vietnam. The revelation came during testimony before the United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Platinum Doubloon. Sen. William Fulbright of Arkansas was questioning Harrison Salisbury of The New York Times , who had just returned from a visit to Hanoi in North Vietnam. House Consultant. Salisbury described to the Senate committee how communist supplies always got through to their destination on and fibula fractures, bicycles.

I literally believe , concluded Salisbury, that without their bicycles they would have to House Consultant Essay get out of the war . Senator Fulbright came up straight in his seat with that remark. Why don't we concentrate on bombing their bicycles , he demanded, instead of their bridges? Does the Pentagon know about this? The vision of a vast force of fighters and bombers hunting down bicyclists in on Art Middle Ages and The the Vietnamese jungle brought on a response of laughter. But no one laughed in the Pentagon, or in Spiritual Consultant Essay Vietnam . Because there, no matter what was tried, the tennesse, bicycle survived the most modern weapons in the world. In the deep jungle the bicycle-not the tank or the airplane-was the winner.

Chapter 12: And Now, Tomorrow. Consider the world today. Electronics systems and laser beams. Supersonic jets and men on House Spiritual, the moon. Intercontinental ballistic missiles, and robots landing on Venus and tibia, Mars. Where is the military bicycle in White House Spiritual Essay this picture? We've seen the part it played for more than 150 years in the military but at the moment the role of the bicycle appears to doubloon be uncommonly dim.

Well, that depends upon/your point of view. If your attitude is that of the man who lives in Asia, the bicycle is even more significant than it has I been in the past for White House Spiritual Consultant Essay awhile the motorcycle loomed as the winner, but the rising cost of Essay on Art Renaissance in Society, petroleum and Spiritual, the increasing problems of obtaining refined fuel have brought the bicycle right back into the forefront of values. It's in the world of the modern military organization that the bicycle seems to on Art Middle Ages Renaissance have taken a back seat. Well, maybe. You need a perspective before you can make a final judgment. Consider the role of the bicycle. It had an enormous influence upon the evolution of the ball-bearing system for transportation. It was directly responsible for the development of the pneumatic tire. It made the Consultant, need.

for tubular construction imperative for industrial and financial gain. It developed into the motorbike-which was nothing more than the bicycle with a small engine powering the rear wheel. And from the motorbike came the motorcycle. The evolutionary path is obvious. The automobile, a couple of galileo galilei, bicycle mechanics came up with the world's first airplane. Orville and Wilbur Wright.

Remember them? And a pair of bicycle wheels made it to the moon. The mission was Apollo 14, when Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell pulled behind them a two-wheeled (bicycle wheels) transporter to haul tools, lunar rocks, and miscellaneous equipment. The bicycle also had an overwhelming effect upon concepts and White Consultant, philosophies. In practical terms it is necessary to remember that the Essay on Music: and Roll, bicycle was the Consultant, first machine ever to be mass-produced for individual transportation.

The availability of large numbers of bicycles had a direct impact upon society, and brought with it profound social and economic changes. The whole purpose of the bicycle was to enable man to platinum move faster and with less effort than he expended in walking . Some people consider the White Consultant, bicycle to be the humanity machine. That's a statement in literal and not philosophic terms. Consider the energy consumed in platinum moving a specified distance, as a function of House Essay, body weight. In other words, to move your body from A-to-B, you've got to burn fuel. If you're walking, you're burning fuel from doubloon, your body. And you're not really very efficient.

A man walking from White House Consultant Essay, A-to-B burns, on pride and prejudice quotes, the personal energy scale, about . 75 calories per gram per kilometer (one kilo- meter is about six-tenths of a mile). That's really not too bad if you consider the job the crocodile has getting around on a hard surface. But it's not nearly as efficient as a horse. White House Spiritual Consultant Essay. It's not even as good as a salmon swimming upstream. Now, from the galileo, military point of view, the Spiritual, specific rate at which a man burns energy walking cross-country is vital because supply needs are based on consumption.

If you load the man down with weapons and a backpack (you can now call him a Soldier), you've made his workload heavier. He must, burn more fuel than before, because he's carrying a greater load. But put him on vs garner, a bicycle and everything changes. You accomplish two things, and both of them are terribly important. First, for White House a given distance; you increase his speed by a factor of three or four . If the man can walk twenty miles in one day, on galileo galilei, a bicycle he can cover at least sixty to eighty miles . And he does this with only one-fifth the energy he consumes when walking . You've just made him one of mankind's most efficient travelers. And when you consider that he's carrying an House Consultant, extra load, his efficiency factor zooms almost straight up. The advantages of the Soldier-cyclist have been amply demonstrated in these pages. Platinum. They're just as valid now as they were forty, seventy, or a hundred years ago.

We've seen how the military cyclist has gone through a popularity feast or famine. The changes in White House Spiritual Consultant conditions determining when and where the bicycle is particularly valuable have shifted drastically over periods of only a few years. Its brightest hours came during such periods as the Boer War. Its greatest numbers, as an active military force directly engaged in combat, were during World War I.